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- Sexsomnia: parasomnia associated with sexual behaviour during sleep. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 7.
INTRODUCTION:The purpose of our study is to describe 4 cases of sexsomnia, a form of parasomnia characterised by sexual behaviour during sleep.
METHODS:Clinical history and video-polysomnography recordings from patients diagnosed with sexsomnia in the Multidisciplinary Sleep Unit at Hospital Clínic in Barcelona.
RESULTS:Three men and one woman between 28 and 43 years of age reported sexual behaviours during sleep with progression times ranging from 9 months to 7 years. Episodes consisted of masturbation without seeking the participation of a sleeping partner (2 cases) and attempts at sexual intercourse with inappropriate and uncharacteristic vocalizations and behaviours (3 cases). The frequency of the episodes ranged from 4 isolated episodes to 2-3 per week. Patients were amnestic of these events and surprised by their partners' accounts of their behaviour. Medical histories revealed that 1 patient was a somnambulist, 2 had confusional arousals, and 1 experienced somniloquy. Video-polysomnography did not disclose sexual behaviours during sleep but revealed sleep apnoea in 2 cases and periodic leg movements in sleep in another. The only patient treated with clonazepam reported decreased frequency of both confusional arousals and sexsomnia episodes.
CONCLUSIONS:Sexsomnia occurs in young adults and is characterised by masturbation and inappropriate attempts at achieving sexual intercourse followed by total amnesia of the events. It can be associated with other parasomnias such as sleepwalking and confusional arousals. Other sleep disorders, including sleep apnoea and periodic leg movement disorder, may trigger episodes of sexsomnia.
- Endovascular treatment in acute ischaemic stroke. A Stroke Care Plan for the Region of Madrid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 7.
INTRODUCTION:Endovascular therapies (intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) after acute ischaemic stroke are being implemented in the clinical setting even as they are still being researched. Since we lack sufficient data to establish accurate evidence-based recommendations for use of these treatments, we must develop clinical protocols based on current knowledge and carefully monitor all procedures. DEVELOPMENT: After review of the literature and holding work sessions to reach a consensus among experts, we developed a clinical protocol including indications and contraindications for endovascular therapies use in acute ischaemic stroke. The protocol includes methodology recommendations for diagnosing and selecting patients, performing revascularisation procedures, and for subsequent patient management. Its objective is to increase the likelihood of efficacy and treatment benefit and minimise risk of complications and ineffective recanalisation. Based on an analysis of healthcare needs and available resources, a cooperative inter-hospital care system has been developed. This helps to ensure availability of endovascular therapies to all patients, a fast response time, and a good cost-to-efficacy ratio. It includes also a prospective register which serves to monitor procedures in order to identify any opportunities for improvement.
CONCLUSIONS:Implementation of endovascular techniques for treating acute ischaemic stroke requires the elaboration of evidence-based clinical protocols and the establishment of appropriate cooperative healthcare networks guaranteeing both the availability and the quality of these actions. Such procedures must be monitored in order to improve methodology.
- Biomarkers: A new approach to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 3.
INTRODUCTION:Lobar frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) encompasses a group of molecular disease defined by the deposition of an abnormal protein in the central nervous system. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most frequent clinical presentation of FTLD. The past two decades of research have contributed to a better understanding of this entity, which may be the first manifestation in many different neurodegenerative disorders. DEVELOPMENT: We reviewed correlations between clinical, pathological, and genetic findings and the main disease biomarkers of FTLD, with particular interest in bvFTD. Anatomical pathology findings in FTLD are heterogeneous and the syndrome is not associated with any one specific histopathological type. Promising available biomarkers include structural and functional neuroimaging techniques and biochemical and genetic biomarkers. Disease-modifying drugs designed for specific molecular targets that are implicated in FTLD pathogenesis are being developed.
CONCLUSIONS:BvFTD is a frequent cause of dementia. Of all the clinical variants of FTLD, behavioural variant is the one in which establishing a correlation between clinical and pathological signs is the most problematic. A biomarker evaluation may help predict the underlying pathology; this approach, in conjunction with the development of disease-modifying drugs, offers new therapeutic possibilities.
- Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia: Clinical and therapeutic approaches. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 3.
INTRODUCTION:Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most frequent presentation in the clinical spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and it is characterised by progressive changes in personality and conduct. Major breakthroughs in molecular biology and genetics made during the last two decades have lent us a better understanding of this syndrome, which may be the first manifestation in many different neurodegenerative diseases. DEVELOPMENT: We reviewed the main epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of bvFTD. Most cases manifest sporadically and the average age of onset is 58 years. Current criteria for bvFTD propose three levels of diagnostic certainty: possible, probable, and definite. Clinical diagnosis is based on a detailed medical history provided by family members and caregivers, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing. Treatments which have been used in bvFDT to date are all symptomatic and their effectiveness is debatable. New drugs designed for specific molecular targets that are implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration are being developed.
CONCLUSIONS:BvFDT is a frequent cause of dementia. It is a non-specific syndrome associated with heterogeneous histopathological and biomolecular findings. The definition of clinical subtypes complemented by biomarker identification may help predict the underlying pathology. This knowledge, along with the development of drugs designed for molecular targets, will offer new treatment possibilities.
- Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke: In search of evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 3.
- Quantitative phase-contrast MRI study of cerebrospinal fluid flow: A method for identifying patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 2.
OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of phase-contrast MR imaging to diagnose normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and differentiate it from other neurological disorders with similar clinical symptoms.
METHODS:The study included 108 subjects, of whom 61 were healthy controls and 47, patients; in the patient group, 19 had cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and 28 had NPH. All patients underwent a phase-contrast MRI study and several CSF flow and velocity parameters were measured at the aqueduct of Sylvius. Discriminant analyses were performed to evaluate the classification capacity of both individual parameters and the combination of different parameters.
RESULTS:Maximum diastolic velocity, mean flow, and stroke volume showed statistically significant differences that could be used to distinguish between NPH and CVD patients (P<.001). Stroke volume and mean flow showed no false positive results and successful classification rates of 86% and 79%, respectively. No other parameters or combination produced better results.
CONCLUSIONS:Phase-contrast MR imaging is a useful tool for the early diagnosis of patients with NPH. CSF flow quantitative parameters, along with morphological features in a conventional MR study, enable us to differentiate between NPH and CVD patients.
- Consensus Statement on medication use in multiple sclerosis by the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group for demyelinating diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 May 2.
Treatments for multiple sclerosis therapy are rapidly evolving. It is believed that new drugs will be approved in the near future, thereby changing current indications for treatment. In this context, the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group on demyelinating diseases which evaluates medication use in MS has decided to draw up a consensus statement on the current indications and guidelines for multiple sclerosis treatment.
- Animal assisted interventions in neurorehabilitation: A review of the most recent literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 Apr 30.
INTRODUCTION:While conventional wisdom has always affirmed the value of animals in promoting human health and well-being, only recently has their therapeutic role in medicine become a topic for dedicated research. Animal assisted interventions (AAI) can be classified as animal-assisted activities, animal-assisted therapy, and service animal programs.
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review is to analyse original papers addressing AAI and neurological diseases and published in the most influential medical journals between 2001 and 2012, and discuss their findings in the light of what may be of interest in the field of neurology.
DISCUSSION:We selected a total of 23 articles on neurorehabilitation in cerebral palsy, pervasive developmental disorders, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, and mental disorders. The main therapeutic results were improvement on the Gross Motor Function Classification Scale and in upper limb dexterity (cerebral palsy); improvement in social functioning and interaction; reductions in stress, anxiety, and loneliness (pervasive developmental disorders and mental disorders); and decreased spasticity with improved balance (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke).
CONCLUSION:These interventions, performed with highly specialised animals in very specific neurological populations, deliver an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that they are an effective complement to other existing therapies. In these diseases, further high-quality studies are warranted in order to define the most appropriate programmes for therapy.
- Post-authorisation study of eslicarbazepine as treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy: Preliminary results. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 Apr 24.
INTRODUCTION:Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) and an analogue to carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC). In this study, we evaluate initial therapeutic response to ESL and events in the change from CBZ and OXC.
METHODS:We evaluated 61 patients with a broad spectrum of drug-resistant epilepsies in a cross-sectional study. The switch from CBZ and OXC to ESL was carried out in a single night at ratios of 1:1.3 and 1:1mg respectively.
RESULTS:The most common form of epilepsy was temporal lobe epilepsy (62.3%). The most common aetiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (26.2%). Mean follow-up time was 4.7±3.2 months. In 40 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months, monthly median seizure frequency dropped by 63.6% (P<.001) and a reduction of 80% or more was recorded in 30%. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 54%; all appeared during the titration phase. They were more frequent at doses in excess of 800mg (73.9% vs. 47.4%; P=.042). The most common AE was dizziness (34.4%), which was commonly associated with VPA, LTG and/or LCS consumption (19.2% vs. 45.7%; P=.031). The retention rate at 3 months was 75.4%. A total of 25 patients replaced CBZ or OXC treatment with ESL; any AEs were transient (69.2% for CBZ and 33% for OXC; P=.073). At 3 months after the treatment change, median seizure frequency had decreased by 20% (P<.075).
CONCLUSIONS:ESL is effective in the treatment of focal epilepsies and its early retention rate is > 70%. AEs occurred during the titration phase and corresponded to associated AEDs. A rapid change from CBZ and OXC to ESL treatment can be safely performed.
- Long-term surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and no histological abnormalities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurologia 2013 Apr 24.