Ophthalmic research [journal]
- High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein Mediates the Regulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 in the Diabetic Retina and in Human Retinal Müller Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Aug 25.
The expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) is upregulated in the diabetic retina. We hypothesized that the activation of STAT-3 is under the control of HMGB1.Retinas from 1-month-old diabetic rats and from normal rats intravitreally injected with HMGB1 and human retinal Müller glial cells (MIO-M1) stimulated with HMGB1 or high glucose were studied by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We also studied the effect of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin (GA) on high-glucose-induced pSTAT-3 nuclear translocation and upregulation in Müller cells and on pSTAT-3 expression in the retinas of diabetic rats (n = 7-10 in each group). In addition, we studied the effect of STAT-3 inhibitor on the HMGB1-induced induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by Müller cells and human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) migration.Treatment of retinal Müller cells with recombinant HMGB1 induced nuclear translocation of pSTAT-3 but did not alter pSTAT-3 expression. High glucose induced a significant upregulation of HMGB1 and pSTAT-3 upregulation and nuclear translocation in retinal Müller cells. GA co-treatment normalized the high-glucose-induced upregulation of HMGB1 and pSTAT-3 upregulation and nuclear translocation in Müller cells. Intravitreal administration of HMGB1 in normal and diabetic rats upregulated pSTAT-3 expression in the retina. GA attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of pSTAT-3 in the retina. The STAT-3 inhibitor attenuated HMGB1-induced VEGF upregulation by Müller cells and HRMEC migration.The results suggest a role for HMGB1 in the modulation of STAT-3 expression in the diabetic retina.
- The Suppression of Kallistatin on High-Glucose-Induced Proliferation of Retinal Endothelial Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Aug 19.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe ocular complication of diabetes. Kallistatin has multiple biological functions including anti-inflammation and antiangiogenesis. Our aim was to detect the level of kallistatin in the vitreous of proliferative DR (PDR) and its effect on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) under high glucose in an in vitro model.Vitreous humor samples were obtained through pars plana vitrectomy from 7 nondiabetic patients with idiopathic macular holes or idiopathic preretinal membranes and 10 PDR patients. The vitreous levels of kallistatin were measured by ELISA. HRECs were cultured with different concentrations of glucose and 1,000 nM kallistatin. The proliferation of HRECs was evaluated by a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell migration was assessed by using Transwell chambers. Cell sprouting was detected by tube formation assay. The RNA interference technique was used to create the knockdown of the kallistatin gene in HRECs for evaluating its effect on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HRECs.The vitreous levels of kallistatin were significantly lower in PDR patients in comparison with nondiabetic control patients (p < 0.05). Compared with 5 mM of normal glucose treatment, high glucose (30 mM) in culture significantly increased the proliferation and migration of HRECs, which was attenuated by 1,000 nM kallistatin. In addition, 1,000 nM kallistatin was shown to suppress high-glucose-induced tube formation and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor of HRECs. Furthermore, the knockdown of kallistatin enhanced the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HRECs.Our data indicated that kallistatin might be a potent inhibitory factor for PDR. The molecule plays its role by inhibiting high-glucose-induced proliferation of HRECs. The findings suggest that the upregulation of kallistatin might be an effective strategy for PDR prevention.
- Plasmin Enzyme-Assisted Vitrectomy in Pediatric Patients with Vitreoretinal Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Aug 6.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using plasmin-assisted vitrectomy in pediatric patients with vitreoretinal diseases.We prospectively recruited children aged 16 years or younger who presented with vitreoretinopathies and underwent plasmin-assisted vitrectomy between 2012 and 2013. The main outcome measure was the induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) using a suction power of 200 mm Hg or less during surgery.Eleven eyes of 11 patients (mean age: 3.7 years; average follow-up duration: 14.1 months) were included. Of these 11 patients, there were 3 (27%) cases of stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity, 2 (18%) cases of persistent fetal vasculature, 2 (18%) cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, 2 (18%) cases of idiopathic epiretinal membrane, 1 (9%) case of traumatic macular pucker, and 1 (9%) case of traumatic vitreous hemorrhage (9%). PVD was achieved in all cases (100%) during surgery using low suction after plasmin treatment (mean: 150 ± 39 mm Hg; range: 100-200). Overall, anatomical success was achieved in 8 eyes (73%). Visual acuity improved in all 5 (100%) patients for whom vision could be measured at 6 months after the operation. Cataracts were found in 4 eyes (36%), and a rise in transient intraocular pressure was observed in 1 eye (9%).Plasmin-assisted vitrectomy offers an effective and less traumatic intervention for a variety of pediatric vitreoretinal diseases.
- Funduscopic versus HRT III Confocal Scanner Vertical Cup-Disc Ratio Assessment in Normal Tension and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (The Leuven Eye Study). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Aug 4.
To compare funduscopic and confocal scanning vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) assessments and their respective predictive value for estimating functional glaucomatous damage.Data from a single eye of open angle glaucoma patients from the Leuven Eye Study were included: age, gender, intra-ocular pressure, visual acuity, refractive error, visual field mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, funduscopic and HRT III VCDRs as well as mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness. Non-parametric tests to compare differences within and between diagnostic groups were used, and receiver-operating characteristic curves as well as Bland-Altman plots constructed.Three hundred and one eyes of 301 subjects with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were included. The average VCDR assessed with HRT III was significantly smaller than the funduscopic measurement (0.69 ± 0.16 vs. 0.81 ± 0.14, respectively; p < 0.001). The predictive value of both measurement techniques did not differ in NTG patients, but the funduscopic estimate yielded a significantly larger predictive power in patients with severe POAG.Funduscopic and confocal scanner estimates of VCDR differ significantly and should not be used interchangeably. In POAG patients with severe glaucoma, a subjective VCDR predicts functional glaucomatous damage significantly better.
- EVICR.net Activities - Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 30.
- Preoperative Biometric Parameters Predict the Vault after ICL Implantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 28.
To investigate the correlation between the preoperative biometric parameters of the anterior segment and the vault after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation via this retrospective study.Retrospective clinical study.A total of 78 eyes from 41 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery were included in this study. Preoperative biometric parameters, including white-to-white (WTW) diameter, central corneal thickness, keratometer, pupil diameter, anterior chamber depth, sulcus-to-sulcus diameter, anterior chamber area (ACA) and central curvature radius of the anterior surface of the lens (Lenscur), were measured. Lenscur and ACA were measured with Rhinoceros 5.0 software on the image scanned with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The vault was assessed by UBM 3 months after surgery. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was employed to identify the variables that were correlated with the vault.The results showed that the vault was correlated with 3 variables: ACA (22.4 ± 4.25 mm2), WTW (11.36 ± 0.29 mm) and Lenscur (9.15 ± 1.21 mm). The regressive equation was: vault (mm) = 1.785 + 0.017 × ACA + 0.051 × Lenscur - 0.203 × WTW.Biometric parameters of the anterior segment (ACA, WTW and Lenscur) can predict the vault after ICL implantation using a new regression equation.
- The Portuguese Experience with Ocriplasmin in Clinical Practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 20.
Evaluate the real-life experience with ocriplasmin on vitreomacular traction (VMT) release and full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure in Portugal.Multicentric, retrospective study of 83 eyes of 78 patients who were treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin for VMT with and without FTMH. Primary outcomes were VMT release and FTMH closure. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity changes and structural features on spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography.VMT resolved in 47 of the 83 eyes (56.6%) and 6 of the 12 FTMH were closed (50.0%). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 65.1 at baseline to 70.8 ETDRS letters at the end of follow-up (p < 0.0001) with a mean follow-up of 138.8 days. Improvement in BCVA was significantly better in eyes with VMT release (p = 0.021). Approximately 73% of patients had normal ellipsoid zone integrity at the end of follow-up, 87% had no neurosensorial detachment and 40% had no intra- or subretinal fluid.VMT release and FTMH closure were achieved in more than half of the treated eyes and were correlated with significant BCVA improvements and favorable baseline characteristics. In fact, if a careful patient selection is carried out, VMT resolution with ocriplasmin can be optimized, tailoring the best approach to each patient.
- Anatomical and Functional Changes in the Coexistence of Vitreomacular Traction and Epiretinal Membrane: A Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 16.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional findings in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT) combined with epiretinal membrane (ERM) in the same eye.In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, we studied 65 patients with VMT and ERM. In 36 of them, ERM/VMT had a 'unified' appearance (group x0399;) but in 29, VMT and ERM coexisted without an interrelationship (group x0399;x0399;). All patients were examined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We recorded the macular thickness, the presence, type and location of macular edema, the horizontal diameter of VMT, ellipsoid zone/external limiting membrane (EZ/ELM) status, the vitreofoveal angle of VMT nasally and temporally and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA).Group x0399; presented with increased macular thickness, a broader adhesion diameter, extensive EZ/ELM defect and decreased BCVA compared to those where VMT and ERM were not intercorrelated. In group I ('unified' VMT and ERM), cystoid macular edema was found at a greater percentage (41.7%), while in patients where the 2 entities were not intercorrelated, diffuse macular edema was more evident (69%). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in the vitreofoveal angle temporally and nasally.Macular thickness, type of macular edema, adhesion diameter, the extent of the EZ/ELM defect and BCVA appeared different in cases where VMT and ERM were unified compared to cases where ERM and VMT coexisted but were not intercorrelated.
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Its Risk Factors in North Africans Living in Algeria and Italy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 14.
To determine the risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Algerians, and compare these data with those on North Africans living in Italy.All patients over 55 years of age consulting one of the 23 involved Algerian ophthalmologists were invited to participate, and 1,183 patients were included. Data collection was standardized based on the Simplified Théa Risk Assessment Scale (STARS) questionnaire. A similar study was conducted in North Africans living in Italy (n = 1,011). Patients with only soft drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities were classified as early AMD, and patients with geographic atrophy and/or neovascular AMD were classified as late AMD.In the final multivariate model, risk for early and/or late AMD was significantly increased with older age, family history of AMD, Black ethnicity, atherosclerosis, beer consumption, high fruit consumption, cataract surgery, myopia, and hyperopia. High consumption of green vegetables was associated with lower risk for both early and late AMD. In comparison with North Africans from Italy, Algerians generally had a healthier profile (younger, less obesity, smoking, and cardiovascular diseases, and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables) and a lower risk for AMD.This study documents risk factors for AMD in North-African populations for the first time.
- Risk of Ophthalmic Adverse Effects in Patients Treated with MEK Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2016 Jul 13.
This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the risk of ophthalmic adverse effects associated with MEK inhibitors.A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) which have been designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MEK inhibitors. Overall risk of ophthalmic adverse effects, chorioretinopathy, retinal detachment, blurred vision, uveitis, and eye haemorrhage were the assessed outcomes. Peto odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics.Thirteen RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, MEK inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of ophthalmic adverse effects (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.75-2.87; p < 0.0001; I2 = 86.5%). An increased risk was also estimated for chorioretinopathy (OR 5.44; 95% CI 2.89-10.23; p < 0.0001; I2 = 0%), retinal detachment (OR 6.54; 95% CI 3.28-13.03; p < 0.0001; I2 = 0%), and blurred vision (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.50-3.54; p < 0.0001; I2 = 60.1%), but not for uveitis (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.14-7.03; p = 0.991; I2 = 2.9%) or eye haemorrhage (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.04-12.39; p = 0.824; I2 = 29.8%).Treatment with MEK inhibitors seems to increase the risk of ophthalmic adverse effects. A need for monitoring the safety of this class of drugs exists. Regulators, clinicians, and other health care professionals must, together, be involved in this process.