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Ophthalmic research [journal]
- Meta-Analysis of Association between the -2578C/A Polymorphism of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes in Asians and Caucasians. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Apr 16; 52(1):1-8.
Background and Objectives: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to play an important role in the development and progress of diabetic retinopathy (DR). A number of case-control studies focused on the association between VEGF -2578C/A and risk for DR. But the results were not always consistent, so we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the precise association between this variant and risk for DR. Methods: All publications on the association between VEGF -2578C/A polymorphism and DR were searched in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, with the last report up to January 2013. This meta-analysis was assessed by Review Manager 5.1. Results: A total of 6 studies were involved in this meta-analysis, including 835 cases and 867 controls. Overall, we found a significant association between this polymorphism and DR (A vs. C: OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.26-1.77, p < 0.00001; AA vs. CA + CC: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.94-1.68, p = 0.12; AA + CA vs. CC: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27-1.91, p < 0.00001; AA vs. CC: OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.20-2.32, p = 0.003; CA vs. CC: OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.21-1.87, p = 0.0002), but we did not find any significant association in Caucasians in subgroup analysis. The results were not materially altered after the studies which did not fulfill the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were excluded. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis supports the association between the VEGF -2578C/A polymorphism and DR, but not in the Caucasian population. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Effects of Fluoroquinolone Eye Solutions without Preservatives on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Apr 10; 51(4):216-223.
Aims: To evaluate the biologic effects of fluoroquinolone eye solutions without preservatives on cultured human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: We studied the effect of diverse generations of topical fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.5%, tosufloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% on cultured human corneal epithelial cells. MTT-based calorimetric assay, lactate dehydrogenase leakage (LDH) assay and scratch wound test were performed. Corneal epithelial cell morphologies were examined by performing inverted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results: In all topical fluoroquinolones, the metabolic activity of the corneal epithelial cells decreased in a time-dependent fashion and the LDH titer increased with longer exposure times. Especially, the LDH titers significantly increased after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% compared with controls. The migration rates of the corneal epithelial cells were faster in ofloxacin 0.3% or levofloxacin 0.5% than other fluoroquinolones. Severe cellular morphological damage was observed after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3%. Conclusions: As moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% induced the toxic effect to the corneal epithelial cells, compared with other fluoroquinolones, the 4th fluoroquinolone eye solutions should be carefully used in case of the corneal epithelium is damaged by long duration of treatment or overdosage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- ABCA1 rs1883025 Polymorphism Shows No Association with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration or Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in a Northern Chinese Population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 28; 51(4):210-215.
Purpose: To analyze the association between ABCA1 rs1883025 variants with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a northern Chinese population. Methods: The study enrolled 900 subjects, including 300 controls, 300 cases with nAMD and 300 cases with PCV. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood leukocytes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCA1 (rs1883025) gene were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results: The ABCA1 rs1883025 polymorphism was not significantly associated with nAMD (22.5%; p > 0.05) or PCV (20.8%; p > 0.05) in a northern Chinese population. The association remained insignificant after adjustment for age and gender differences (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that ABCA1 rs1883025 variants are not associated with nAMD or PCV in a Chinese population, which is likely due to an ethnic difference. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Effect of Laser Wavelength on Delivering Appropriate Laser Burns through the Opaque Lens Using a Pattern Scan Laser. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 27; 51(4):204-209.
Background/Aims: We evaluated the effects of pattern scan laser (PSL) wavelength in delivering appropriate laser burns to the retina of eyes with an opaque lens. Methods: Sixteen shots of 2 × 2 square grids (64 laser spots) were delivered using green (532-nm), yellow (577-nm) and red (647-nm) lasers to the retinas of mice with mild cataract induced by chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg). Three eyes with clear lenses served as controls. One week after laser coagulation, the ratio of appropriate burns, defined as coagulation restricted to the outer half of the retina without retinal or choroidal hemorrhage, was investigated histologically. Results: With the green laser, we confirmed only 3.0 ± 2.0 appropriate burns in eyes with an opaque lens, in contrast to 13.7 ± 4.0 effective burns in eyes with a clear lens. On the other hand, the yellow and red lasers produced 18 ± 5.2 and 13 ± 1.5 appropriate burns, respectively, in eyes with an opaque lens. Conclusion: Although all three PSL wavelengths successfully delivered appropriate burns restricted to the outer half of the retina in eyes with an opaque lens, the longer-wavelength yellow and red lasers were significantly more effective than the green laser. PSL may be a treatment option to accompany anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drug therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Slight Alteration of the Electroretinogram in Mice Lacking Dystrophin Dp71. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 22; 51(4):196-203.
Aim: Most Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and the mdx(Cv3) mouse strain, lacking expression of both dystrophins Dp260 and Dp71, show a high attenuation of the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave amplitude, whereas mice lacking the expression of Dp260 show normal b-wave amplitude. Here, we completed our assessment of whether the sole absence of Dp71 affects the ERG. Methods: Ganzfeld ERGs were performed on dark-adapted Dp71-null mice and littermates. Scotopic flash ERGs were recorded at light intensities from 3.10-(5) to 1 cd.s/m(2). Oscillatory potentials (OPs) were extracted at 1 cd.s/m(2). Photopic flash ERGs were recorded at 10 cd.s/m(2) after light adaptation. Results: Dp71-null mice showed a slight but significant reduction in b-wave amplitudes, normal a-wave amplitudes and nonaffected implicit times of the scotopic ERGs. No changes were observed in the amplitudes and implicit times of the OPs and the photopic ERGs. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that together both Dp71 and Dp260 are required for the generation of the ERG b-wave in mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Reis-Bücklers Corneal Dystrophy: A Reappraisal Using in vivo and ex vivo Imaging Techniques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 20; 51(4):187-195.
Purpose: To characterize the phenotype of Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) using in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques. Methods: Five RBCD patients with penetrating keratoplasty (PK) were enrolled. Before surgery, all patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT). After PK, corneal buttons were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Correlations between in vivo and ex vivo images were analyzed. Results: In all cases, irregular geographic-like subepithelial gray-white opacities were observed in the central and mid-peripheral cornea. AS-OCT images of the cornea of all patients revealed hyperreflective homogeneous and continuous deposits concentrated at the level of Bowman's layer and anterior stroma. Using IVCM, a highly reflective irregular amorphous material was observed from intermediate epithelial cells to the anterior stroma. Sparse deposits of highly reflective material were also detected in the posterior stroma. TEM showed in all specimens basal epithelial cells containing small vesicles with rod-shaped dense material. Conclusions: IVCM and AS-OCT may be a useful adjunct to biomicroscopy for the diagnosis and management of RBCD. The correlations between the different in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques emphasize the hypothesis of an epithelial origin for RBCD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Human Corneal Epithelial Cells Produce Antimicrobial Peptides LL-37 and β-Defensins in Response to Heat-Killed Candida albicans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 18; 51(4):179-186.
Aims: To explore the innate response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to fungus by producing antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and β-defensins. Methods: Primary HCECs were treated with heat-killed Candida albicans (HKCA) at different doses (10(3)-10(6) cells/ml) for 2-48 h. The cells were subjected to total RNA extraction, reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR for mRNA expression. Cells treated for 48 h were used for immunofluorescent staining and ELISA. Results: Human LL-37 and β-defensins (hBDs) 1-4 were detected in normal HCECs. The mRNA expression of LL-37, hBD2, and hBD3 was dose-dependently induced by HKCA with their peak levels at 4 h. HKCA (10(6) cells/ml) stimulated the mRNA of LL-37, hBD2, and hBD3 4.33 ± 1.81, 3.75 ± 1.31, and 4.91 ± 1.09 fold, respectively, in HCECs. The stimulated production of LL-37, hBD2, and hBD3 by HKCA was confirmed at protein levels by immunofluorescent staining and ELISA. The protein production of LL-37, hBD2, and hBD3 significantly increased to 109.1 ± 18.2 pg/ml, 4.33 ± 1.67 ng/ml, and 296.9 ± 81.8 pg/ml, respectively, in culture medium of HCECs exposed to HKCA (10(6) cells/ml) compared to untreated HCECs. Conclusions: HCECs produce antimicrobial peptides, LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3, in response to stimulation of HKCA, which suggests a novel innate immune mechanism of the ocular surface in defense against fungal invasion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Factors Influencing the Retrograde Labeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells with Fluorogold in an Animal Optic Nerve Crush Model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 18; 51(4):173-178.
Purpose: To investigate whether different crush durations or a different fluorogold (FG) injection timing can affect the efficiency of FG retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the optic nerve (ON) crush model. Methods: We performed the ON crush in rats with a clip at different durations or a jewel forceps to compare the effects of different crush methods with FG staining. RGC density was compared between the FG injection 1 week before the sacrifice of the animals (group A) and the injection before the crush experiment (group B). Double staining with CD11b and FG in the retinal sections was conducted to investigate the relationship between the overcounting of RGCs and microglia. Results: The FG-stained particles were significantly decreased at the distal part of the crush site compared to the proximal site of the ON with a crush duration of over 30 s or when crushed with the jewel forceps. Two weeks after ON crush, the RGC count was higher both in the central and mid-peripheral retinas in group B. The percentage of CD11b-stained cells among the FG-stained cells in the RGC layer of retinas in group B was higher than that of group A (34% in group B vs. 4% in group A, p = 0.0001). Overcounting of RGC density in group B was due to additional microglia with FG engulfing. Conclusions: Our results suggest that each laboratory should test its setting conditions to avoid factors influencing the RGC density measurement before conducting ON crush experiments. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The Concentration-Dependent Effects of Indocyanine Green on Retinal Function in the Electrophysiological ex vivo Model of Isolated Perfused Vertebrate Retina. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(3):167-71.
Background:Dye solutions such as indocyanine green (ICG) are used for the staining of intraocular structures. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of ICG on bovine retinal function using different concentrations of ICG.
Methods:Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram was recorded. The nutrient solution was substituted by an ICG solution at varying concentrations for 45 min. Afterwards the preparations were reperfused with standard solution for at least 85 min.
Results:Significant reductions in b-wave amplitude were found for concentrations of 0.0025% (p = 0.0099) and 0.025% (p = 0.0378). For the concentration of 0.025%, the b-wave amplitude remained significantly decreased (p = 0.0082) after the observation period, but a full recovery of the b-wave was observed for the concentration of 0.0025% (p = 0.1917).
Conclusion:Intraocular application of sufficient ICG concentrations for internal limiting membrane staining seems not possible without interfering with retinal function. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Exploring the Morphological and Functional Retinal Changes after Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant (Ozurdex®) in Macular Edema due to Retinal Vein Occlusion. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(3):153-60.