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- The Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study protocol: a cross-sectional, lifespan, multidisciplinary examination of healthy cognitive ageing. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2014; 14(1):204.
As greater numbers of us are living longer, it is increasingly important to understand how we can age healthily. Although old age is often stereotyped as a time of declining mental abilities and inflexibility, cognitive neuroscience reveals that older adults use neural and cognitive resources flexibly, recruiting novel neural regions and cognitive processes when necessary. Our aim in this project is to understand how age-related changes to neural structure and function interact to support cognitive abilities across the lifespan.We are recruiting a population-based cohort of 3000 adults aged 18 and over into Stage 1 of the project, where they complete an interview including health and lifestyle questions, a core cognitive assessment, and a self-completed questionnaire of lifetime experiences and physical activity. Of those interviewed, 700 participants aged 18-87 (100 per age decile) continue to Stage 2 where they undergo cognitive testing and provide measures of brain structure and function. Cognition is assessed across multiple domains including attention and executive control, language, memory, emotion, action control and learning. A subset of 280 adults return for in-depth neurocognitive assessment in Stage 3, using functional neuroimaging experiments across our key cognitive domains.Formal statistical models will be used to examine the changes that occur with healthy ageing, and to evaluate age-related reorganisation in terms of cognitive and neural functions invoked to compensate for overall age-related brain structural decline. Taken together the three stages provide deep phenotyping that will allow us to measure neural activity and flexibility during performance across a number of core cognitive functions. This approach offers hypothesis-driven insights into the relationship between brain and behaviour in healthy ageing that are relevant to the general population.Our study is a unique resource of neuroimaging and cognitive measures relevant to change across the adult lifespan. Because we focus on normal age-related changes, our results may contribute to changing views about the ageing process, lead to targeted interventions, and reveal how normal ageing relates to frail ageing in clinicopathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease.
- CSF biomarkers and clinical progression of Parkinson disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 19.
To investigate whether certain CSF biomarkers at baseline can predict future progression of motor symptoms and cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).Patients and controls were recruited from hospitals in southern Sweden as part of the prospective and longitudinal Swedish BioFinder Study. In the present study, we included 42 patients with PD and 69 controls who had clinical assessment and lumbar puncture at baseline. Baseline CSF samples were analyzed for α-synuclein (αSyn), β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42), tau, phosphorylated tau, and neurofilament light. Associations between CSF markers at baseline and change in clinical characteristics after 2 years of follow-up were investigated using multivariate models adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and levodopa-equivalent daily dose.Higher levels of αSyn within the PD group were associated with progression of motor symptoms and cognitive decline over 2 years, indicated by significant relationships between αSyn and change in Hoehn and Yahr (β = 0.394, p = 0.043), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Part III (UPDRS-III) (β = 0.449, p = 0.013), Timed Up and Go (β = 0.406, p = 0.023), and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (β = 0.423, p = 0.018). Lower levels of Aβ42 were associated with worsening of performance on delayed memory recall (F = 5.834, p = 0.022). Finally, high levels of phosphorylated tau were associated with worsening in motor symptoms (UPDRS-III, β = 0.350, p = 0.045; Hoehn and Yahr, β = 0.366, p = 0.038).We found evidence of a link between higher levels of αSyn at baseline and worsening of motor symptoms and cognitive speed over 2 years in PD. Increased αSyn might be a marker of more intense synaptic degeneration in PD. The results indicate that cortical amyloid pathology (low CSF Aβ42) is associated with memory decline.
- Optimal combination secondary prevention drug treatment and stroke outcomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 19.
To investigate the effect of optimal combination of evidence-based drug therapies including antihypertensive agents, lipid modifiers, and antithrombotic agents on risk of recurrent vascular events after stroke.We analyzed the database of a multicenter trial involving 3,680 recent noncardioembolic stroke patients aged 35 years or older and followed for 2 years. Patients were categorized by appropriateness level 0 to III depending on the number of drugs prescribed divided by the number of drugs potentially indicated for each patient (0 = none of the indicated medications prescribed and III = all indicated medications prescribed). Independent associations of medication appropriateness level with recurrent stroke (primary outcome), stroke/coronary heart disease/vascular death as major vascular events (secondary outcome), and death (tertiary outcome) were assessed.The unadjusted rate of stroke declined with increasing medication appropriateness level (15.9% for level 0, 10.3% for level I, 8.6% for level II, and 7.3% for level III). Compared with level 0: the adjusted hazard ratio of stroke for level I was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.21-1.25), level II 0.50 (0.23-1.09), and level III 0.39 (0.18-0.84); of stroke/coronary heart disease/vascular death for level I 0.60 (0.32-1.14), level II 0.45 (0.25-0.80), and level III 0.39 (0.22-0.69); and of death for level I 0.89 (0.30-2.64), level II 0.71 (0.26-1.93), and level III 0.35 (0.13-0.96).Optimal combination of secondary prevention medication classes after a recent noncardioembolic stroke is associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke, major vascular events, and death.
- Occupational complexity and lifetime cognitive abilities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 19.
To examine associations between complexity of main lifetime occupation and cognitive performance in later life.Occupational complexity ratings for data, people, and things were collected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles for 1,066 individuals (men = 534, women = 532) in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. IQ data were available from mean age 11 years. Cognitive ability data across the domains of general ability, processing speed, and memory were available at mean age 70 years.General linear model analyses indicated that complexity of work with people and data were associated with better cognitive performance at age 70, after including age 11 IQ, years of education, and social deprivation.The current findings are supportive of the differential preservation hypotheses that more stimulating environments preserve cognitive ability in later life, although the continued effects into old age are still debated. Studies that have early-life cognitive ability measures are rare, and the current study offers interesting prospects for future research that may further the understanding of successful aging.
- Clinical Reasoning: A young woman with rapid mental deterioration and leukoencephalopathy: A treatable cause. [Journal Article]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 18; 83(21):e182-6.
- Clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. [Journal Article]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 18; 83(21):1991-3.
- Phenotypic spectrum and incidence of TRPV4 mutations in patients with inherited axonal neuropathy. [Journal Article]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 18; 83(21):1991.
- IVth ventricular neurocysticercal cyst: A rare cause of acute hydrocephalus. [Journal Article]
- Neurology 2014 Nov 18; 83(21):1990.