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- Neuropsychological study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex in Kii peninsula, Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2014 Jul 21; 14(1):151.
The Kii peninsula of Japan is one of the foci of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) in the world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the neuropsychological features of the patients with ALS/PDC of the Kii peninsula (Kii ALS/PDC).The medical interview was done on 13 patients with Kii ALS/PDC, 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 10 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, 10 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 10 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. These patients and their carer/spouse were asked to report any history of abulia-apathy, hallucination, personality change and other variety of symptoms. Patients also underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and neuropsychological tests comprising the Mini Mental State Examination, Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal fluency, and Paired-Associate Word Learning Test and some of them were assessed with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB).All patients with Kii ALS/PDC had cognitive dysfunction including abulia-apathy, bradyphrenia, hallucination, decrease of extraversion, disorientation, and delayed reaction time. Brain MRI showed atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes, and SPECT revealed a decrease in cerebral blood flow of the frontal and/or temporal lobes in all patients with Kii ALS/PDC. Disorientation, difficulty in word recall, delayed reaction time, and low FAB score were recognized in Kii ALS/PDC patients with cognitive dysfunction.The core neuropsychological features of the patients with Kii ALS/PDC were characterized by marked abulia-apathy, bradyphrenia, and hallucination.
- Anticoagulation for noncardiac indications in neurologic patients: comparative use of non-vitamin k oral anticoagulants, low-molecular-weight heparins, and warfarin. [Journal Article]
- Curr Treat Options Neurol 2014 Sep; 16(9):309.
Patients with neurologic disorders may develop a wide variety of thromboembolic events, both as a primary manifestation and as a consequence of their underlying neurologic condition. There are many available options for anticoagulation, ranging from warfarin to the parenteral subcutaneously administered anticoagulants to the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Warfarin is orally available, well-studied, and easily reversible in the setting of bleeding, but has a prolonged onset of action, measured in days, and equally slow offset; requires frequent monitoring for dose titration; and has multiple drug-drug and food-drug interactions. Parenteral heparin-based anticoagulants are well-studied and have more predictable pharmacokinetics but are often more expensive, only partially reversible, and require daily injections, which can be difficult for patients to tolerate over long periods of time. The NOACs are easy to administer and have predictable pharmacokinetics but are expensive, not easily reversible, and are not as extensively studied. Specific agents are preferable in some defined neurologic conditions. For acute ischemic stroke, we do not recommend immediate anticoagulation with any agent. For patients with intracranial malignancy (either primary or metastatic), we recommend a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) rather than warfarin or a NOAC. For thromboembolic disease in the setting of spinal cord injury, warfarin, LMWH, or the NOACs are reasonable options. In the setting of VTE or stroke related to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), we recommend long-term warfarin anticoagulation with an INR goal of 2-3, pending the results of ongoing research involving the NOACs. For cerebral venous sinus thrombosis not related to malignancy or APS, we recommend the use of LMWH in the acute setting, followed by at least three months of warfarin. In this article, we discuss the pharmacology, pathophysiology, and comparative research that served as a basis for our recommendations.
- Prognosis and therapy of tumor-related versus non-tumor-related status epilepticus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2014 Jul 19; 14(1):152.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency with high mortality rates. Of all SE's, 7% are caused by a brain tumor. Clinical guidelines on the management of SE do not make a distinction between tumor-related SE and SE due to other causes. However, pathophysiological research points towards specific mechanisms of epilepsy in brain tumors. We investigated whether clinical features support a distinct profile of tumor-related SE by looking at measures of severity and response to treatment.Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies on adult SE that report separate data for tumor-related SE and non-tumor-related SE on the following outcomes: short-term mortality, long-term morbidity, duration of SE, and efficacy of anticonvulsant intervention.Fourteen studies on outcome of SE were included. Tumor-related SE was associated with higher mortality than non-tumor-related SE (17.2% versus 11.2%, RR 1.53, 95%-CI 1.24-1.90). After exclusion of patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (a group with a known poor prognosis) from the non-tumor-group, the difference in mortality increased (17.2% versus 6.6%; RR 2.78, 95%-CI 2.21 - 3.47). Regarding long-term morbidity and duration of SE there were insufficient data. We did not find studies that systematically compared effects of therapy for SE between tumor- and non-tumor-related SE.Based on - mostly retrospective - available studies, short-term mortality seems higher in tumor-related SE than in SE due to other causes. Further studies on the outcome and efficacy of different therapeutic regimens in tumor-related SE are needed, to clarify whether tumor-related SE should be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.
- JCV GCN in a natalizumab-treated MS patient is associated with mutations of the VP1 capsid gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 18.
To describe the clinical, neuroimaging, immunologic, and virologic characteristics of JC virus-associated granule cell neuronopathy (JCV GCN) in a natalizumab-treated patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) who developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after natalizumab withdrawal.METHODS: We obtained longitudinal clinical data as well as MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy from this patient with MS. We measured JCV-specific cellular immune response in his peripheral blood by intracellular cytokine staining and sequenced a fragment of JCV VP1 capsid gene detected in his CSF. We contrast our findings with the first recently reported case.RESULTS: This patient presented with worsening cerebellar symptoms and progressive cerebellar atrophy without new MS lesions on MRI after 63 months of natalizumab monotherapy. JCV DNA was detected in his CSF by PCR and harbored novel GCN-type mutations in the VP1 gene. He developed IRIS upon discontinuation of natalizumab and plasma exchange, which manifested itself by a worsening of clinical symptoms and contrast enhancement in the cerebellum on MRI. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in resolution of IRIS, as demonstrated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patient had a strong JCV-specific T-cell response in his peripheral blood and remains alive after 15 months from onset of symptoms, although with significant disability. He did not have MS relapse on glatiramer acetate.CONCLUSIONS: JCV GCN should be considered in patients on natalizumab presenting with progressive cerebellar symptoms and cerebellar atrophy, and is associated with mutations in the JCV VP1 gene. Natalizumab withdrawal may be complicated by JCV GCN IRIS, and require treatment with corticosteroids.
- Naltrexone for impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: A placebo-controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 18.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD) are common and can be difficult to manage. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, for the treatment of ICDs in PD.METHODS: Patients with PD (n = 50) and an ICD were enrolled in an 8-week, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of naltrexone 50-100 mg/d (flexible dosing). The primary outcome measure was response based on the Clinical Global Impression-Change score, and the secondary outcome measure was change in symptom severity using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) ICD score.RESULTS: Forty-five patients (90%) completed the study. The Clinical Global Impression-Change response rate difference favoring naltrexone in completers was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] -8.7% to 44.2%). While this difference was not significant (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI 0.5-5.2, Wald χ(2) [df] = 0.5 , p = 0.5), naltrexone treatment led to a significantly greater decrease in QUIP-RS ICD score over time compared with placebo (regression coefficient for interaction term in linear mixed-effects model = -7.37, F[df] = 4.3 [1, 49], p = 0.04). The estimated changes in QUIP-RS ICD scores from baseline to week 8 were 14.9 points (95% CI 9.9-19.9) for naltrexone and 7.5 points (95% CI 2.5-12.6) for placebo.CONCLUSIONS: Naltrexone treatment was not efficacious for the treatment of ICDs in PD using a global assessment of response, but findings using a PD-specific ICD rating scale support further evaluation of opioid antagonists for the treatment of ICD symptoms in PD.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that in patients with PD and an ICD, naltrexone does not significantly increase the probability of achieving response. However, the study lacked the precision to exclude an important difference in response rates.
- Mitochondrial EFTs defects in juvenile-onset Leigh disease, ataxia, neuropathy, and optic atrophy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 18.
We report novel defects of mitochondrial translation elongation factor Ts (EFTs), with high carrier frequency in Finland and expand the manifestations of this disease group from infantile cardiomyopathy to juvenile neuropathy/encephalopathy disorders.METHODS: DNA analysis, whole-exome analysis, protein biochemistry, and protein modeling.RESULTS: We used whole-exome sequencing to find the genetic cause of infantile-onset mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, progressing to juvenile-onset Leigh syndrome, neuropathy, and optic atrophy in 2 siblings. We found novel compound heterozygous mutations, c.944G>A [p.C315Y] and c.856C>T [p.Q286X], in the TSFM gene encoding mitochondrial EFTs. The same p.Q286X variant was found as compound heterozygous with a splice site change in a patient from a second family, with juvenile-onset optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and ataxia. Our molecular modeling predicted the coding-region mutations to cause protein instability, which was experimentally confirmed in cultured patient cells, with mitochondrial translation defect and lacking EFTs. Only a single TSFM mutation has been previously described in different populations, leading to an infantile fatal multisystem disorder with cardiomyopathy. Sequence data from 35,000 Finnish population controls indicated that the heterozygous carrier frequency of p.Q286X change was exceptionally high in Finland, 1:80, but no homozygotes were found in the population, in our mitochondrial disease patient collection, or in an intrauterine fetal death material, suggesting early developmental lethality of the homozygotes.CONCLUSIONS: We show that in addition to early-onset cardiomyopathy, TSFM mutations should be considered in childhood and juvenile encephalopathies with optic and/or peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, or Leigh disease.
- Convulsive status epilepticus and health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 18.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) during a 24-month follow-up in a multisite incident cohort of children with epilepsy.METHODS: Data were collected in the Health-Related Quality of Life Study in Children with Epilepsy Study from 374 families of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) Questionnaire was used to evaluate parent-reported child HRQL. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationship between CSE and HRQL at 24 months postepilepsy. A total of 359 families completed the 24-month assessment.RESULTS: Twenty-two children (6.1%) had experienced CSE during the follow-up. Children with and without CSE were similar, except a larger proportion of children with CSE had partial seizures (p < 0.001). Controlling for clinical, demographic, and family characteristics, CSE was significantly associated with poorer HRQL (β = -4.65, p = 0.031). The final model explained 47% of the variance in QOLCE scores.CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that not only do children with CSE have significantly poorer HRQL compared with their non-CSE counterparts, but that this factor is independent of the effects of demographic and clinical features known to affect HRQL.
- Positivity to p-ANCA in patients with status epilepticus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2014 Jul 17; 14(1):148.
Status epilepticus (SE) may occur in the setting of several internal or neurologic diseases. Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are a group of Ig that may be observed in patients with different autoimmune disorders but are particularly associated with systemic vasculitis named ANCA-associated-vasculities (AAV). We herein report 3 patients with SE and positivity to p-ANCA.One patient had a catastrophic evolution and died 5 months after disease onset. The other two patients had a good outcome and remained seizure-free at 30 months and 5 years of follow-up respectively.This report highlights the importance of considering ANCA dosage in patients with SE of unclear origin.
- Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: Multicountry prevalence and dementia risk. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Jul 16.
Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk.METHODS: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders.RESULTS: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%-11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes.CONCLUSION: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings.