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Ophthalmic research [journal]
- Temperature-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Corneal Tissue Layers and Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 8; 52(3):151-159.
We here provide a brief summary of the characteristics of transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) identified in corneal tissue layers and cells. In general, TRPs are nonselective cation channels which are Ca(2+) permeable. Most TRPs serve as thermosensitive molecular sensors (thermo-TRPs). Based on their functional importance, the possibilities are described for drug-targeting TRP activity in a clinical setting. TRPs are expressed in various tissues of the eye including both human corneal epithelial and endothelial layers as well as stromal fibroblasts and stromal nerve fibers. TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) heat receptor, also known as capsaicin receptor, along with TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor, which is also known as menthol receptor, are prototypes of the thermo-TRP family. The TRPV1 functional channel is the most investigated TRP channel in these tissues, owing to its contribution to maintaining tissue homeostasis as well as eliciting wound healing responses to injury. Other thermo-TRP family members identified in these tissues are TRPV2, 3 and 4. Finally, there is the TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) cold receptor. All of these thermo-TRPs can be activated within specific temperature ranges and transduce such inputs into chemical and electrical signals. Although several recent studies have begun to unravel complex roles for thermo-TRPs such as TRPV1 in corneal layers and resident cells, additional studies are needed to further elucidate their roles in health and disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The Effects of Vital Dyes on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells in Oxidative Stress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):147-150.
Purpose: To determine the effect of the most commonly used vital dyes in vitrectomy [trypan blue at 0.15% concentration and indocyanine green (ICG) at 0.5% concentration] on the viability of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell lines (ARPE-19) exposed to oxidative stress. Methods: ARPE-19 cells unexposed or exposed to oxidative stress (hypoxic chamber) were treated for 1 min with one of the dyes. RPE proliferation was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, adhesion by ability to adhere to fibronectin, and safety by annexin V staining. Results: Proliferation: The dyes affected the proliferation of RPE cells differently under non-hypoxic and hypoxic conditions (p = 0.001). In non-hypoxic conditions, there was no statistically significant difference between the proliferation of the treated (both dyes) and untreated RPE cells (p = 0.279). Under hypoxia, both dyes significantly suppressed proliferation, more so with ICG (p = 0.001). Adhesion: The dyes affected adhesion differently under non-hypoxic and hypoxic conditions (p = 0.04). In non-hypoxic conditions, both increased the adhesive properties of RPE cells to fibronectin, ICG more than trypan blue (p = 0.001). Under hypoxia, both dyes suppressed adhesion, with no statistically significant difference between treated and non-treated RPE cells. Apoptosis: Both dyes increased early apoptosis of RPE cells compared with no treatment (p = 0.001), ICG more than trypan blue. Hypoxia increased the apoptosis of both dyes compared to non-hypoxic conditions (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In hypoxic conditions, both dyes showed an inhibition of RPE adhesion to fibronectin and proliferation capacity and an increase in early apoptosis compared with non-hypoxic conditions. Apoptosis was greater in ICG-treated RPE cells than in trypan blue-treated cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Combined 23-Gauge Vitrectomy and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):141-146.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and surgical results of femtosecond laser-assisted phacovitrectomy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients over 50 years of age with vitreoretinal pathology, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy using 23-gauge instruments and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and implantation of an intraocular lens, was performed at the Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular between June 2012 and September 2013. The diameter of the anterior capsulorhexis was set at 4.8 mm in cases where a gas tamponade was used and at 5 mm in all other cases. During the pars plana vitrectomy, posterior capsulotomy was performed on all eyes. An assessment was carried out of preoperative characteristics, surgical indications, postoperative results and complications. Only patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included. Results: A total of 21 eyes in 21 patients (71.4% women) were treated. Mean age (±SD) was 65.8 ± 6.4 years (range 53-76). The most common indication for surgery was epiretinal membrane (61.9%), followed by vitreous haemorrhage (23.8%) and macular hole (14.3%). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.81 ± 1.01 logMAR and the mean postoperative BCVA was 0.12 ± 0.19 logMAR (p = 0.003). 85.7% of patients improved their visual acuity. The remaining patients maintained their visual acuity. The only intraoperative complication related to femtosecond laser was 1 case of suction loss (4.8%). A patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment discovered during surgery required an additional circular scleral procedure and developed synechiaes in the early postoperative period (<1 month). There were no cases of subluxation of the intraocular lens. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range 3-14). Conclusions: The application of femtosecond laser in phacovitrectomy is a safe and effective technique that presents advantages compared to conventional techniques in cases of macular pathology and/or vitreous haemorrhage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Self-Citation Rate and Impact Factor in Ophthalmology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):136-140.
Purpose: To analyze the self-citation rate (SCR) of ophthalmology journals, determine its possible effect on a journal's impact factor (IF) and compare the SCR of subspecialty journals versus general ophthalmology journals. Method: A retrospective consecutive study of ophthalmology journals listed in the Journal Citations Report (JCR) 2013. We retrieved these parameters from each journal's report: IF, total citations, self-citations, SCR and IF without self-citations (corrected IF). Results: A significant correlation was detected between the number of self-citations and publications (R(2) = 86.3, p = 0.000). Subspecialty journals had a significantly higher SCR than general journals (p = 0.017). No significant difference was found in terms of IF and corrected IF between general and subspecialty journals (p = 0.260 and p = 0.108, respectively). No significant correlation between IF and SCR was detected (p = 0.099). The corrected IF was inversely correlated with SCR (R(2) = -32.6, p = 0.013). An inverse correlation was detected between SCR and IF in the 29 ophthalmology journals with the lowest IF (R(2) = -57.3, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Unlike other fields of medicine, the IF of an ophthalmology journal does not correlate with its SCR. Self-citation is found more often in journals with a low corrected IF and is inversely correlated with IF in the bottom half. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- VEGF mRNA Assessment in Human Pterygium: A New 'Scope' for a Future Hope. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 3; 52(3):130-135.
Purpose: The lack of powerful evidence to support the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in human pterygium can be attributed to incomplete VEGF expression assessment by restrictive use of immunohistochemistry only and failure to use the molecular methods able to confirm immunohistochemical findings. By adding at least one more sensitive method to assess human pterygium VEGF expression, a more accurate selection of patients for bevacizumab therapy could be done and this would improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy in human pterygium. Methods: We assessed VEGF mRNA amplification on paraffin-embedded specimens by applying the RNAscope method for the first time in human pterygium, an in situ hybridization-based technique able to detect VEGF mRNA as a single gene copy on paraffin-embedded samples. Results: Heterogeneous VEGF mRNA distribution and amplification inside the epithelial compartment of human pterygium were observed. Despite previous reports concerning the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF in the human pterygium fibrovascular compartment, no stromal components were characterized by VEGF mRNA amplification assessed by in situ hybridization in our study. A higher amplification score was observed in epithelium from recurrent pterygium, especially located in the basal and suprabasal epithelial cells. Conclusions: Based on our findings we consider that in situ hybridization assessment of VEGF for human pterygium specimens can be a useful tool for reconsidering the selection of pterygium patients to be enrolled in anti-VEGF therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Mutational Screening of EFNA5 in Chinese Age-Related Cataract Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 3; 52(3):124-129.
Background/Aim: In the past few years, Ephrin-A5 (EFNA5) had been identified to be associated with lens development, but so far no sequence variation in EFNA5 has been reported in humans. Therefore, we conduct this study to investigate the EFNA5 genetic variations in Chinese age-related cataract (ARC) patients. Methods: Sequencing of EFNA5 was performed in 140 sporadic ARC patients and 142 random unrelated healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All exons of EFNA5 were sequenced after being amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The functional consequences of the variations were analyzed using PolyPhen2. Results: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in EFNA5, c.668C>T (rs201008479), c.102C>T (rs199980747) and c.-27C>G (rs200187971), were found in the patients, and none of them presented in the normal controls. Using PolyPhen2, c.668C>T in EFNA5 is predicted to be possibly damaging. Conclusions: The genetic variations c.668C>T (rs201008479), c.102C>T (rs199980747) and c.-27C>G (rs200187971) may present an additional genetic risk factor for ARC in the Chinese population. This study shows the first cases of these genetic variations in EFNA5 in human beings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Recent Aspects of Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Sep 19; 52(3):116-123.
Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Treatment of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Sep 11; 52(3):107-115.
A number of different approaches are under development for treating nonexudative manifestations of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Some interventions target specific pathways that are believed to play a role in AMD pathogenesis, e.g. oxidative damage, lipofuscin accumulation, chronic inflammation (including complement activation), extracellular matrix changes (e.g. β-amyloid accumulation), impaired choroidal blood flow, and apoptosis. In principle, these therapies can be combined ('combination therapy'), which may lead to synergistic effects that include better visual outcome, less likelihood for 'escape' (i.e. drug resistance), and less frequent treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- rs4711751 and rs1999930 Are Not Associated with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration or Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in the Chinese Population. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 52(2):102-6.
rs1999930 and rs4711751 have recently been identified as novel variants associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry. We aimed to investigate whether these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with neovascular AMD (nAMD) or with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a variant of AMD in Asians, using a Chinese case-control study.A total of 900 subjects, including 300 controls, 300 cases with nAMD and 300 cases with PCV, were included in the present study. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood leukocytes. The allelic variants of rs1999930 and rs4711751 were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The differences in allele distribution between cases and controls were tested by a χ(2) test, with additional adjustments for age and gender using logistic regression. The statistical power was also calculated. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.No statistically significant association was observed between the two polymorphisms of nAMD or PCV phenotype (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). The difference remained insignificant after correction for age and gender (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). The statistical powers to detect the association between these two SNPs and nAMD or PCV range from 0.05 to 0.36, assuming conventional levels of statistical significance.In the present study, we could not replicate the reported association of these two SNPs and either nAMD or PCV in a Chinese population, suggesting that they are unlikely to be a major AMD and PCV susceptibility gene locus in the Chinese population. Considering the low power value, a large sample size is required to draw more reliable conclusions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Influence of macular choroidal thickness on visual function in highly myopic eyes. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 52(2):97-101.
To explore the retinal and choroidal thicknesses (RT, CT), as measured using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT, Spectralis) in highly myopic eyes and its relationship with visual function.Prospective, case-control, noninterventional clinical study. CT was measured by EDI-OCT in highly myopic eyes (≥6 dpt) without any macular diseases and age-matched control eyes. A complete ophthalmological examination, visual acuity assessment and MP1 microperimetry were obtained.38 myopic (15 M/23 F, mean age 51 ± 8.9 years) and 21 control eyes (5 M/16 F, mean age 50 ± 5.4 years) were included. The myopic mean refractive error was -13.3 ± 4.9 dpt and axial length 29.2 ± 2.2 mm. The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was lower in highly myopic than in control eyes (77.3 ± 9.25 vs. 84.8 ± 0.6 letters, p = 0.0001, respectively) as was the mean retinal sensitivity (MRS; 16.32 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 0.2 dB, p < 0.0001). While RT was similar between groups (291.5 ± 24.2 vs. 283.6 ± 13.9 µm, p = 0.06, respectively), subfoveal CT was thinner in highly myopic compared to control eyes (114.3 ± 78.5 vs. 272.6 ± 110.2 µm, p < 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between subfoveal CT and MRS (R(2) = 0.22; p = 0.003) and BCVA (R(2) = 0.13; p = 0.027).Macular function is reduced in highly myopic eyes without any visible macular diseases compared to controls, and a significant proportion of the macular function variability seems to be related to a reduced CT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.