(Neurotherapeutics[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Strength Testing in Motor Neuron Diseases. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Sep 6N
- Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities ...
Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living, and others are due, in large part, to decline in strength. Thus, the accurate measurement of limb muscle strength is essential in therapeutic trials to best understand the impact of therapy on vital function. While qualitative strength measurements show declines over time, the lack of reproducibility and linearity of measurement make qualitative techniques inadequate. A variety of quantitative measures have been developed; all have both positive attributes and limitations. However, with careful training and reliability testing, quantitative measures have proven to be reliable and sensitive indicators of both disease progression and the impact of experimental therapy. Quantitative strength measurements have demonstrated potentially important therapeutic effects in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and have been shown feasible in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The spectrum of both qualitative and quantitative strength measurements are reviewed and their utility examined in this review.
- Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Sep 6N
- The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary grea...
The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units. Since 1970 a number of different methods, including the incremental, F-wave, multipoint, and statistical methods, have been developed but none has achieved widespread applicability. Two methods (MUNIX and the multipoint incremental method) are in current use across multiple centres and are discussed in detail in this review, together with other recently published methods. Imaging with magnetic resonance and ultrasound is increasingly being applied to this area. Motor unit number estimates have also been applied to other neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, compression neuropathies, and prior poliomyelitis. The need for an objective measure for the assessment of motor units remains tantalizingly close but unfulfilled in 2016.
- Amyloid Imaging: Poised for Integration into Medical Practice. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 29N
- Amyloid imaging represents a significant advance as an adjunct in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it is the first imaging modality that identifies in vivo changes known to be associ...
Amyloid imaging represents a significant advance as an adjunct in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it is the first imaging modality that identifies in vivo changes known to be associated with the pathogenesis. Initially, (11)C-PIB was developed, which was the prototype for many (18)F compounds, including florbetapir, florbetaben, and flutemetamol, among others. Despite the high sensitivity and specificity of amyloid imaging, it is not commonly used in clinical practice, mainly because it is not reimbursed under current Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines in the USA. To guide the field in who would be most appropriate for the utility of amyloid positron emission tomography, current studies are underway [Imaging Dementia Evidence for Amyloid Scanning (IDEAS) Study] that will inform the field on the utilization of amyloid positron emission tomography in clinical practice. With the advent of monoclonal antibodies that specifically target amyloid antibody, there is an interest, possibly a mandate, to screen potential treatment recipients to ensure that they are suitable for treatment. In this review, we summarize progress in the field to date.
- Blood/Brain Biomarkers of Inflammation After Stroke and Their Association With Outcome: From C-Reactive Protein to Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 18N
- Stroke represents one of the most important causes of disability and death in developed countries. However, there is a lack of prognostic tools in clinical practice to monitor the neurological condit...
Stroke represents one of the most important causes of disability and death in developed countries. However, there is a lack of prognostic tools in clinical practice to monitor the neurological condition and predict the final outcome. Blood biomarkers have been proposed and studied in this indication; however, no biomarker is currently used in clinical practice. The stroke-related neuroinflammatory processes have been associated with a poor outcome in stroke, as well as with poststroke complications. In this review, we focus on the most studied blood biomarkers of this inflammatory processes, cytokines, and C-reactive protein, evaluating its association with outcome and complications in stroke through the literature, and performing a systematic review on the association of C-reactive protein and functional outcome after stroke. Globally, we identified uncertainty with regard to the association of the evaluated biomarkers with stroke outcome, with little added value on top of clinical predictors such as age or stroke severity, which makes its implementation unlikely in clinical practice for global outcome prediction. Regarding poststroke complications, despite being more practical scenarios in which to make medical decisions following a biomarker prediction, not many studies have been performed, although there are now some candidates for prediction of poststroke infections. Finally, as potential new candidates, we reviewed the pathophysiological actions of damage-associated molecular patterns as triggers of the neuroinflammatory cascade of stroke, and their possible use as biomarkers.
- Interleukin-6 Blockade as Rescue Therapy in Autoimmune Encephalitis. [Editorial]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 16N
- Neuroimmune Response in Ischemic Preconditioning. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 15N
- Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has im...
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has implicated cellular, molecular, and systemic elements of the immune response in this phenomenon. Potent molecular mediators of IPC include innate immune signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptors and type 1 interferons. Brain ischemia results in release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate the neuroinflammtory response, resolution of inflammation, and transition to neurological recovery and regeneration. Cellular mediators of IPC include microglia, the resident central nervous system immune cells, astrocytes, and neurons. All of these cell types engage in cross-talk with each other using a multitude of signaling pathways that modulate activation/suppression of each of the other cell types in response to ischemia. As the postischemic neuroimmune response evolves over time there is a shift in function toward provision of trophic support and neuroprotection. Peripheral immune cells infiltrate the central nervous system en masse after stroke and are largely detrimental, with a few subtypes having beneficial, protective effects, though the role of these immune cells in IPC is largely unknown. The role of neural progenitor cells in IPC-mediated neuroprotection is another active area of investigation as is the role of microglial proliferation in this setting. A mechanistic understanding of these molecular and cellular mediators of IPC may not only facilitate more effective direct application of IPC to specific clinical scenarios, but also, more broadly, reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention in stroke.
- Antigen Presentation After Stroke. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 11N
- Stroke induces a local inflammatory reaction and a plethora of innate immune responses in the brain where antigen-presenting cells become prominent. However, to date, it is still unclear whether anti...
Stroke induces a local inflammatory reaction and a plethora of innate immune responses in the brain where antigen-presenting cells become prominent. However, to date, it is still unclear whether antigen presentation is relevant to the neuropathological and functional outcome of stroke. Stroke does not trigger overt autoimmune reactions, but neural antigens have been found in lymphoid tissues of patient with stroke and it is unknown whether they promote tolerance or immune reactions that under certain conditions might contribute to the functional worsening observed in some patients. Autoantibodies to neural molecules have also been reported in patients with stroke, but the subclass of antibodies is important for their function, and the contribution of such findings to stroke outcome is not yet clear. Notably, stroke induces immunodepression highlighted by a transient lymphopenia, lymphoid organ atrophy, and monocyte deactivation. While these effects might reduce the chances of autoreactivity, they increase the risk of infection in patients with stroke and most frequently in those with severe stroke. Therefore any potential brain protective effect of stroke-induced immunodepression by attenuating or preventing lymphocyte-mediated brain damage is confounded by stroke severity and an increased incidence of infections. Systemic inflammation due to a number of comorbidities that are frequent in patients with stroke is also associated to a poor outcome. Herein, we review some relevant findings regarding the identification of neural antigens in stroke and discuss their potential contribution to the functional outcome of stroke.
- Use of Antiepileptic Drugs During Pregnancy: Evolving Concepts. [Journal Article]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 8N
- Although prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is known to impart relatively higher risks of major congenital malformations, prospective studies have provided refined data that allow us to ...
Although prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is known to impart relatively higher risks of major congenital malformations, prospective studies have provided refined data that allow us to differentiate the risks of different types and doses of AEDs. As the number of AED prescriptions has dramatically increased in reproductive-aged women with a variety of neuropsychiatric indications, the evolving concepts learned from studies in women with epilepsy can be applied to a much larger group of pregnant women to improve child outcomes while maintaining maternal disease control. In addition to careful selection of the type of medication, the amount of fetal exposure at conception and in the first trimester probably matters across all AEDs. Some AED polytherapy regimens are not associated with a higher risk of malformations, although other outcomes have not yet been formally studied. The individual woman's drug target concentration should be established preconception and maintained during pregnancy, to prevent seizure worsening. Substantial pharmacokinetic changes occur with many of the medications during pregnancy and postpartum, and interindividual variability supports the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for most AEDs. During pregnancy, vigilance and close monitoring should also include intrauterine fetal growth, obstetric complications, and neonatal complications. Breastfeeding can provide additional neurodevelopmental benefit and should be an option for women on AEDs. Knowledge of these key principles enhances our ability to make treatment recommendations with resultant improved maternal and child outcomes. Additional prospective studies are needed to further define the risk-benefit ratio across a variety of medications, dosing strategies, and neuropsychiatric disorders.
- Heterogeneity of B Cell Functions in Stroke-Related Risk, Prevention, Injury, and Repair. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 4N
- It is well established that post-stroke inflammation contributes to neurovascular injury, blood-brain barrier disruption, and poor functional recovery in both animal and clinical studies. However, re...
It is well established that post-stroke inflammation contributes to neurovascular injury, blood-brain barrier disruption, and poor functional recovery in both animal and clinical studies. However, recent studies also suggest that several leukocyte subsets, activated during the post-stroke immune response, can exhibit both pro-injury and pro-recovery phenotypes. In accordance with these findings, B lymphocytes, or B cells, play a heterogeneous role in the adaptive immune response to stroke. This review highlights what is currently understood about the various roles of B cells, with an emphasis on stroke risk factors, as well as post-stroke injury and repair. This includes an overview of B cell functions, such as antibody production, cytokine secretion, and contribution to the immune response as antigen presenting cells. Next, evidence for B cell-mediated mechanisms in stroke-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, is outlined, followed by studies that focus on B cells during endogenous protection from stroke. Subsequently, animal studies that investigate the role of B cells in post-stroke injury and repair are summarized, and the final section describes current B cell-related clinical trials for stroke, as well as other central nervous system diseases. This review reveals the complex role of B cells in stroke, with a focus on areas for potential clinical intervention for a disease that affects millions of people globally each year.
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- Microglia and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages in Stroke. [Review]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Aug 2N
- Historically, the brain has been considered an immune-privileged organ separated from the peripheral immune system by the blood-brain barrier. However, immune responses do occur in the brain in neuro...
Historically, the brain has been considered an immune-privileged organ separated from the peripheral immune system by the blood-brain barrier. However, immune responses do occur in the brain in neurological conditions in which the integrity of the blood-brain barrier is compromised, exposing the brain to peripheral antigens and endogenous danger signals. While most of the associated pathological processes occur in the central nervous system, it is now clear that peripheral immune cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, that infiltrate into the injury site play a key role in modulating the progression of primary brain injury development. As inflammation is a necessary and critical component for the subsequent injury resolution process, understanding the contribution of mononuclear phagocytes on the regulation of inflammatory responses may provide novel approaches for potential therapies. Furthermore, predisposed comorbid conditions at the time of stroke cause the alteration of stroke-induced immune and inflammatory responses and subsequently influence stroke outcome. In this review, we summarize a role for microglia and monocytes/macrophages in acute ischemic stroke in the context of normal and metabolically compromised conditions.