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Nutr Rev [journal]
- Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 May; 71(5):310-8.
Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health.
- Developmental changes and fructose absorption in children: effect on malabsorption testing and dietary management. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 May; 71(5):300-9.
Fructose malabsorption came to prominence in the pediatric arena as so-called "apple juice diarrhea," with excess consumption of fructose being linked to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Over the past two decades the amount of fructose in children's diets has been increasing in the United States. A test for fructose malabsorption has yet to be fully validated, due mainly to the lack of an established etiology. In animal models, however, the fructose transporter GLUT5 is developmentally regulated, and this could be consistent with the greater susceptibility of children, especially toddlers, to fructose malabsorption. Additionally, the available evidence indicates the fructose breath hydrogen test has no apparent diagnostic utility in infants younger than 1 year; it may, therefore, be advisable to test for malabsorption by dietary exclusion in these patients. The present review aims to expound on the biological basis for fructose malabsorption in children and evaluate the current evidence for diagnostic procedures in order to identify clinical testing strategies that can be recommended and areas where further investigation is required.
- Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 May; 71(5):282-99.
Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. The effect of garlic on blood lipids has been studied in numerous trials and summarized in meta-analyses, with conflicting results. This meta-analysis, the most comprehensive to date, includes 39 primary trials of the effect of garlic preparations on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The findings suggest garlic to be effective in reducing total serum cholesterol by 17 ± 6 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9 ± 6 mg/dL in individuals with elevated total cholesterol levels (>200 mg/dL), provided garlic is used for longer than 2 months. An 8% reduction in total serum cholesterol is of clinical relevance and is associated with a 38% reduction in risk of coronary events at 50 years of age. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved only slightly, and triglycerides were not influenced significantly. Garlic preparations were highly tolerable in all trials and were associated with minimal side effects. They might be considered as an alternative option with a higher safety profile than conventional cholesterol-lowering medications in patients with slightly elevated cholesterol.
- Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 May; 71(5):268-81.
This review examines the research on mechanisms by which artificial food colors (AFCs) and common foods may cause behavioral changes in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD show excess inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Studies have shown that a subgroup of children (with or without ADHD) react adversely to challenges with AFCs. Many early studies found few children who reacted to challenges with 20-40 mg of AFCs. However, studies using at least 50 mg of AFCs showed a greater percentage of children who reacted to the challenge. Three types of potential mechanisms are explored: toxicological, antinutritional, and hypersensitivity. Suggestions for future studies in animals and/or children include dose studies as well as studies to determine the effects of AFCs on the immune system, the intestinal mucosa, and nutrient absorption. Given the potential negative behavioral effects of AFCs, it is important to determine why some children may be more sensitive to AFCs than others and to identify the tolerable upper limits of exposure for children in general and for children at high risk.
- Meat, fish, and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 May; 71(5):257-67.
Risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are well defined, while the role of diet in these conditions remains controversial. To help elucidate the role of particular dietary components, major bibliographic databases were searched for published studies (1990-2011) on associations between esophageal cancer risk (EC) and consumption of various types of meat and fish. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results. Subgroup analyses were conducted by histological subtype, study design, and nationality. Four cohorts and 31 case-control studies were identified. The overall pooled relative risk (RR) of EC and the confidence intervals (CIs) for the groups with the highest versus the lowest levels of intake were as follows: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85-1.15) for total meat; 1.40 (95%CI: 1.09-1.81) for red meat; 1.41 (95%CI: 1.13-1.76) for processed meat; 0.87 (95%CI: 0.60-1.24) for poultry; and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.64-1.00) for fish. People with the highest levels of red meat intake had a significantly increased risk of ESCC. Processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of EAC. These results suggest that low levels of red and processed meat consumption and higher levels of fish intake might reduce EC risk.
- Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nutr Rev 2013 Apr; 71(4):245-54.
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended.
- Mechanistic perspective on the relationship between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inflammation. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Nutr Rev 2013 Apr; 71(4):239-44.
A variety of inflammatory disease conditions have been found to be associated with low levels of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6 , without any indication of a lower dietary intake of vitamin B6 , excessive catabolism of the vitamin, or congenital defects in its metabolism. The present review was conducted to examine the existing literature in this regard. Current evidence suggests that the inverse association between plasma PLP and inflammation may be the result of mobilization of this coenzyme to the site of inflammation, for use by the PLP-dependent enzymes of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, metabolism of the immunomodulatory sphingolipids, ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, and for serine hydroxymethylase for immune cell proliferation.
- Designing culturally sensitive dietary interventions for African Americans: review and recommendations. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 Apr; 71(4):224-38.
Despite consensus that dietary intervention programs should be culturally sensitive, relatively little is known about approaches to developing culturally sensitive interventions. With a focus on African Americans, the present review summarizes the existing literature on cultural considerations when working with this population and suggests strategies for the development of culturally sensitive interventions to modify the dietary practices of African Americans. Interventions to improve dietary behaviors and nutritional status among African Americans are needed urgently in order to reduce morbidity and mortality from diet-related diseases in this population. Findings are intended to serve as a guide for future research and practice on culturally sensitive approaches for effecting such changes.
- Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 Apr; 71(4):209-23.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrient intake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ≥9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrient intakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
- Nutritional strategies to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Rev 2013 Apr; 71(4):195-208.
Situations such as recovery from injury or illness require otherwise healthy humans to undergo periods of disuse, which lead to considerable losses of skeletal muscle mass and, subsequently, numerous negative health consequences. It has been established that prolonged disuse (>10 days) leads to a decline in basal and postprandial rates of muscle protein synthesis, without an apparent change in muscle protein breakdown. It also seems, however, that an early and transient (1-5 days) increase in basal muscle protein breakdown may also contribute to disuse atrophy. A period of disuse reduces energy requirements and appetite. Consequently, food intake generally declines, resulting in an inadequate dietary protein consumption to allow proper muscle mass maintenance. Evidence suggests that maintaining protein intake during a period of disuse attenuates disuse atrophy. Furthermore, supplementation with dietary protein and/or essential amino acids can be applied to further aid in muscle mass preservation during disuse. Such strategies are of particular relevance to the older patient at risk of developing sarcopenia. More work is required to elucidate the impact of disuse on basal and postprandial rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. Such information will provide novel targets for nutritional interventions to further attenuate muscle disuse atrophy and, as such, support healthy aging.