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Ophthalmic research [journal]
- Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Retinal Progenitor Cells. [LETTER]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Dec 10; 53(1):28-29.
- Comparison of Scheimpflug Imaging Analysis of Pellucid Marginal Corneal Degeneration and Keratoconus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Dec 6; 53(1):21-27.
Aim: To determine and compare various quantitative parameters of pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD) and keratoconus with against-the-rule astigmatism (KC-ARA) obtained by elevation-based Scheimpflug imaging and to identify characteristics that can be used to discriminate PMD from KC-ARA. Setting: Ophthalmology Clinic, Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Patients and Methods: Patients with ARA, a butterfly or crab claw pattern in the curvature maps, a kissing bird pattern in the elevation maps and the bell sign in the pachymetric maps were identified, and 60 eyes of 40 patients were chosen for the evaluation. The patients were divided into two groups: the PMD group (29 eyes of 18 patients) and the KC-ARA group (31 eyes of 22 patients). By moving the cursor manually, the pachymetric maps and Scheimpflug images were searched for a thinner location than the automatically identified thinnest location. The coordinates and thickness of this manually identified location were evaluated. Results: In the PMD group, 7 (24.1%) eyes did not have any thinner location than the automatically identified thinnest location on the pachymetric maps and the Scheimpflug images, and in 22 (75.8%) eyes, a thinner location, which was located more peripherally, was found by manual evaluation of the pachymetric maps or Scheimpflug images. In 9 (31.0%) eyes of these 22, the manually identified thinnest locations were visible on pachymetric maps, and in 13 (44.8%) eyes the more peripheral thinnest locations were not visible on pachymetric maps but on Scheimpflug images. In the KC group, no patients had thinner locations than the automatically identified thinnest points on the pachymetric maps and the Scheimpflug images. Conclusion: A more peripheral thinner location than the automatically identified thinnest location exists in most of the eyes with PMD. In KC-ARA eyes, a thinner location than the automatically found thinnest point does not exist. Accordingly, a more peripheral thinner point than the identified thinnest point is a very strong indication for PMD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Detailed Assessment of Renal Function in a Proband with Harboyan Syndrome Caused by a Novel Homozygous SLC4A11 Nonsense Mutation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Dec 11; 53(1):30-35.
Background/Aims: To identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease in a patient with Harboyan syndrome and to perform a detailed assessment of her renal function. We also assessed the influence of the SLC4A11 mutation identified on the corneal endothelium in the heterozygous state. Methods: A 55-year-old female was examined ophthalmologically, audiologically and nephrologically including 24-hour urine collection. The coding region of SLC4A11 was directly sequenced. Specular microscopy was performed in the proband's 21-year-old daughter. Results: The proband had bilateral iridectomy at the age of 3 months because of an initial diagnosis of congenital glaucoma and since the age of 12 years she underwent several keratoplasties in each eye. Nephrological examination did not reveal any abnormalities. Moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed by audiometry. A novel homozygous mutation predicted to lead to a premature stop codon at the protein level, c.2188C>T; p.(Arg730*), was identified in SLC4A11. No changes in corneal endothelial cell morphology or density were observed in the heterozygous daughter. Conclusion: In contrast to the Slc4a11(-/-) mouse, no abnormalities in daily renal ion excretion or polyuria were observed in the Harboyan syndrome patient. The mutation identified does not affect corneal endothelial cell morphology or density in the heterozygous state. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Aqueous Humor Cytokine Levels in Patients with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy and Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Nov 29; 53(1):2-7.
Purpose:To investigate the possible roles of various cytokines or growth factors in the pathogenesis of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by comparing aqueous humor levels of 14 cytokines between eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and those with neovascular AMD.
Methods:Forty eyes from 40 patients with treatment-naïve exudative AMD consisting of 18 eyes with neovascular AMD and 22 eyes with PCV were studied. Twenty eyes from 20 patients with no retinal pathology who underwent cataract surgery served as controls. Aqueous humor samples were collected just before intravitreal ranibizumab injection in 40 eyes with exudative AMD and before cataract surgery in 20 control eyes. Concentrations of 14 cytokines were determined by chemiluminescence-based ELISA: interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Results:After adjusting for gender, age and axial length, concentrations of CRP and IP-10 were significantly higher in eyes with neovascular AMD or PCV compared with control eyes (p < 0.05), and IP-10 levels were strongly associated with lesion size (p = 0.002). None of the 14 cytokines, including VEGF, were significantly different between eyes with neovascular AMD and those with PCV.
Conclusion:Aqueous humor concentrations of CRP and IP-10 were elevated in eyes with PCV or neovascular AMD. IP-10 could be associated with the pathogenesis of neovascular AMD and PCV. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Editorial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Nov 29; 53(1):1.
- Structural, Visual and Refractive Outcomes of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in High-Risk Prethreshold Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Nov 29; 53(1):15-20.
Purpose:To study the structural, visual and refractive outcomes of intravitreal injection of aflibercept monotherapy in patients with high-risk prethreshold type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Design:Prospective nonrandomized interventional case series study. Patients and
Methods:1 mg/0.025 ml intravitreal aflibercept was administered for patients with high-risk prethreshold type 1 ROP. The primary outcomes studied were unfavorable structural outcome, unfavorable visual outcome and unfavorable refractive outcome. The secondary outcomes were absence of recurrence, ocular and systemic adverse events.
Results:Twenty-six eyes were enrolled in the study; all had completed 1 year of follow-up. The mean birth weight was 991 ± 266 g (range: 875-1,105 g); the mean gestational age at birth was 26.33 ± 2.1 weeks (range: 24-30 weeks); 9 eyes were graded as ROP with stage 2+, zone I retinopathy, 14 eyes had stage 3+ disease in zone II and 3 eyes were diagnosed with stage 3 disease in zone I. Twenty-five eyes (96.2%) showed a favorable structural and 21 (80.1%) a favorable visual outcome, and the median refractive error after 1 year was 0.75 dpt (range: -9.5 to +4).
Conclusions:Intravitreal injection of aflibercept monotherapy is an easy, safe and effective alternative modality of therapy for high-risk prethreshold type 1 ROP. A further multicenter study with a longer duration of follow-up is required. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Clinical Results and Higher-Order Aberrations after 1.4-mm Biaxial Cataract Surgery and Implantation of a New Aspheric Intraocular Lens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Nov 29; 53(1):8-14.
Purpose:The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after 1.4-mm biaxial microincision cataract surgery (B-MICS) and implantation of a new aspheric intraocular lens (IOL). Material and
Methods:A total of 157 eyes of 106 patients were enrolled in this prospective, single-center study. The B-MICS (1.4 mm, 26 eyes) was followed by an implantation of a microincision aspheric Incise® IOL MJ14T (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N.Y., USA). The control groups consisted of patients operated with 1.8-mm (coaxial MICS, Akreos MI60, 41 eyes), 2.2-mm (small incision cataract surgery, Tecnis ZCB00, 44 eyes) and 2.2-mm (small incision cataract surgery, CT Asphina, 46 eyes) coaxial phacoemulsification with implantation of an aspheric IOL. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, best-corrected visual acuity, HOAs for a 5.0-mm pupil using the iTrace aberrometer (Tracey Technologies, Houston, Tex., USA) and endothelial cell loss were evaluated. The difference among the groups was evaluated by analysis of variance.
Results:In the Incise group, the mean best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly from 0.4 ± 0.27 logMAR preoperatively to 0.05 ± 0.07 postoperatively. The root mean square of total ocular HOAs was measured at 0.419 ± 0.191 µm, spherical aberration was measured at 0.168 ± 0.072 µm and coma was measured at 0.213 ± 0.200 µm. The best-corrected visual acuity (p = 0.097), total ocular HOA (p = 0.630) and coma (p = 0.193) showed no statistically significant difference between the 4 groups.
Conclusion:The aspheric microincision IOL was safely implanted through a 1.4-mm incision and showed similarly good postoperative outcome in comparison to 1.8- and 2.2-mm coaxial phacoemulsification. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Acknowledgement to referees. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 52(4):239-40.
- Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Markers GRP78 and CHOP Induced by Oxidative Stress in Blue Light-Mediated Damage of A2E-Containing Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 52(4):224-33.
Age-related lipofuscin N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) accumulated in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells confers susceptibility to blue light-mediated damage, which represents one pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. This study investigated the expression of 2 best-characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), as well as their regulation by oxidative stress after blue light-mediated damage of A2E-containing RPE cells.ARPE-19 cells were incubated with A2E (10, 25, 50 μM) for 2 h and exposed to blue light for 20 min. A2E distributions in RPE cells were assessed via laser scanning confocal microscope and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cell viability was measured by a Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution cell proliferation assay. The quantity of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence using flow cytometry. Expressions of GRP78 and CHOP were measured at both mRNA and protein levels. To examine the role of oxidative stress in regulating GRP78 and CHOP expression, RPE cells were pretreated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 h. RNA interference of GRP78 performed by short hairpin RNA was used to evaluate the effect of GRP78 in blue light-mediated damage of RPE cells.After blue light exposure, A2E-treated RPE cells showed a gradual decrease in cell viability and a particular increase in ROS levels. Meanwhile, the expressions of GRP78 and CHOP in A2E-treated RPE cells were significantly increased at different time points after illumination. Pretreatment with NAC attenuated the expression of 2 ER stress markers, especially CHOP in A2E and blue light-treated RPE cells. Silencing of GRP78 by RNA interference upregulated CHOP and caspase-12 expression as well as aggravated the blue light-mediated damage of A2E-laden RPE cells.RPE cells exhibited ROS accumulation and subsequent elevation of GRP78 and CHOP expression after A2E and blue light-induced damage. The ROS scavenger NAC diminished ER stress protein expression, suggesting a connection between ER and oxidative stress in blue light-mediated damage of A2E-containing RPE cells. Besides, GRP78 may play a protective role in it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Accuracy of scheimpflug holladay equivalent keratometry readings after corneal refractive surgery in the absence of clinical history. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 52(4):217-23.
To identify the most accurate combination of Pentacam's equivalent keratometry readings (EKR) and intraocular lens power formula when the clinical history is unavailable.A total of 18 patients underwent cataract surgery after refractive surgery. The Pentacam 4.5- and 3.0-mm EKR were combined with the SRK II, SRK/T, Hoffer-Q, and Holladay I and II formulas.The smallest deviation from the predicted value was achieved by combining the 4.5 EKR with the Holladay II formula (mean arithmetic deviation, -0.2 ± 0.4 dpt).The 4.5-mm EKR + Holladay II formula can accurately calculate intraocular lens power in patients with previous refractive surgery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.