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Neurosurg Focus [journal]
- Response. [Comment, Letter]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E16.
- Introduction: Epilepsy surgery. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):Introduction.
- Correlation between magnetoencephalography-based "clusterectomy" and postoperative seizure freedom. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E9.
Object During the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy, a variety of noninvasive studies are performed to localize the hypothetical epileptogenic zone and guide the resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is becoming increasingly used in the clinical realm for this purpose. No investigators have previously reported on coregisteration of MEG clusters with postoperative resection cavities to evaluate whether complete "clusterectomy" (resection of the area associated with MEG clusters) was performed or to compare these findings with postoperative seizure-free outcomes. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts and imaging studies of 65 patients undergoing MEG followed by resective epilepsy surgery from 2009 until 2012 at the Cleveland Clinic. Preoperative MEG studies were fused with postoperative MRI studies to evaluate whether clusters were within the resected area. These data were then correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. Results Sixty-five patients were included in this study. The average duration of follow-up was 13.9 months, the mean age at surgery was 23.1 years, and the mean duration of epilepsy was 13.7 years. In 30 patients, the main cluster was located completely within the resection cavity, in 28 it was completely outside the resection cavity, and in 7 it was partially within the resection cavity. Seventy-four percent of patients were seizure free at 12 months after surgery, and this rate decreased to 60% at 24 months. Improved likelihood of seizure freedom was seen with complete clusterectomy in patients with localization outside the temporal lobe (extra-temporal lobe epilepsy) (p = 0.04). Conclusions In patients with preoperative MEG studies that show clusters in surgically accessible areas outside the temporal lobe, we suggest aggressive resection to improve the chances for seizure freedom. When the cluster is found within the temporal lobe, further diagnostic testing may be required to better localize the epileptogenic zone.
- Tissue localization during resective epilepsy surgery. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E8.
Object Imaging-guided surgery (IGS) systems are widely used in neurosurgical practice. During epilepsy surgery, the authors routinely use IGS landmarks to localize intracranial electrodes and/or specific brain regions. The authors have developed a technique to coregister these landmarks with pre- and postoperative scans and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard space brain MRI to allow 1) localization and identification of tissue anatomy; and 2) identification of Brodmann areas (BAs) of the tissue resected during epilepsy surgery. Tracking tissue in this fashion allows for better correlation of patient outcome to clinical factors, functional neuroimaging findings, and pathological characteristics and molecular studies of resected tissue. Methods Tissue samples were collected in 21 patients. Coordinates from intraoperative tissue localization were downloaded from the IGS system and transformed into patient space, as defined by preoperative high-resolution T1-weighted MRI volume. Tissue landmarks in patient space were then transformed into MNI standard space for identification of the BAs of the tissue samples. Results Anatomical locations of resected tissue were identified from the intraoperative resection landmarks. The BAs were identified for 17 of the 21 patients. The remaining patients had abnormal brain anatomy that could not be meaningfully coregistered with the MNI standard brain without causing extensive distortion. Conclusions This coregistration and landmark tracking technique allows localization of tissue that is resected from patients with epilepsy and identification of the BAs for each resected region. The ability to perform tissue localization allows investigators to relate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative functional and anatomical brain imaging to better understand patient outcomes, improve patient safety, and aid in research.
- Hypothalamic hamartomas. Part 2. Surgical considerations and outcome. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E7.
Hypothalamic hamartomas are uncommon developmental heterotopic masses composed of an intermixed array of neurons, glia, and myelinated fibers closely associated with the mammillary bodies. Gelastic seizures, the hallmark feature of hypothalamic hamartomas, commonly present in early childhood. However, patients usually also display a disabling clinical syndrome, which may include various other types of refractory seizures with secondary generalization together with progressive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric dysfunction. The hamartoma itself has been unequivocally shown to be intrinsically epileptogenic. Over the past 2 decades there has been considerable effort to develop neurosurgical techniques to treat the epileptic syndrome effectively as well as to improve the neurocognitive and behavioral outcome.
- Hypothalamic hamartomas. Part 1. Clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological characteristics. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E6.
Hypothalamic hamartomas are uncommon but well-recognized developmental malformations that are classically associated with gelastic seizures and other refractory seizure types. The clinical course is often progressive and, in addition to the catastrophic epileptic syndrome, patients commonly exhibit debilitating cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric disturbances. Over the past decade, investigators have gained considerable knowledge into the pathobiological and neurophysiological properties of these rare lesions. In this review, the authors examine the causes and molecular biology of hypothalamic hamartomas as well as the principal clinical features, neuroimaging findings, and electrophysiological characteristics. The diverse surgical modalities and strategies used to manage these difficult lesions are outlined in the second article of this 2-part review.
- Successful surgical treatment of an inflammatory lesion associated with new-onset refractory status epilepticus. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E5.
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) has high morbidity and mortality. The authors describe the successful surgical treatment of a 56-year-old man presenting with NORSE. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left temporal lobe lesion suspicious for a low-grade tumor, while PET imaging with the alpha[(11)C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) radiotracer showed increased cortical uptake extending beyond this lesion and partly overlapping with epileptogenic cortex mapped by chronic intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring. Resection of the epileptic focus resulted in long-term seizure freedom, and the nonresected portion of the PET-documented abnormality normalized. Histopathology showed reactive gliosis and inflammatory markers in the AMT-PET-positive cortex. Molecular imaging of neuroinflammation can be instrumental in the management of NORSE by guiding placement of intracranial electrodes or assessing the extent and severity of inflammation for antiinflammatory interventions.
- Optogenetics in epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E4.
Optogenetics, the use of light to stimulate or inhibit neural circuits via viral transduction of protein channels, has emerged as a possible method of treating epilepsy. By introducing viral vectors carrying algal-derived cation or anion channels, known as opsins, neurons that initiate or propagate seizures may be silenced. To date, studies using this technique have been performed in animal models, and current efforts are moving toward more sophisticated nonhuman primate models. In this paper, the authors present a brief overview of the development of optogenetics and review recent studies investigating optogenetic modification of circuits involved in seizures. Further developments in the field are explored, with an emphasis on how optogenetics may influence future neurosurgical interventions.
- Stereoelectroencephalography for continuous two-dimensional cursor control in a brain-machine interface. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E3.
Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is becoming more prevalent as a planning tool for surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy. Stereoelectroencephalography uses long, thin, cylindrical "depth" electrodes containing multiple recording contacts along each electrode's length. Each lead is inserted into the brain percutaneously. The advantage of SEEG is that the electrodes can easily target deeper brain structures that are inaccessible with subdural grid electrodes, and SEEG does not require a craniotomy. Brain-machine interface (BMI) research is also becoming more common in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. A brain-machine interface decodes a person's desired movement or action from the recorded brain activity and then uses the decoded brain activity to control an assistive device in real time. Although BMIs are primarily being developed for use by severely paralyzed individuals, epilepsy patients undergoing invasive brain monitoring provide an opportunity to test the effectiveness of different invasive recording electrodes for use in BMI systems. This study investigated the ability to use SEEG electrodes for control of 2D cursor velocity in a BMI. Two patients who were undergoing SEEG for intractable epilepsy participated in this study. Participants were instructed to wiggle or rest the hand contralateral to their SEEG electrodes to control the horizontal velocity of a cursor on a screen. Simultaneously they were instructed to wiggle or rest their feet to control the vertical component of cursor velocity. The BMI system was designed to detect power spectral changes associated with hand and foot activity and translate those spectral changes into horizontal and vertical cursor movements in real time. During testing, participants used their decoded SEEG signals to move the brain-controlled cursor to radial targets that appeared on the screen. Although power spectral information from 28 to 32 electrode contacts were used for cursor control during the experiment, post hoc analysis indicated that better control may have been possible using only a single SEEG depth electrode containing multiple recording contacts in both hand and foot cortical areas. These results suggest that the advantages of using SEEG for epilepsy monitoring may also apply to using SEEG electrodes in BMI systems. Specifically, SEEG electrodes can target deeper brain structures, such as foot motor cortex, and both hand and foot areas can be targeted with a single SEEG electrode implanted percutaneously. Therefore, SEEG electrodes may be an attractive option for simple BMI systems that use power spectral modulation in hand and foot cortex for independent control of 2 degrees of freedom.
- Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jun; 34(6):E2.
Object The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). Results A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). Conclusions The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.