Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Pain in neuromyelitis optica-prevalence, pathogenesis and therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Neurol 2014 Jul 29.
Terrible, agonizing, wretched, sickening and unbearable-these are words frequently used by patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) to describe a very common symptom of their disease: pain. More than 80% of patients with NMO experience pain from this condition, which severely affects their quality of life. At present, there is no known therapy that produces satisfactory relief from NMO-associated pain. In fact, contemporary pain therapy is largely ineffective in these patients, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying pain in NMO differ substantially from those of other treatable causes of pain. Until now, the near-complete neglect of research into pain mechanisms in NMO has precluded rational pain therapy. In this Perspectives article, expertise from the fields of neuroimmunology, neurology and pain research is combined to explore, for the first time, the mechanisms underlying pain in patients with NMO, and to identify molecular and cellular targets for therapy.
- Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes-new diagnostic classification. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Neurol 2014 Jul 29.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variant, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), exist as several clinical subtypes with different neurological features and presentations. Although the typical clinical features of GBS and MFS are well recognized, current classification systems do not comprehensively describe the full spectrum of either syndrome. In this Perspectives article, GBS and MFS are classified on the basis of current understanding of the common pathophysiological profiles of each disease phenotype. GBS is subclassified into classic and localized forms (for example, pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness and bifacial weakness with paraesthesias), and MFS is divided into incomplete (for example, acute ophthalmoparesis, acute ataxic neuropathy) and CNS subtypes (Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis). Diagnostic criteria based on clinical characteristics are suggested for each condition. We believe this approach to be more inclusive than existing systems, and argue that it could facilitate early clinical diagnosis and initiation of appropriate immunotherapy.
- Posterior white matter disease distribution as a predictor of amyloid angiopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 25.
We sought to examine whether a posterior distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is an independent predictor of pathologically confirmed cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and whether it is associated with MRI markers of CAA, in patients without lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.METHODS: We developed a quantitative method to measure anteroposterior (AP) distribution of WMH. A retrospective cohort of patients without intracerebral hemorrhage and with pathologic evaluation of CAA was examined to determine whether posterior WMH distribution was an independent predictor of CAA (n = 59). The relationship of AP distributions of WMH to strictly lobar microbleeds (MBs) (n = 259) and location of dilated perivascular spaces (DPVS) (n = 85) was examined in a separate cohort of patients evaluated in a memory clinic.RESULTS: A more posterior WMH distribution was found to be an independent predictor of pathologic evidence of CAA (p = 0.001, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.19 [1.07-1.32]), even in the subgroup without lobar MBs (p = 0.016, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.18 [1.03-1.36]). In the memory clinic cohort, strictly lobar MBs were independently associated with more posterior WMH distribution (p = 0.009). AP distribution of WMH was also associated with location of DPVS (p = 0.001), in that patients with predominant DPVS in the white matter over the basal ganglia harbored a more posterior WMH distribution.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that AP distribution of WMH may represent an additional marker of CAA, irrespective of the presence of lobar hemorrhages.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that there is a significant association between the AP distribution of WMH on MRI with the presence of pathologically confirmed CAA pathology.
- The Cushing response evoked by a fourth ventricular brainstem mass. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 25.
- Management of acute concussion in a deployed military setting. [Journal Article]
- Curr Treat Options Neurol 2014 Sep; 16(9):311.
The DoD has established clinical guidelines and policies creating a system of care for the management of battlefield concussion. Within these instructions, medical providers have standardized guidance for screening and diagnosing concussion, along with guidelines for treating common concussion symptoms. Underlying these policies is the principle that concussion is an important injury, and SMs need to be removed from combat during the acute period to ensure full recovery before return to duty. As our understanding of concussion advances, the DoD will incorporate these advances into the current system of care, ensuring that SMs have the highest level of care possible for concussions sustained on the battlefield.
- Aspirin for acute stroke of unknown etiology in resource-limited settings: A decision analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 23.
To analyze the potential impact of aspirin on outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke in resource-limited settings without access to neuroimaging to distinguish ischemic stroke from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).METHODS: A decision analysis was conducted to evaluate aspirin use in all patients with acute stroke of unknown type for the duration of initial hospitalization. Data were obtained from the International Stroke Trial and Chinese Acute Stroke Trial. Predicted in-hospital mortality and stroke recurrence risk were determined across the worldwide reported range of the proportion of strokes caused by ICH. Sensitivity analyses were performed on aspirin-associated relative risks in patients with ICH.RESULTS: At the highest reported proportion of strokes due to ICH from a large epidemiologic study (34% in sub-Saharan Africa), aspirin initiation after acute stroke of undetermined etiology is predicted to reduce in-hospital mortality (from 85/1,000 without treatment to 81/1,000 with treatment), in-hospital stroke recurrence (58/1,000 to 50/1,000), and combined risk of in-hospital mortality or stroke recurrence (127/1,000 to 114/1,000). Benefits of aspirin therapy remained in sensitivity analyses across a range of plausible parameter estimates for relative risks associated with aspirin initiation after ICH.CONCLUSION: Aspirin treatment for the period of initial hospitalization after acute stroke of undetermined etiology is predicted to decrease acute stroke-related mortality and in-hospital stroke recurrence even at the highest reported proportion of acute strokes due to ICH. In the absence of clinical trials to test this approach empirically, clinical decisions require patient-specific evaluation of risks and benefits of aspirin in this context.
- Peripheral pulse measurement after ischemic stroke: A feasibility study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 23.
To investigate feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of measurement of the peripheral pulse (MPP) at the radial artery as a simple, noninvasive screening tool for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) in patients after acute ischemic stroke.METHODS: Two hundred fifty-six patients with acute ischemic stroke and the patients' relatives at a tertiary stroke center were prospectively included. Participants were instructed for characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF) in MPP using standardized educational material. Measurements of participants as well as a health care professional were then compared with simultaneous blinded ECG to evaluate diagnostic accuracy parameters.RESULTS: MPP by the health care professional or patients' relatives had a diagnostic sensitivity of 96.5% and 76.5%, respectively, with 94.0% and 92.9% specificity for the detection of AF. Self-measurements were reliably performed by 89.1% of competent patients with a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.1% and 96.2% specificity. False-positive results were limited to 6 cases (2.7%) with a positive predictive value of 76.9% and a negative predictive value of 90.0%.CONCLUSION: With a low rate of false-positive results, MPP offers an easy, ubiquitously available, noninvasive, first-step screening tool to guide ECG diagnostics for pAF after ischemic stroke. The data warrant a prospective trial evaluating the efficacy of MPP-guided ECG diagnostics in secondary prevention after stroke, which is now underway.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that MPP by patients or relatives accurately distinguishes AF from normal heart rhythm as compared with continuous ECG.
- Dementia with Lewy bodies: Basis of cingulate island sign. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 23.
To investigate clinical, imaging, and pathologic associations of the cingulate island sign (CIS) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).METHODS: We retrospectively identified and compared patients with a clinical diagnosis of DLB (n = 39); patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, sex, and education (n = 39); and cognitively normal controls (n = 78) who underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and C11 Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET scans. Among these patients, we studied those who came to autopsy and underwent Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) staging (n = 10).RESULTS: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of DLB had a higher ratio of posterior cingulate to precuneus plus cuneus metabolism, cingulate island sign (CIS), on FDG-PET than patients with AD (p < 0.001), a finding independent of β-amyloid load on PiB-PET (p = 0.56). Patients with CIS positivity on visual assessment of FDG-PET fit into the group of high- or intermediate-probability DLB pathology and received clinical diagnosis of DLB, not AD. Higher CIS ratio correlated with lower Braak NFT stage (r = -0.96; p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that CIS on FDG-PET is not associated with fibrillar β-amyloid deposition but indicates lower Braak NFT stage in patients with DLB. Identifying biomarkers that measure relative contributions of underlying pathologies to dementia is critical as neurotherapeutics move toward targeted treatments.