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Orthod Craniofac Res [journal]
- An in vitro study into the efficacy of complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment achieved by various small cross-section archwire/bracket combinations using the orthodontic measurement and simulation system.The study comprised three types of orthodontic brackets 1) conventional ligating (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2) self-ligating (SmartClip a passive self-ligating bracket and Time3 an active self-ligating bracket), and 3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. Brackets were combined with 1) 0.012″ stainless steel, 2) 0.012″ Orthonol, 3) 0.012″ Thermalloy, and 4) 0.0155″ coaxial archwires. Archwires were tied to the conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures and elastomeric rings. The malocclusion simulated represented a central upper incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis).The inciso-gingival correction achieved by the different archwire/bracket combinations ranged from 15 to 95%, while the labio-lingual correction ranged from 10 to 95%. The smallest correction was achieved by coaxial, Orthonol, and thermally archwires when ligated with the elastomeric rings to conventional brackets. Stainless steel archwires achieved from 65 to 90% of inciso-gingival correction and from 60 to 90% of labio-lingual correction.The resultant tooth alignment was the product of interaction between the archwire type, bracket type, and bracket design including ligature type. Small cross-sectional archwires might produce up to 95% correction if combined properly with the bracket system. Elastomeric rings when used with conventional brackets limit the efficacy of malalignment correction.
- Craniofacial cephalometric morphology in 8-year-old children with operated sagittal synostosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate cephalometrically craniofacial morphology in children with operated sagittal synostosis and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched controls.Forty-two children (37 boys) with operated primary sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively with age- and sex-matched controls from lateral cephalograms taken at a mean age of 8.1 (range 7.0-8.9) years.The operations had been performed between the ages of 2 months and 6.3 years at three Finnish hospitals. The surgical methods included strip craniectomy, pi-plasty and cranial vault expansion. A paired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis were used in the statistical analyses.Children with operated sagittal synostosis had wide cranial base angles and their mandibles were retrognathic with labially inclined lower incisors relative to the controls. Age at craniosynostosis operation did not correlate with the cranial base angle.This study suggests that children with operated sagittal synostosis have minor distinctive morphological features in the cranial base and mandible. Orthodontic evaluation of craniofacial growth is recommended.
- Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 25.
Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit ratio (indicative of increased prenatal androgen exposure) is associated with a more masculine facial phenotype.3D facial surface images and digit measures were collected on a sample of 151 adult males. Facial landmarks collected from the images were aligned by Procrustes superimposition and the resulting shape coordinates regressed on 2D:4D. Variations in facial shape related to 2D:4D were visualized with deformable surface warps.A significant statistical relationship was observed between facial shape variation and 2D:4D (p = 0.0084). Lower 2D:4D ratio in adult males was associated with increased facial width relative to height, increased mandibular prognathism, greater nasal projection, and increased upper and lower lip projection.A statistical relationship between 2D:4D and facial shape in adult males was observed. Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics.
- The relationship between upper airways and craniofacial morphology studied in 3D. A CBCT study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 19.
To assess whether morphology and dimension of the upper airway differ between patients characterized by various craniofacial morphology.Ninety young adult patients from the Postgraduate Clinic, Section of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Health, Aarhus University, Denmark, with no obvious signs of respiratory diseases and no previous adeno-tonsillectomy procedures. Thirty patients were characterized as Class I (-0.5 < ANB < 4.5), 30 as Class II (ANB > 4.5), and 30 as Class III (ANB < -0.5).Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans obtained in a supine position for all patients. Cephalometric landmarks were identified in 3D. Sagittal and transversal dimensions, cross sections, and partial and total volumes of the upper airway were correlated with the cephalometric measurements in all three planes of space. The cross-sectional minimal area of the upper airway was assessed as well.No statistical significant relationships between dimension and morphology of upper airways and skeletal malocclusion were found.Differences in craniofacial morphology as identified by the sagittal jaw relationship were not correlated with variation in upper airway volumes. A clinical significant relation was detected between minimal area and total upper airway volume.
- Maturation of the middle phalanx of the third finger and cervical vertebrae: a comparative and diagnostic agreement study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 17.
Diagnostic agreement on individual basis between the third middle phalanx maturation (MPM) method and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method has conjecturally been based mainly on overall correlation analyses. Herein, the true agreement between methods according to stage and sex has been evaluated through a comprehensive diagnostic performance analysis.Four hundred and fifty-one Caucasian subjects were included in the study, 231 females and 220 males (mean age, 12.2 ± 2.5 years; range, 7.0-17.9 years). The X-rays of the middle phalanx of the third finger and the lateral cephalograms were examined for staging by blinded operators, blinded for MPM stages and subjects' age. The MPM and CVM methods based on six stages, two pre-pubertal (1 and 2), two pubertal (3 and 4), and two post-pubertal (5 and 6), were considered. Specifically, for each MPM stage, the diagnostic performance in the identification of the corresponding CVM stage was described by Bayesian statistics.For both sexes, overall agreement was 77.6%. Most of the disagreement was due to 1 stage apart. Slight disagreement was seen for the stages 5 and 6, where the third middle phalanx shows an earlier maturation.The two maturational methods show an overall satisfactorily diagnostic agreement. However, at post-pubertal stages, the middle phalanx of the third finger appears to mature earlier than the cervical vertebrae. Post-pubertal growth phase should thus be based on the presence of stage 6 in MPM.
- The effect of IL-17 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-1 by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. [Journal Article]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Feb; 17(1):60-8.
To investigate the effects of IL-17 on IL-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) production, and to compare the MMP-1 production between the individual and combined effects of IL-1β and IL-6 in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF).Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured with IL-17 for 0.5, 1, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h, and were cultured with IL-1β, IL-6/sIL-6R, or a combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R for 24 h. To measure the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1, total RNA was extracted from the cultured HPDLF, and a real-time PCR analysis was performed. The protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1 in supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).IL-17 significantly increased the expression of IL-6 and MMP-1 mRNA and protein, while IL-17 transiently increased the expression of IL-1β mRNA. The combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R induced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 protein than IL-1β alone.IL-17 upregulated the production of IL-6 and MMP-1 sequentially in HPDLF. IL-6/sIL-6R may enhance the effects of IL-1β on MMP-1 production. The present results suggest that IL-17 induces MMP-1 production not only directly, but also indirectly by promoting IL-6 production, thus resulting in the degradation of collagens in the PDL.
- Short-term effects of a modified Alt-RAMEC protocol for early treatment of Class III malocclusion: a controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jul 7.
To assess the effects of a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in combination with facemask (FM) in Class III growing patients.Thirty one Class III patients (17 males, 14 females) were treated with a modified Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Florence.All patients were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 6.4 ± 0.8 years) and at the end of orthopedic therapy (T2, mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years), and they were compared to a matched sample of 31 Class III patients (16 males and 15 females) treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) and to a matched control group of 21 subjects (9 males and 12 females) with untreated Class III malocclusion. The three groups were compared with anova with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests.Both the Alt-RAMEC/FM and the RME/FM protocols showed significantly favorable effects leading to correction of the Class III malocclusion. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol produced a more effective advancement of the maxilla (SNA +1.2°) and greater intermaxillary changes (ANB +1.7°) vs. the RME/FM protocol. No significant differences were recorded as for mandibular skeletal changes and vertical skeletal relationships.The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol induced more favorable skeletal short-term effects compared with RME/FM therapy in Class III growing patients.
- Expression of bone markers and micro-CT analysis of alveolar bone during orthodontic relapse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jun 15.
To investigate biological changes in alveolar bone occurring during orthodontic relapse.Rat maxillary first molars were moved mesially for 10 days. After orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), appliances were removed, and the molars were allowed to relapse for one, three, five, seven, 14 or 21 days. Changes in 3D morphometric parameters of bone located mesial to the first molars were evaluated by micro-CT. Total RNA was isolated from the same bone site, and real-time RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of bone formation and resorption markers.One day after appliance removal, the molars relapsed to a mean 73% of the achieved OTM and then steadily relapsed to 93% at 21 days. Tissue mineral density and per cent bone volume increased over the experimental period. Inversely, there was a decrease in total porosity. Gene expression of OCN, Coll-I and ALP decreased during OTM, whilst as the molars relapsed showed tended to increase. Gene expression of RANKL and TRAP increased during OTM. Changes in mRNA expression of H(+) -ATPase were minor. By 21 days post-appliance removal, the remodelling process in rats appeared to have returned to control levels.Bone tissue reactions on a molecular level are similar during OTM and orthodontic relapse. These findings validate the importance of immediate retention following active OTM.
- Evaluation of BSP expression and apoptosis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic relapse: a preliminary study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jun 13.
To examine the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apoptosis in an in vivo orthodontic relapse model.Male mice (10-12 weeks old), either transgenic [green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the BSP promoter] or wild type, were used in this study. To achieve orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), maxillary right first molars were moved mesially using closed-coil springs. Animals were divided into an OTM group (14 days continuous orthodontic force - 11 animals) or Relapse group (10 days of force application followed by 4 days of relapse - 8 animals). The control group was comprised of the contralateral maxillary molars. The periodontal ligament (PDL) was analyzed in areas of compression and tension for transgenic expression, osteoclast localization, and the presence of apoptotic cells.There was a significant decrease in GFP-labeled cells on the compression and tension sides of the PDL in the OTM group compared with control. In the relapse group, GFP-labeled cells were significantly decreased only on the old compression side. Osteoclasts were localized on the compression side of the OTM group, whereas in the Relapse group, they were present on both sides. PDL apoptosis significantly increased on the compression side in OTM and Relapse groups.Both OTM and Relapse groups exhibited a decreased number of GFP-labeled cells in areas of compression and tension. There was significant PDL apoptosis in regions under compressive forces following OTM and to a lesser extent following relapse.
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental clinical evidence on initial aligning archwires and archwire sequences. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 May 29.
The aim of the study was to assess treatment effects and potential side effects of different archwires used on patients receiving orthodontic therapy. Electronic and manual unrestricted searches were conducted in 19 databases including MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar until April 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment with the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and narrative analysis, mean differences (MDs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of similar studies were pooled using a random-effects model and evaluated with GRADE. A total of 16 RCTs were included assessing different archwire characteristics on 1108 patients. Regarding initial archwires, meta-analysis of two trials found slightly greater irregularity correction with an austenitic-active nickel-titanium (NiTi) compared with an martensitic-stabilized NiTi archwire (corresponding to MD: 1.11 mm, 95% CI: -0.38 to 2.61). Regarding archwire sequences, meta-analysis of two trials found it took patient treated with a sequence of martensitic-active copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) slightly longer to reach the working archwire (MD: 0.54 months, 95% CI: -0.87 to 1.95) compared with a martensitic-stabilized NiTi sequence. However, patients treated with a sequence of martensitic-active CuNiTi archwires reported general greater pain intensity on the Likert scale 4 h and 1 day after placement of each archwire, compared with a martensitic-stabilized NiTi sequence. Although confidence in effect estimates ranged from moderate to high, meta-analyses could be performed only for limited comparisons, while inconsistency might pose a threat to some of them. At this point, there is insufficient data to make recommendations about the majority of initial archwires or for a specific archwire sequence.