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Orthod Craniofac Res [journal]
- Size and shape of the sella turcica in subjects with Down syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Oct 17.
To study size and shape of the sella turcica in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and compare them to matched controls without the syndrome.The Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics. Lateral cephalograms of sixty DS individuals and sixty controls were obtained with an age range of 12-22 years.The length, depth, and diameter of the sella turcica were calculated. In addition, the shape of the sella turcica was described as either normal or with aberrations such as; oblique anterior wall, sella turcica bridging, extremely low sella turcica, irregularity in the posterior part of the dorsum sella, and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella.An increase in the diameter and depth of sella turcica was found more frequently in DS group as compared to controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). When the shape of the sella turcica was examined, a normal sella turcica shape was found less often in DS (P < 0.05). The most common abnormality detected was an oblique anterior wall (P < 0.05). A sella turcica bridge, irregularity in the posterior wall, and a pyramidal shape of sella turcica were present simultaneously in some individuals with DS (P < 0.01).The sella turcica in DS differs in size and morphology when compared to individuals without the syndrome. The diameter and depth of the sella turcica in DS are larger than controls, with a tendency toward more abnormalities in the shape of sella turcica.
- Histomorphometric evaluation of maxillary molar roots and surrounding periodontium following molar intrusion in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Oct 17.
To investigate periodontal tissue changes during and after molar intrusion in rats.The Department of Orthodontics at Yonsei University. Thirty 12-week-old male rats were assigned to 1 control and 5 experimental groups (n = 5 each).In the experimental groups, two maxillary molars were intruded for 2 weeks; the control group underwent the same procedures without the intrusion force. After 2 weeks of intrusion, rats in one of the experimental groups and in the control group were killed. In the other four experimental groups, the new molar positions were either retained or not retained with an occlusal bite block for 1 or 2 weeks prior to euthanization. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for sulcus depth, osteoclast number per unit alveolar bone length, and root resorption area per unit root surface length.Sulcus depth increased during intrusion (P < 0.05), but decreased after 2 weeks of retention (P < 0.05). The number of osteoclasts increased during intrusion (P < 0.05), but subsequently decreased regardless of the retention regime (P < 0.05). Root resorption area increased after molar intrusion, irrespective of the retention regimen, relative to that of the control group (P < 0.05) and was the greatest after 2 weeks of retention.These results indicated that root resorption occurred during and after molar intrusion and that the surrounding periodontium remodeled accordingly as tooth positions were altered, regardless of retention regime.
- An in vitro study into the efficacy of complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment achieved by various small cross-section archwire/bracket combinations using the orthodontic measurement and simulation system.The study comprised three types of orthodontic brackets 1) conventional ligating (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2) self-ligating (SmartClip a passive self-ligating bracket and Time3 an active self-ligating bracket), and 3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. Brackets were combined with 1) 0.012″ stainless steel, 2) 0.012″ Orthonol, 3) 0.012″ Thermalloy, and 4) 0.0155″ coaxial archwires. Archwires were tied to the conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures and elastomeric rings. The malocclusion simulated represented a central upper incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis).The inciso-gingival correction achieved by the different archwire/bracket combinations ranged from 15 to 95%, while the labio-lingual correction ranged from 10 to 95%. The smallest correction was achieved by coaxial, Orthonol, and thermally archwires when ligated with the elastomeric rings to conventional brackets. Stainless steel archwires achieved from 65 to 90% of inciso-gingival correction and from 60 to 90% of labio-lingual correction.The resultant tooth alignment was the product of interaction between the archwire type, bracket type, and bracket design including ligature type. Small cross-sectional archwires might produce up to 95% correction if combined properly with the bracket system. Elastomeric rings when used with conventional brackets limit the efficacy of malalignment correction.
- Craniofacial cephalometric morphology in 8-year-old children with operated sagittal synostosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate cephalometrically craniofacial morphology in children with operated sagittal synostosis and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched controls.Forty-two children (37 boys) with operated primary sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively with age- and sex-matched controls from lateral cephalograms taken at a mean age of 8.1 (range 7.0-8.9) years.The operations had been performed between the ages of 2 months and 6.3 years at three Finnish hospitals. The surgical methods included strip craniectomy, pi-plasty and cranial vault expansion. A paired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis were used in the statistical analyses.Children with operated sagittal synostosis had wide cranial base angles and their mandibles were retrognathic with labially inclined lower incisors relative to the controls. Age at craniosynostosis operation did not correlate with the cranial base angle.This study suggests that children with operated sagittal synostosis have minor distinctive morphological features in the cranial base and mandible. Orthodontic evaluation of craniofacial growth is recommended.
- Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 25.
Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit ratio (indicative of increased prenatal androgen exposure) is associated with a more masculine facial phenotype.3D facial surface images and digit measures were collected on a sample of 151 adult males. Facial landmarks collected from the images were aligned by Procrustes superimposition and the resulting shape coordinates regressed on 2D:4D. Variations in facial shape related to 2D:4D were visualized with deformable surface warps.A significant statistical relationship was observed between facial shape variation and 2D:4D (p = 0.0084). Lower 2D:4D ratio in adult males was associated with increased facial width relative to height, increased mandibular prognathism, greater nasal projection, and increased upper and lower lip projection.A statistical relationship between 2D:4D and facial shape in adult males was observed. Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics.
- The relationship between upper airways and craniofacial morphology studied in 3D. A CBCT study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 19.
To assess whether morphology and dimension of the upper airway differ between patients characterized by various craniofacial morphology.Ninety young adult patients from the Postgraduate Clinic, Section of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Health, Aarhus University, Denmark, with no obvious signs of respiratory diseases and no previous adeno-tonsillectomy procedures. Thirty patients were characterized as Class I (-0.5 < ANB < 4.5), 30 as Class II (ANB > 4.5), and 30 as Class III (ANB < -0.5).Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans obtained in a supine position for all patients. Cephalometric landmarks were identified in 3D. Sagittal and transversal dimensions, cross sections, and partial and total volumes of the upper airway were correlated with the cephalometric measurements in all three planes of space. The cross-sectional minimal area of the upper airway was assessed as well.No statistical significant relationships between dimension and morphology of upper airways and skeletal malocclusion were found.Differences in craniofacial morphology as identified by the sagittal jaw relationship were not correlated with variation in upper airway volumes. A clinical significant relation was detected between minimal area and total upper airway volume.
- Maturation of the middle phalanx of the third finger and cervical vertebrae: a comparative and diagnostic agreement study. [Journal Article]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Nov; 17(4):270-9.
Diagnostic agreement on individual basis between the third middle phalanx maturation (MPM) method and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method has conjecturally been based mainly on overall correlation analyses. Herein, the true agreement between methods according to stage and sex has been evaluated through a comprehensive diagnostic performance analysis.Four hundred and fifty-one Caucasian subjects were included in the study, 231 females and 220 males (mean age, 12.2 ± 2.5 years; range, 7.0-17.9 years). The X-rays of the middle phalanx of the third finger and the lateral cephalograms were examined for staging by blinded operators, blinded for MPM stages and subjects' age. The MPM and CVM methods based on six stages, two pre-pubertal (1 and 2), two pubertal (3 and 4), and two post-pubertal (5 and 6), were considered. Specifically, for each MPM stage, the diagnostic performance in the identification of the corresponding CVM stage was described by Bayesian statistics.For both sexes, overall agreement was 77.6%. Most of the disagreement was due to 1 stage apart. Slight disagreement was seen for the stages 5 and 6, where the third middle phalanx shows an earlier maturation.The two maturational methods show an overall satisfactorily diagnostic agreement. However, at post-pubertal stages, the middle phalanx of the third finger appears to mature earlier than the cervical vertebrae. Post-pubertal growth phase should thus be based on the presence of stage 6 in MPM.
- The effect of IL-17 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-1 by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Feb; 17(1):60-8.
To investigate the effects of IL-17 on IL-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) production, and to compare the MMP-1 production between the individual and combined effects of IL-1β and IL-6 in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF).Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured with IL-17 for 0.5, 1, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h, and were cultured with IL-1β, IL-6/sIL-6R, or a combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R for 24 h. To measure the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1, total RNA was extracted from the cultured HPDLF, and a real-time PCR analysis was performed. The protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1 in supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).IL-17 significantly increased the expression of IL-6 and MMP-1 mRNA and protein, while IL-17 transiently increased the expression of IL-1β mRNA. The combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R induced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 protein than IL-1β alone.IL-17 upregulated the production of IL-6 and MMP-1 sequentially in HPDLF. IL-6/sIL-6R may enhance the effects of IL-1β on MMP-1 production. The present results suggest that IL-17 induces MMP-1 production not only directly, but also indirectly by promoting IL-6 production, thus resulting in the degradation of collagens in the PDL.
- Short-term effects of a modified Alt-RAMEC protocol for early treatment of Class III malocclusion: a controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jul 7.
To assess the effects of a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in combination with facemask (FM) in Class III growing patients.Thirty one Class III patients (17 males, 14 females) were treated with a modified Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Florence.All patients were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 6.4 ± 0.8 years) and at the end of orthopedic therapy (T2, mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years), and they were compared to a matched sample of 31 Class III patients (16 males and 15 females) treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) and to a matched control group of 21 subjects (9 males and 12 females) with untreated Class III malocclusion. The three groups were compared with anova with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests.Both the Alt-RAMEC/FM and the RME/FM protocols showed significantly favorable effects leading to correction of the Class III malocclusion. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol produced a more effective advancement of the maxilla (SNA +1.2°) and greater intermaxillary changes (ANB +1.7°) vs. the RME/FM protocol. No significant differences were recorded as for mandibular skeletal changes and vertical skeletal relationships.The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol induced more favorable skeletal short-term effects compared with RME/FM therapy in Class III growing patients.
- Expression of bone markers and micro-CT analysis of alveolar bone during orthodontic relapse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jun 15.
To investigate biological changes in alveolar bone occurring during orthodontic relapse.Rat maxillary first molars were moved mesially for 10 days. After orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), appliances were removed, and the molars were allowed to relapse for one, three, five, seven, 14 or 21 days. Changes in 3D morphometric parameters of bone located mesial to the first molars were evaluated by micro-CT. Total RNA was isolated from the same bone site, and real-time RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of bone formation and resorption markers.One day after appliance removal, the molars relapsed to a mean 73% of the achieved OTM and then steadily relapsed to 93% at 21 days. Tissue mineral density and per cent bone volume increased over the experimental period. Inversely, there was a decrease in total porosity. Gene expression of OCN, Coll-I and ALP decreased during OTM, whilst as the molars relapsed showed tended to increase. Gene expression of RANKL and TRAP increased during OTM. Changes in mRNA expression of H(+) -ATPase were minor. By 21 days post-appliance removal, the remodelling process in rats appeared to have returned to control levels.Bone tissue reactions on a molecular level are similar during OTM and orthodontic relapse. These findings validate the importance of immediate retention following active OTM.