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Orthod Craniofac Res [journal]
- The effect of IL-17 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-1 by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. [Journal Article]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Feb; 17(1):60-8.
To investigate the effects of IL-17 on IL-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) production, and to compare the MMP-1 production between the individual and combined effects of IL-1β and IL-6 in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF).Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured with IL-17 for 0.5, 1, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h, and were cultured with IL-1β, IL-6/sIL-6R, or a combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R for 24 h. To measure the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1, total RNA was extracted from the cultured HPDLF, and a real-time PCR analysis was performed. The protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1 in supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).IL-17 significantly increased the expression of IL-6 and MMP-1 mRNA and protein, while IL-17 transiently increased the expression of IL-1β mRNA. The combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R induced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 protein than IL-1β alone.IL-17 upregulated the production of IL-6 and MMP-1 sequentially in HPDLF. IL-6/sIL-6R may enhance the effects of IL-1β on MMP-1 production. The present results suggest that IL-17 induces MMP-1 production not only directly, but also indirectly by promoting IL-6 production, thus resulting in the degradation of collagens in the PDL.
- Short-term effects of a modified Alt-RAMEC protocol for early treatment of Class III malocclusion: a controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jul 7.
To assess the effects of a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in combination with facemask (FM) in Class III growing patients.Thirty one Class III patients (17 males, 14 females) were treated with a modified Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Florence.All patients were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 6.4 ± 0.8 years) and at the end of orthopedic therapy (T2, mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years), and they were compared to a matched sample of 31 Class III patients (16 males and 15 females) treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) and to a matched control group of 21 subjects (9 males and 12 females) with untreated Class III malocclusion. The three groups were compared with anova with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests.Both the Alt-RAMEC/FM and the RME/FM protocols showed significantly favorable effects leading to correction of the Class III malocclusion. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol produced a more effective advancement of the maxilla (SNA +1.2°) and greater intermaxillary changes (ANB +1.7°) vs. the RME/FM protocol. No significant differences were recorded as for mandibular skeletal changes and vertical skeletal relationships.The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol induced more favorable skeletal short-term effects compared with RME/FM therapy in Class III growing patients.
- Expression of bone markers and micro-CT analysis of alveolar bone during orthodontic relapse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jun 15.
To investigate biological changes in alveolar bone occurring during orthodontic relapse.Rat maxillary first molars were moved mesially for 10 days. After orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), appliances were removed, and the molars were allowed to relapse for one, three, five, seven, 14 or 21 days. Changes in 3D morphometric parameters of bone located mesial to the first molars were evaluated by micro-CT. Total RNA was isolated from the same bone site, and real-time RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of bone formation and resorption markers.One day after appliance removal, the molars relapsed to a mean 73% of the achieved OTM and then steadily relapsed to 93% at 21 days. Tissue mineral density and per cent bone volume increased over the experimental period. Inversely, there was a decrease in total porosity. Gene expression of OCN, Coll-I and ALP decreased during OTM, whilst as the molars relapsed showed tended to increase. Gene expression of RANKL and TRAP increased during OTM. Changes in mRNA expression of H(+) -ATPase were minor. By 21 days post-appliance removal, the remodelling process in rats appeared to have returned to control levels.Bone tissue reactions on a molecular level are similar during OTM and orthodontic relapse. These findings validate the importance of immediate retention following active OTM.
- Evaluation of BSP expression and apoptosis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic relapse: a preliminary study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Jun 13.
To examine the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apoptosis in an in vivo orthodontic relapse model.Male mice (10-12 weeks old), either transgenic [green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the BSP promoter] or wild type, were used in this study. To achieve orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), maxillary right first molars were moved mesially using closed-coil springs. Animals were divided into an OTM group (14 days continuous orthodontic force - 11 animals) or Relapse group (10 days of force application followed by 4 days of relapse - 8 animals). The control group was comprised of the contralateral maxillary molars. The periodontal ligament (PDL) was analyzed in areas of compression and tension for transgenic expression, osteoclast localization, and the presence of apoptotic cells.There was a significant decrease in GFP-labeled cells on the compression and tension sides of the PDL in the OTM group compared with control. In the relapse group, GFP-labeled cells were significantly decreased only on the old compression side. Osteoclasts were localized on the compression side of the OTM group, whereas in the Relapse group, they were present on both sides. PDL apoptosis significantly increased on the compression side in OTM and Relapse groups.Both OTM and Relapse groups exhibited a decreased number of GFP-labeled cells in areas of compression and tension. There was significant PDL apoptosis in regions under compressive forces following OTM and to a lesser extent following relapse.
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental clinical evidence on initial aligning archwires and archwire sequences. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 May 29.
The aim of the study was to assess treatment effects and potential side effects of different archwires used on patients receiving orthodontic therapy. Electronic and manual unrestricted searches were conducted in 19 databases including MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar until April 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment with the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and narrative analysis, mean differences (MDs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of similar studies were pooled using a random-effects model and evaluated with GRADE. A total of 16 RCTs were included assessing different archwire characteristics on 1108 patients. Regarding initial archwires, meta-analysis of two trials found slightly greater irregularity correction with an austenitic-active nickel-titanium (NiTi) compared with an martensitic-stabilized NiTi archwire (corresponding to MD: 1.11 mm, 95% CI: -0.38 to 2.61). Regarding archwire sequences, meta-analysis of two trials found it took patient treated with a sequence of martensitic-active copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) slightly longer to reach the working archwire (MD: 0.54 months, 95% CI: -0.87 to 1.95) compared with a martensitic-stabilized NiTi sequence. However, patients treated with a sequence of martensitic-active CuNiTi archwires reported general greater pain intensity on the Likert scale 4 h and 1 day after placement of each archwire, compared with a martensitic-stabilized NiTi sequence. Although confidence in effect estimates ranged from moderate to high, meta-analyses could be performed only for limited comparisons, while inconsistency might pose a threat to some of them. At this point, there is insufficient data to make recommendations about the majority of initial archwires or for a specific archwire sequence.
- Objective classification of nose-lip-chin profiles and their relation to dentoskeletal traits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 May 29.
To objectively classify the nose-lip-chin profiles of adult women and identify any associations between the nose-lip-chin profile patterns and dentoskeletal patterns.Lateral facial photographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained for 229 Japanese women who were being assessed for orthodontic treatment.A feature vector that was effective in distinguishing differences in nose-lip-chin profiles was extracted for each photograph. To categorize the records into an optimum number of subclasses according to nose-lip-chin profile configurations, a vector quantization method was applied to the feature vectors of all samples. Dentoskeletal patterns that corresponded to the nose-lip-chin profile subclasses were compared.Eight profile patterns were identified, and the differences among patterns were notably maximized by the nasolabial angle, configuration and vertical length of the subnasal region, vertical thickness of the lip vermilion borders, sagittal position of the upper- and lower-lip vermilion borders and their relation to each other, labiomental angle, depth of the labiomental sulcus, degree of prominence of the chin, and degree of protrusion of the mandible. The dentoskeletal patterns showed significant differences between the classified profile patterns (p < 0.01).A method to objectively classify the nose-lip-chin profiles of adult women was established, and the nose-lip-chin profile patterns were found to be associated with the dentoskeletal patterns.
- The effects of lip revision surgery on nasolabial esthetics in patients with cleft lip. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 May 20.
1) To determine the concordance among surgeons on subjective assessments of nasolabial esthetics in children with repaired cleft lip; and 2) to evaluate longitudinal changes in nasolabial esthetics in relation to cleft lip revision surgery.School of Dentistry at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Children with repaired unilateral cleft lip: 32 had lip revision surgery and 27 did not have surgery.Retrospective observational study from a non-randomized clinical trial. Ratings of nasolabial esthetics performed by six surgeons using the Asher-McDade scale at baseline and 12-month follow-up.Concordance among surgeons ranged from poor to acceptable. Nasolabial ratings at follow-up were better in the Revision group than in the Non-Revision group, although differences were small. The most prevalent change in the Revision Group was improvement in one or more units on the scale, while 'no change' was most prevalent in the Non-Revision group. Participants in the Revision group were more likely to receive a 'no' in relation to the need for lip or nose revision at the follow-up visit.There were mild esthetic improvements observed in relation to lip revision surgery, which should be interpreted with caution given the subjectivity of the rating method used.
- Efficacy of orthopedic treatment with protraction facemask on skeletal Class III malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Apr 14.
The objective of this systematic review was to estimate the efficacy of protraction facemask on the correction of Class III malocclusion in the short term. A systematic review of articles was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, and Google Scholar). Search terms comprised 'orthopedic treatment' and 'Class III malocclusion'. The selection criteria were set in order to include in this review only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed treating with facemask Class III growing patients. Studies' selection, data extraction, and risk of bias's assessment were executed independently by two authors using pre-defined data forms. All pooled analyses of data were based on random effects models. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was planned to evaluate the effect of preliminary rapid palatal expansion on facemask efficacy. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria. In total, data from 155 patients (92 treated and 63 controls) were collected. The treated group showed the following significant changes: ANB° +3.66° [95%CI (2.58, 4.74)]; SNA° +2.10 [95%CI (1.14, 3.06)]; SNB° -1.54 [95%CI (-2.13, -0.95)]; SN-palatal plane -0.82° [95%CI (-1.62, -0.02)]; and SN-mandibular plane +1.51 [95%CI (0.61, 2.41)]. Heterogeneity varied from low to moderate (mean I(2) value: 41.4 ± 20.8). Facemask is effective correcting Class III malocclusion in the short term. The skeletal modifications induced by facemask are forward displacement of maxilla, backward displacement of mandible, clockwise rotation of the mandibular plane, and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillary plane.
- Axial cervical vertebrae-based multivariate regression model for the estimation of skeletal-maturation status. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Apr 11.
This study aimed to determine the viability of using axial cervical vertebrae (ACV) as biological indicators of skeletal maturation and to build models that estimate ossification level with improved explanatory power over models based only on chronological age.The study population comprised 74 female and 47 male patients with available hand-wrist radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography images. Generalized Procrustes analysis was used to analyze the shape, size, and form of the ACV regions of interest. The variabilities of these factors were analyzed by principal component analysis. Skeletal maturation was then estimated using a multiple regression model.Separate models were developed for male and female participants. For the female estimation model, the adjusted R(2) explained 84.8% of the variability of the Sempé maturation level (SML), representing a 7.9% increase in SML explanatory power over that using chronological age alone (76.9%). For the male estimation model, the adjusted R(2) was over 90%, representing a 1.7% increase relative to the reference model.The simplest possible ACV morphometric information provided a statistically significant explanation of the portion of skeletal-maturation variability not dependent on chronological age. These results verify that ACV is a strong biological indicator of ossification status.
- Geometric morphometric evaluations of a randomized prospective split-mouth study on modes of ligation and reverse-curve mechanics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Apr 11.
To evaluate tooth position after six and 9 months of orthodontics with conventional brackets on one side of the dentition and ligature-less brackets on the other.Orthodontic Division, Vienna Medical University. Twenty patients aged 22.5 ± 5.7 years, symmetrical malocclusion and arch form, no premolar extraction.Prospective split-mouth study, 0.022-inch SmartClip self-ligating brackets assigned randomly to the left or right dentition, conventional 0.018-inch brackets on the other side. 52 dental landmarks, digitized on plaster casts, represented dental arches at baseline (t0 ), 6 months and 9 months (t1 , t2 ). During t0 -t1 , we used 0.016 and 0.014 x 0.025 inch superelastic wires, during t1 -t2 connected reverse-curve hemiarch wires: 0.017 x 0.025 inch β-titanium on the ligature-less side, and 0.016 x 0.022 inch Elgiloy multiloop wires on conventional brackets. Morphometric analyses were used to assess differences in dental arch shapes.Neither initial alignment nor the reverse-curve phase showed statistically significant differences between ligature-less and conventional brackets in moving teeth.Morphometric shape analyses corroborated current evidence that self-ligating brackets were no more effective than conventional brackets with steel ligatures after 6-month initial alignment. From months 6-9 treatment with β-titanium reverse-curve wires on 0.022-inch ligature-less brackets resulted in similar tooth positions as accomplished by Elgiloy multiloop wires on 0.018-inch steel-ligature-tied brackets.