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Neurosurg Focus [journal]
- Intracranial hemorrhage from dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features and outcome. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E15.
Object In this paper the authors' goal was to review the clinical features and outcome of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) who presented with hemorrhage. Methods A retrospective study of 28 patients with DAVFs who presented with intracranial hemorrhage to 2 separate institutions was performed. The information reviewed included clinical presentation, location and size of hemorrhage, angiographic features, treatment, and clinical and radiologically documented outcomes. Clinical and radiological follow-up were available in 27 of 28 patients (mean follow-up 17 months). Results The vast majority of patients were male (86%), and the most common presenting symptom was sudden-onset headache. All DAVFs had cortical venous drainage, and about one-third were associated with a venous varix. The most common location was tentorial (75%). Treatment ranged from endovascular (71%), surgical (43%), Gamma Knife surgery (4%), or a combination of modalities. The majority of fistulas (75%) were completely obliterated, and most patients experienced excellent clinical outcome (71%, modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1). There were no complications in this series. Conclusions Case series, including the current one, suggest that the vast majority of patients who present with intracranial hemorrhage from a DAVF are male. The most common location for DAVFs presenting with hemorrhage is tentorial. Excellent outcomes are achieved with individualized treatment, which includes various therapeutic strategies alone or in combination. Despite the hemorrhagic presentation, almost two-thirds of patients experience a full recovery with no or minimal residual symptoms.
- Transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E14.
Intracerebral hemorrhage remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Current surgical therapies aim to use a minimally invasive approach to remove as much of the clot as possible without causing undue disruption to surrounding neural structures. Transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery is an emerging technology that permits a highly concentrated focal point of ultrasound energy to be deposited to a target deep within the brain without an incision or craniotomy. With appropriate ultrasound parameters it has been shown that MRgFUS can effectively liquefy large-volume blood clots through the human calvaria. In this review the authors discuss the rationale for using MRgFUS to noninvasively liquefy intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), thereby permitting minimally invasive aspiration of the liquefied clot via a small drainage tube. The mechanism of action of MRgFUS sonothrombolysis; current investigational work with in vitro, in vivo, and cadaveric models of ICH; and the potential clinical application of this disruptive technology for the treatment of ICH are discussed.
- Editorial: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E13.
- Rates and determinants of ventriculostomy-related infections during a hospital transition to use of antibiotic-coated external ventricular drains. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E12.
Object The authors evaluated the rates of ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) after antibiotic-coated extraventricular drains (ac-EVDs) were introduced as the standard of care. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult patients admitted to NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital neurological intensive care unit in whom an EVD was placed between February 2007 and November 2009, excluding individuals receiving EVDs due to an infection of a primary device. Three time periods were defined depending on type of EVD in use: Period 1, conventional EVDs; Period 2, either ac-EVDs or conventional EVDs; and Period 3, ac-EVDs. Definite/probable VRIs that occurred during the 3 periods were evaluated and established as determinants of VRIs by using a Cox proportional hazards model. Prolonged systemic antibiotics were given for the duration of EVD placement in each of the 3 periods per institutional policy. Results Data from 141 individuals were evaluated; mean patient age was 53.8 ± 17.2 years and 54% were female. There were 2 definite and 19 probable VRIs. The incidence of definite/probable VRI (per 1000 person-catheter days) decreased from Period 1 to 3 (24.5, 16.2, and 4.4 in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; p < 0.0001). Patients with VRIs were more likely to be female than male (23.7% vs 3.1%, p < 0.003) and have had an EVD in place for a longer duration, although there was no significant difference among the 3 periods (7.9 ± 6.7 [Period 1], 8.1 ± 7.1 [Period 2], and 8.6 ± 5.8 [Period 3] mean days; p = 0.87, ANOVA). Analysis of effect modification in a stepwise model showed that period, age, and age and female interaction were significant predictors of VRIs. The period was the strongest predictor of VRI (p = 0.0075). After adjustment for age and age and sex interaction, the survival rate was 53% at the end of Period 2 and 91% at the end of Period 3. Conclusions Rates of VRIs have decreased with the addition of ac-EVDs to the routine use of prolonged systemic antibiotics at the authors' institution.
- Hydrocephalus after arteriovenous malformation rupture. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E11.
Object The rates and risk factors for external ventricular drain (EVD) placement and long-term shunt dependence in patients with ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not been systematically studied. In this study the authors evaluated the rates of EVD placement and shunt dependence, and risk factors for them, in a cohort of patients with ruptured AVMs. Methods The records of 87 consecutive patients with ruptured AVMs were reviewed for patient demographics, hemorrhage pattern, AVM angioarchitectural features, and surgical treatment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for EVD placement, permanent shunt dependence, and long-term outcome (as measured by the modified Rankin Scale). Results Thirty-eight patients (44%) required EVD placement, and 16 (18%) required a permanent shunt. Statistically significant risk factors for EVD placement in the univariate analysis included initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p = 0.002), the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH; p < 0.001), AVM-associated aneurysms (p = 0.002), and early surgery (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed only AVM-associated aneurysms as statistically significant (p = 0.006). Risk factors for shunt placement included initial GCS score (p = 0.003), IVH (p = 0.01), deep supratentorial location (p = 0.034), and associated aneurysms (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed initial GCS score as a statistically significant risk factor (p = 0.041) as well as a strong trend for associated aneurysms (p = 0.06). Patient age, sex, associated subarachnoid hemorrhage, AVM grade, AVM size, and deep venous drainage were not associated with EVD placement or long-term shunt dependence. Conclusions Hydrocephalus from AVM rupture was associated with initial GCS score, IVH, and AVM-associated aneurysms. Arteriovenous malformations with associated aneurysms thus not only have a greater risk of hemorrhage but also a greater risk of hemorrhage-associated morbidity as a result of hydrocephalus.
- Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists in intracerebral hemorrhage: an evaluation of the current evidence for a novel therapeutic agent. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E10.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most deadly and least treatable subtype of stroke, and at the present time there are no evidence-based therapeutic interventions for patients with this disease. Secondary injury mechanisms are known to cause substantial rates of morbidity and mortality following ICH, and the inflammatory cascade is a major contributor to this post-ICH secondary injury. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonists have a well-established antiinflammatory effect and have been shown to attenuate perihematomal edema volume and to improve functional outcome in experimental ICH. The authors evaluate the current evidence for the use of an α7-nAChR agonist as a novel therapeutic agent in patients with ICH.
- Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and the challenge of surgical decision making: a review. [Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 May; 34(5):E1.
Decision making for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) poses several challenges. Outcomes in this patient population are generally poor, prognostication is often uncertain, and treatment strategies offer limited benefits. Studies demonstrate variability in the type and intensity of treatment offered, which is attributed to clinical uncertainty and habits of training. Research has focused on new techniques and more stringent evidence-based selection criteria to improve outcomes and produce consensus around treatment strategies for patients with ICH. Such focus, however, offers little description of how ICH treatment decisions are made and how such decisions reflect patient preferences regarding medical care. A growing body of literature suggests that the process of decision making in ICH is laden with bias, value assumptions, and subjective impressions. Factors such as geography, cognitive biases, patient perceptions, and physician characteristics can all shape decision making and the selection of treatment. Such factors often serve as a barrier to providing patient-centered medical care. In this article, the authors review how surgical decision making for patients with ICH is shaped by these decisional factors and suggest future research pathways to study decision making in ICH. Such research efforts are important for establishing quality guidelines and pay-for-performance measures that reflect the preferences of individual patients and the contextual nature of medical decision making.
- Response. [Comment, Letter]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Apr; 34(4):E11.
- Introduction: functional imaging. [Introductory Journal Article]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Apr; 34(4):Introduction.
- Advances in myelin imaging with potential clinical application to pediatric imaging. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Neurosurg Focus 2013 Apr; 34(4):E9.
White matter development and myelination are critical processes in neurodevelopment. Myelinated white matter facilitates the rapid and coordinated brain messaging required for higher-order cognitive and behavioral processing. Whereas several neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis are associated with gross white matter damage and demyelination, other disorders such as epilepsy may involve altered myelination in the efferent or afferent white matter pathways adjoining epileptic foci. Current MRI techniques including T1 weighting, T2 weighting, FLAIR, diffusion tensor imaging, and MR spectroscopy permit visualization of gross white matter abnormalities and evaluation of underlying white matter fiber architecture and integrity, but they provide only qualitative information regarding myelin content. Quantification of these myelin changes could provide new insight into disease severity and prognosis, reveal information regarding spatial location of foci or lesions and the associated affected neural systems, and create a metric to evaluate treatment efficacy. Multicomponent analysis of T1 and T2 relaxation data, or multicomponent relaxometry (MCR), is a quantitative imaging technique that is sensitive and specific to myelin content alteration. In the past, MCR has been associated with lengthy imaging times, but a new, faster MCR technique (mcDESPOT) has made quantitative analysis of myelin content more accessible for clinical research applications. The authors briefly summarize traditional white matter imaging techniques, describe MCR and mcDESPOT, and discuss current and future clinical applications of MCR, with a particular focus on pediatric epilepsy.