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Ophthalmic research [journal]
- Antiangiogenic Effect of Itraconazole on Corneal Neovascularization: A Pilot Experimental Investigation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 21; 52(4):170-174.
Purpose: To investigate the antiangiogenic effect of itraconazole for the prevention of experimentally induced corneal neovascularization and whether the efficacy depends on the route of administration. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 rats in each group. Chemical cauterization of the cornea was performed using silver nitrate/potassium nitrate sticks, and the rats were subsequently treated daily with topical (10 mg/ml), subconjunctival (10 mg/ml) or intraperitoneal (19 mg/kg) itraconazole for 7 days. Control rats received topical, subconjunctival or intraperitoneal 0.9% saline. On the 8th day of the experiment, the rat corneas were photographed to determine the percentage area of the cornea covered by neovascularization. The maximum density of corneal neovascularization was determined by microscopy. Results: The median percentage of corneal neovascularization for group 1 was 31.5% (95% confidence interval, 27.5-35.5%); in group 3, it was 32% (23.5-39.8%); in group 5, it was 47% (36.3-60.0%). The percentages of corneal neovascularization in groups 2, 4 and 6 (the control groups) were 70% (95% confidence interval, 60.7-77.3%), 69% (63.0-77.7%) and 68% (56.5-78.5%), respectively. The area of neovascularization was smaller after itraconazole treatment as compared to saline treatment. Further, the area of neovascularization was smaller after topical and subconjunctival administration than after intraperitoneal administration. Histological evaluation of the corneas showed the most extensive corneal neovascularization in the control group. No local or systemic adverse effects were seen from either treatment group. Conclusion: Itraconazole reduces corneal neovascularization shortly after chemical burn. However, a larger experimental study is necessary to confirm the data of this investigation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Lagophthalmos after Facial Palsy: Current Therapeutic Options. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 18; 52(4):165-169.
As the facial nerve carries sensory, motor and parasympathetic fibres involved in facial muscle innervation, facial palsy results in functional and cosmetic impairment. It can result from a wide variety of causes like infectious processes, trauma, neoplasms, autoimmune diseases, and most commonly Bell's palsy, but it can also be of iatrogenic origin. The main ophthalmic sequel is lagophthalmos. The increased surface exposure increases the risk of keratitis, corneal ulceration, and potentially loss of vision. Treatment options are wide; some are temporary, some permanent. In addition to gold standard and traditional therapies and procedures, new options are being proposed aiming to improve not only lagophthalmos but also the quality of life of these patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Influence of Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection in Scleral Buckling Surgery for Macula-Off Retinal Detachment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 18; 52(3):160-164.
Purpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection on the resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF), and its correlation with visual outcome after scleral buckle (SB) surgery. Methods: A prospective consecutive case series was conducted in patients who underwent SB surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) at Farabi Eye Hospital from February 1, 2012 to August 30, 2013. Exclusion criteria included previous ocular surgery (e.g. primary surgical failure) except cataract surgery, recurrent retinal detachment, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C, history of trauma, other retinal diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Patients were assigned to two groups. In group 1, patients received 2 mg of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection at the end of surgery while patients in group 2 received intravitreal balanced saline solution for balancing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Patients were followed up at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after the surgery by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slitlamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) was used at all visits except day 1 after the surgery. Student's t test and χ(2) tests were used for comparisons; p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty-two eyes of 62 patients were enrolled in the study. There were 33 male patients (53%) and 29 female patients (47%). The average age was 43.8 years (18-72 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 34.7 ± 46.8 days. There were 29 eyes in group 1 and 33 eyes in group 2. Twelve weeks after the operation, 25 patients (40%) had SRF beneath the macula, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.24, χ(2) test) between the two groups. Improvement in BCVA in both groups was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) but did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.09) apart from week 12, in which the improvement in group 1 was significantly higher (p = 0.03). The incidence of cystoid macular edema did not differ in a statistically significant way between the groups (p = 0.19). IOP in 4 (15%) patients in group 1 rose above 21 mm Hg but responded quickly to 2 weeks of topical antiglaucoma medication. There was no cataract progression in either group. There was no correlation between the incidence of persistent SRF and the extent of detachment in both groups (p = 0.83). There was no surgical failure or redetachment in either group during the study period. Conclusion: Single-dose intravitreal triamcinolone may increase the final BCVA in macula-off RRD patients despite persistent SRF, suggesting the anti-inflammatory role of this drug. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Temperature-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Corneal Tissue Layers and Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 8; 52(3):151-159.
We here provide a brief summary of the characteristics of transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) identified in corneal tissue layers and cells. In general, TRPs are nonselective cation channels which are Ca(2+) permeable. Most TRPs serve as thermosensitive molecular sensors (thermo-TRPs). Based on their functional importance, the possibilities are described for drug-targeting TRP activity in a clinical setting. TRPs are expressed in various tissues of the eye including both human corneal epithelial and endothelial layers as well as stromal fibroblasts and stromal nerve fibers. TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) heat receptor, also known as capsaicin receptor, along with TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor, which is also known as menthol receptor, are prototypes of the thermo-TRP family. The TRPV1 functional channel is the most investigated TRP channel in these tissues, owing to its contribution to maintaining tissue homeostasis as well as eliciting wound healing responses to injury. Other thermo-TRP family members identified in these tissues are TRPV2, 3 and 4. Finally, there is the TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) cold receptor. All of these thermo-TRPs can be activated within specific temperature ranges and transduce such inputs into chemical and electrical signals. Although several recent studies have begun to unravel complex roles for thermo-TRPs such as TRPV1 in corneal layers and resident cells, additional studies are needed to further elucidate their roles in health and disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The Effects of Vital Dyes on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells in Oxidative Stress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):147-150.
Purpose: To determine the effect of the most commonly used vital dyes in vitrectomy [trypan blue at 0.15% concentration and indocyanine green (ICG) at 0.5% concentration] on the viability of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell lines (ARPE-19) exposed to oxidative stress. Methods: ARPE-19 cells unexposed or exposed to oxidative stress (hypoxic chamber) were treated for 1 min with one of the dyes. RPE proliferation was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, adhesion by ability to adhere to fibronectin, and safety by annexin V staining. Results: Proliferation: The dyes affected the proliferation of RPE cells differently under non-hypoxic and hypoxic conditions (p = 0.001). In non-hypoxic conditions, there was no statistically significant difference between the proliferation of the treated (both dyes) and untreated RPE cells (p = 0.279). Under hypoxia, both dyes significantly suppressed proliferation, more so with ICG (p = 0.001). Adhesion: The dyes affected adhesion differently under non-hypoxic and hypoxic conditions (p = 0.04). In non-hypoxic conditions, both increased the adhesive properties of RPE cells to fibronectin, ICG more than trypan blue (p = 0.001). Under hypoxia, both dyes suppressed adhesion, with no statistically significant difference between treated and non-treated RPE cells. Apoptosis: Both dyes increased early apoptosis of RPE cells compared with no treatment (p = 0.001), ICG more than trypan blue. Hypoxia increased the apoptosis of both dyes compared to non-hypoxic conditions (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In hypoxic conditions, both dyes showed an inhibition of RPE adhesion to fibronectin and proliferation capacity and an increase in early apoptosis compared with non-hypoxic conditions. Apoptosis was greater in ICG-treated RPE cells than in trypan blue-treated cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Combined 23-Gauge Vitrectomy and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):141-146.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and surgical results of femtosecond laser-assisted phacovitrectomy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients over 50 years of age with vitreoretinal pathology, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy using 23-gauge instruments and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and implantation of an intraocular lens, was performed at the Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular between June 2012 and September 2013. The diameter of the anterior capsulorhexis was set at 4.8 mm in cases where a gas tamponade was used and at 5 mm in all other cases. During the pars plana vitrectomy, posterior capsulotomy was performed on all eyes. An assessment was carried out of preoperative characteristics, surgical indications, postoperative results and complications. Only patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included. Results: A total of 21 eyes in 21 patients (71.4% women) were treated. Mean age (±SD) was 65.8 ± 6.4 years (range 53-76). The most common indication for surgery was epiretinal membrane (61.9%), followed by vitreous haemorrhage (23.8%) and macular hole (14.3%). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.81 ± 1.01 logMAR and the mean postoperative BCVA was 0.12 ± 0.19 logMAR (p = 0.003). 85.7% of patients improved their visual acuity. The remaining patients maintained their visual acuity. The only intraoperative complication related to femtosecond laser was 1 case of suction loss (4.8%). A patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment discovered during surgery required an additional circular scleral procedure and developed synechiaes in the early postoperative period (<1 month). There were no cases of subluxation of the intraocular lens. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range 3-14). Conclusions: The application of femtosecond laser in phacovitrectomy is a safe and effective technique that presents advantages compared to conventional techniques in cases of macular pathology and/or vitreous haemorrhage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Self-Citation Rate and Impact Factor in Ophthalmology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 4; 52(3):136-140.
Purpose: To analyze the self-citation rate (SCR) of ophthalmology journals, determine its possible effect on a journal's impact factor (IF) and compare the SCR of subspecialty journals versus general ophthalmology journals. Method: A retrospective consecutive study of ophthalmology journals listed in the Journal Citations Report (JCR) 2013. We retrieved these parameters from each journal's report: IF, total citations, self-citations, SCR and IF without self-citations (corrected IF). Results: A significant correlation was detected between the number of self-citations and publications (R(2) = 86.3, p = 0.000). Subspecialty journals had a significantly higher SCR than general journals (p = 0.017). No significant difference was found in terms of IF and corrected IF between general and subspecialty journals (p = 0.260 and p = 0.108, respectively). No significant correlation between IF and SCR was detected (p = 0.099). The corrected IF was inversely correlated with SCR (R(2) = -32.6, p = 0.013). An inverse correlation was detected between SCR and IF in the 29 ophthalmology journals with the lowest IF (R(2) = -57.3, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Unlike other fields of medicine, the IF of an ophthalmology journal does not correlate with its SCR. Self-citation is found more often in journals with a low corrected IF and is inversely correlated with IF in the bottom half. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- VEGF mRNA Assessment in Human Pterygium: A New 'Scope' for a Future Hope. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 3; 52(3):130-135.
Purpose: The lack of powerful evidence to support the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in human pterygium can be attributed to incomplete VEGF expression assessment by restrictive use of immunohistochemistry only and failure to use the molecular methods able to confirm immunohistochemical findings. By adding at least one more sensitive method to assess human pterygium VEGF expression, a more accurate selection of patients for bevacizumab therapy could be done and this would improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy in human pterygium. Methods: We assessed VEGF mRNA amplification on paraffin-embedded specimens by applying the RNAscope method for the first time in human pterygium, an in situ hybridization-based technique able to detect VEGF mRNA as a single gene copy on paraffin-embedded samples. Results: Heterogeneous VEGF mRNA distribution and amplification inside the epithelial compartment of human pterygium were observed. Despite previous reports concerning the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF in the human pterygium fibrovascular compartment, no stromal components were characterized by VEGF mRNA amplification assessed by in situ hybridization in our study. A higher amplification score was observed in epithelium from recurrent pterygium, especially located in the basal and suprabasal epithelial cells. Conclusions: Based on our findings we consider that in situ hybridization assessment of VEGF for human pterygium specimens can be a useful tool for reconsidering the selection of pterygium patients to be enrolled in anti-VEGF therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Mutational Screening of EFNA5 in Chinese Age-Related Cataract Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Oct 3; 52(3):124-129.
Background/Aim: In the past few years, Ephrin-A5 (EFNA5) had been identified to be associated with lens development, but so far no sequence variation in EFNA5 has been reported in humans. Therefore, we conduct this study to investigate the EFNA5 genetic variations in Chinese age-related cataract (ARC) patients. Methods: Sequencing of EFNA5 was performed in 140 sporadic ARC patients and 142 random unrelated healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All exons of EFNA5 were sequenced after being amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The functional consequences of the variations were analyzed using PolyPhen2. Results: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in EFNA5, c.668C>T (rs201008479), c.102C>T (rs199980747) and c.-27C>G (rs200187971), were found in the patients, and none of them presented in the normal controls. Using PolyPhen2, c.668C>T in EFNA5 is predicted to be possibly damaging. Conclusions: The genetic variations c.668C>T (rs201008479), c.102C>T (rs199980747) and c.-27C>G (rs200187971) may present an additional genetic risk factor for ARC in the Chinese population. This study shows the first cases of these genetic variations in EFNA5 in human beings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Recent Aspects of Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Sep 19; 52(3):116-123.
Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.