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Ophthalmic research [journal]
- Evaluation of Allergic Conjunctivitis by Thermography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Mar 5; 51(3):161-166.
Purpose: To evaluate ocular surface temperature in assessing the efficacy of anti-allergic eye drops. Methods: Thirteen asymptomatic patients (24.7 ± 2.8 years) with proven seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to cedar pollen were studied. A 0.025% levocabastine ophthalmic suspension was instilled in one eye (levocabastine eye) and artificial tears in the other eye (artificial tear eye) in a masked fashion 10 min prior to a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC). Then, a drop of cedar pollen solution was dropped into the conjunctival sac to induce the allergic reaction. The surface temperature of the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was measured before and 30 min after the CAC with a newly developed non-contact ocular surface thermographer (OST). The degree of conjunctival injection and chemosis was also determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The changes in the symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: After the CAC, the temperature increased by 0.67 ± 0.10°C in the artificial tear eyes but by only 0.21 ± 0.06°C in the levocabastine eyes (p < 0.05). The score for conjunctival injection was 1.38 ± 0.24 and the chemosis score was 0.85 ± 0.25 for the artificial tear eyes and 0.62 ± 0.27 and 0.08 ± 0.08 in the levocabastine eyes (p < 0.01). The temperature increase was significantly correlated with the conjunctival injection scores (r = 0.63; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The significant correlation of the conjunctival surface temperature with the severity of the conjunctival allergic reaction indicates that the temperature measured by the OST can be used to objectively evaluate the efficacy of topical anti-allergic agents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Changes in the Morphological and Functional Patterns of the Ocular Surface in Patients Treated with Prostaglandin Analogues after the Use of TSP 0.5%® Preservative-Free Eyedrops: A Prospective, Multicenter Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Feb 18; 51(3):146-152.
Aim: To investigate and compare the effects of topical benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandins (PGAs) on the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma before and after 3 months of treatment with additional 0.5% preservative-free tamarind seed polysaccharide single-dose eyedrops (TSP®, Oftagen, Pisa, Italy). Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study. From 5 different Italian glaucoma centers, 10 glaucomatous patients were recruited in each center. All the patients were treated with a PGA with preservative for at least 1 year. Preservative-free artificial tears 3 times per day were prescribed. The participants were subjected to clinical and instrumental evaluation at baseline, after 1 month and after 3 months of treatment. All patients were examined with a digital corneal confocal laser scanning microscope (HRT II Rostock Cornea Module). Results: After 3 months of TSP 0.5% treatment, an improvement of some ocular signs and symptoms was found. The percentage of conjunctival hyperemia decreased from 67 to 13%. Schirmer's test and breakup time significantly changed from the baseline after 3 months. Confocal microscopy showed a significant increase in conjunctival goblet cells. Conclusion: Artificial substitutes, in particular TSP 0.5%, might protect the ocular surface hence giving higher compliance, adherence and quality of life to the patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Effect of a Single Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection on Contrast Sensitivity and Macular Thickness in Eyes with Macular Edema from Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Prospective, Nonrandomized, Three-Month Follow-Up Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Feb 8; 51(3):140-145.
Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection on contrast sensitivity (CS), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal thickness (FT) and macular volume (MV) as measured by optical coherence tomography in patients with macular edema (ME) from central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods: Sixteen consecutive eyes from 16 patients with ME from unilateral CRVO were treated with a single IVB injection. The CS, BCVA, FT and MV measurements were obtained before the treatment and 1 and 3 months after the injection. Results: CS demonstrated significant improvement at all spatial frequencies - 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) - 1 month after the injection and at 6 cpd at the 3-month follow-up. The mean BCVA measurements in log of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units improved from 1.03 at baseline to 0.83 logMAR 1 month after the injection, but worsened to 0.97 logMAR at 3 months. The mean baseline FT ± standard deviation (SD; 620.06 ± 177.60 µm) was reduced significantly 1 month (270.93 ± 74.17 µm) and 3 months (535.56 ± 222.33 µm) after the treatment. The mean baseline MV ± SD (12,765.56 ± 3,769.70 mm(3)) was reduced significantly at the 1-month (8,324.93 ± 932.04 mm(3)) and 3-month (11,319.44 ± 3,044.74 mm(3)) follow-up visits. Conclusions: IVB improved CS, BCVA, FT and MV within a short time period (1 month). Although VA was not improved at 3 months, improvements were observed for CS, FT and MV, which indicates that, despite ME recurrence, there still was some benefit to visual function. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Tissue Response to Implanted Ahmed Glaucoma Valve with Adjunctive Amniotic Membrane in Rabbit Eyes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Feb 5; 51(3):129-139.
Aims: To investigate the histopathology of the fibrous capsule around Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGVs) implanted with adjunctive amniotic membranes in rabbits. Methods: AGV implantation with or without adjunctive amniotic membrane was performed in a single eye of 20 albino rabbits. The upper surface of the AGV body was covered with amniotic membrane in the study group. After 2 months, histology was used to compare the thickness and characteristics of the fibrous capsule, transdifferentiation of myofibroblasts, and density of blood vessels and leukocytes between the study and control groups. Results: The fibrous capsule along the roof of the bleb was composed of compact collagen fibers with minimal vascularization in the control group. In contrast, in the study group, the fibrous capsule was looser and had a more disorganized collagen architecture. The thickness of the fibrous capsule and the myofibroblast layer was significantly thinner in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.001). The number of CD31-positive blood vessels did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.235). CD45-positive inflammatory cells were more frequently observed in the study group than the control group (p = 0.001). The groups did not differ in the thickness of the fibrous capsule or myofibroblast layer, or the density of blood vessels and leukocytes along the floor of the bleb. Conclusions: Adjunctive amniotic membranes could reduce the risk of encapsulation and aqueous outflow resistance by altering the tissue response to implanted AGVs and subsequent formation of a loose thin capsule. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- DNA Damage in Lens Epithelial Cells and Peripheral Lymphocytes from Age-Related Cataract Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Jan 18; 51(3):124-128.
Background: Oxidative DNA damage may be one of the etiologies of age-related cataract (ARC). We quantified DNA damage in lens epithelial cells (LECs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes of ARC. Methods: A total of 64 patients with different types of ARC and 23 control subjects were enrolled. Fresh LECs and peripheral lymphocytes were collected and DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. The percentage of DNA in the tail of comets (%Tail DNA) and the olive tail moment (OTM) were calculated by CASP software. Results: The results showed the %Tail DNA and OTM in LECs and lymphocytes in the overall cataract patient group were significantly higher than those in the control subjects. The %Tail DNA and OTM of LECs and lymphocytes showed no differences among cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataracts. The %Tail DNA and OTM in LECs were significantly lower than those in lymphocytes but a significant correlation of the DNA damage was found between them. Conclusion: We concluded that DNA damage in lens and peripheral blood lymphocytes increased in ARC. The results imply that local and systemic oxidative DNA damage might play certain roles in ARC pathogenesis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Comparisons of Pattern Visually Evoked Potentials Elicited by Different Response Time Liquid Crystal Display Screens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014 Jan 7; 51(3):117-123.
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a liquid crystal display (LCD) with higher driving frequency and shorter response time (2 ms) as a visual stimulator to elicit pattern reversal visually evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Method: p-VEPs were recorded from 12 eyes of 12 healthy volunteers (28.3 ± 9 years). The p-VEPs elicited by a conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) screen were compared to those elicited by a high-speed LCD screen (2-ms LCD, GD245HQbid, Acer, Taipei, Taiwan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. Results: During the reversal phase the luminance of the 2-ms LCD screen with 97% contrast was transiently reduced, which can elicit an electroretinogram (ERG) and therefore a flash VEP. The 2-ms LCD with 81% contrast checkerboard had a minimal luminance reduction during the reversal phase, and therefore no ERGs were elicited. No significant differences in the amplitude of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by a CRT or the 2-ms LCD screens as stimulators. Conclusion: The luminance change can elicit flash VEPs, and this artifact can be minimized by using a 2-ms LCD screen with reduced contrast of the checkerboard stimulus. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Galectin-3 enhances epithelial cell adhesion and wound healing in rat cornea. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(2):96-103.
To investigate if galectin-3: (1) enhances adhesion of rat corneal epithelial cells onto a collagen IV substrate and (2) promotes wound healing in rat corneal explants.Primary cultures of rat corneal epithelial cells were fixed and immunostained with galectin-3 antibody. To test cellular adherence onto plates coated with collagen type IV, isolated corneal epithelial cells from rats were cultured for 24 h with or without recombinant galectin-3. The attached cells were counted after fixing and staining with 0.1% crystal violet. Direct binding of galectin-3 to collagen IV was tested using a biotin label transfer method. To evaluate wound healing, explants with a 3.5-mm diameter wound in the central corneal epithelium from rats were incubated for 16 h with or without recombinant galectin-3. Changes in the size of the wound were measured with a digital microscope after staining with 5% fluorescein sodium.In rat corneal epithelial cells, galectin-3 was stained throughout the cytoplasm, with increasing density adjacent to the plasma membrane. Exogenous galectin-3, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), significantly promoted adhesion of corneal epithelial cells onto the collagen IV substrate. Galectin-3 directly bound to collagen IV in vitro. Exogenous galectin-3 significantly enhances wound healing in the corneal explants, which was partially inhibited by β-lactose.Galectin-3 promotes adhesion of corneal epithelial cells onto collagen IV and enhances wound healing in corneal explants. Since galectin-3 functions in promoting wound healing by a different mechanism than that used by EGF, exogenous galectin-3 may be a candidate drug for enhancing epithelial cell wound healing in disorders of the cornea.
- Pharmacological approach to diabetic macular edema. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(2):88-95.
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a highly prevalent cause of vision loss and has a remarkable impact on public health, and on the quality of life of diabetic patients. Even though laser photocoagulation has been the standard of care for decades, a substantial group of patients are unresponsive and fail to improve after laser treatment. Recently, new pharmacological approaches based on the use of intravitreal drugs, such as corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, have revolutionized the treatment of DME. The use of intravitreal drugs is supported by the improvement in visual acuity reported by several clinical trials and can limit the potentially destructive effects of the laser treatment. Encouraging results also emerged from studies evaluating the use of a combination therapy, or the association of intravitreal drugs and laser treatment. This review aims at providing a brief synopsis of the main investigations regarding the current pharmacological approach to DME.
- Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of indomethacin on human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 and the involvement of β-catenin, nuclear factor-κB and Akt signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(2):109-15.
To determine in vitro if indomethacin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cell line Y79, and to explore possibly involved signaling pathways.The human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 was cultured with indomethacin at various concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µmol/l). The effect of indomethacin on cell proliferation and apoptosis was examined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 and TUNEL test, respectively. The mRNA level of survivin, β-catenin and Bcl-2 was detected by RT-PCR. The protein level of survivin was measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to analyze β-catenin, nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and total Akt (tAkt) expression in cultured cells.Indomethacin treatment inhibits proliferation (at concentrations from 25 to 400 µmol/l) and induces apoptosis (at concentrations from 100 to 400 µmol/l) of human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 (F = 20.497; p < 0.001) and of β-catenin (F = 14.835; p < 0.001) was significantly different among the treated groups. Survivin mRNA levels remained steady, but its protein levels decreased significantly as measured by ELISA (F = 67.633; p < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed a dose-dependent downregulation of β-catenin (F = 37.411; p < 0.001), NF-κB/p65 (F = 16.302; p < 0.001) and of pAkt (F = 27.700; p < 0.001) after indomethacin treatment, while tAkt protein expression was steady among the groups.Treatment with indomethacin can potently suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in the retinoblastoma Y79 cell line. Wnt/β-catenin, NF-κB and Akt/PKB pathways might be implicated in the process.
- Misalignment of a novel single-piece acrylic intraocular lens in the first three months after surgery. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Res 2014; 51(2):104-8.
To evaluate the misalignment of a new single-piece microincisional hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in emmetropic, myopic and hyperopic eyes within the first 3 months after surgery.Vienna Institute for Research in Ocular Surgery, Karl Landsteiner Institute, Hanusch Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Vienna, Austria.Patients with age-related cataract were included in this prospective study. Each patient received a single-piece microincisional hydrophobic acrylic IOL (AF-1 NY-60, Hoya) in the study eye. Subgroups of emmetropic, myopic and hyperopic eyes were defined according to IOL power calculation. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) measurements were performed with an AC-Master. Tilt and decentration of the IOL were measured with a Purkinje meter. Follow-up assessments were performed 1 h, 3 weeks and 3 months after surgery.Forty-two eyes of 42 patients (21 emmetropic, 10 myopic and 11 hyperopic eyes) were included. The mean ACD 1 h, 3 weeks and 3 months after surgery was 4.597 ± 0.533, 4.483 ± 0.347 and 4.438 ± 0.398 mm, respectively. Differences in ACD between follow-ups and between subgroups were not statistically significant (both p > 0.05). On average, 3 months after surgery IOLs were tilted 0.81 ± 2.86° nasally and 0.70 ± 3.13° inferiorly and decentered 0.06 ± 0.24 mm nasally and 0.15 ± 0.29 mm superiorly. Differences in tilt and decentration were not statistically significant (both p > 0.05). We observed 1 case of severe capsular fibrosis.The single-piece microincisional hydrophobic acrylic IOL showed good axial stability and only little, clinically not relevant tilt and decentration in the first 3 months after surgery.