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Orthod Craniofac Res [journal]
- The development and validation of a psychological questionnaire for patients undergoing orthognathic treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Nov 24.
To develop a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial aspects which orthognathic patients considered important regarding their dento-facial deformity.A multicentre, prospective, questionnaire development and validation study based in the UK.Questionnaire development involved item (question) selection through literature review, consultation and feedback from a questionnaire development group and semi-structured interviews. A 'final' questionnaire was tested on a cross-sectional sample of 110 pre-operative and 74 post-operative orthognathic patients and a longitudinal sample of 23 orthognathic patients. Validity was tested using Rasch analysis.Reliability for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) section was unsatisfactory (ICC = 0.232-0.829, Cronbach alpha = 0.625-0.670), but for the well- being (ICC = 0.857, Cronbach alpha = 0.827-0.895) and expectations (ICC = 0.861, Cronbach alpha = 0.804-0.882) sections were satisfactory. The well-being section was the only section found to be valid for the pre-and post-operative samples. Responsiveness was satisfactory for the well-being scale (p = 0.001).A new condition-specific orthognathic questionnaire has been developed which has been shown to be reliable, valid and responsive for the well-being scale. The HADS, as tested by Rasch analysis, was found not to be valid for this orthognathic population.
- Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Nov 18.
To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction.Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilaterally below the alveolar crest on the experimental side in the region of the extraction. The dogs were killed after 12 weeks. The bone at the extraction sites was analyzed using μCT and 3D analysis. A cylindrical core was placed around the actual and a virtual screw placed in the identical location on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue.Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental implant placement on both sides, the bone preservation on the experimental side led to a need for a shorter clinical crown compared to the control side. A higher activity level of the bone in the experimental side was demonstrated histologically.In this dog model the insertion of a mini-implant across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant has to be postponed.
- Size and shape of the sella turcica in subjects with Down syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Oct 17.
To study size and shape of the sella turcica in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and compare them to matched controls without the syndrome.The Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics. Lateral cephalograms of sixty DS individuals and sixty controls were obtained with an age range of 12-22 years.The length, depth, and diameter of the sella turcica were calculated. In addition, the shape of the sella turcica was described as either normal or with aberrations such as; oblique anterior wall, sella turcica bridging, extremely low sella turcica, irregularity in the posterior part of the dorsum sella, and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella.An increase in the diameter and depth of sella turcica was found more frequently in DS group as compared to controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). When the shape of the sella turcica was examined, a normal sella turcica shape was found less often in DS (P < 0.05). The most common abnormality detected was an oblique anterior wall (P < 0.05). A sella turcica bridge, irregularity in the posterior wall, and a pyramidal shape of sella turcica were present simultaneously in some individuals with DS (P < 0.01).The sella turcica in DS differs in size and morphology when compared to individuals without the syndrome. The diameter and depth of the sella turcica in DS are larger than controls, with a tendency toward more abnormalities in the shape of sella turcica.
- Histomorphometric evaluation of maxillary molar roots and surrounding periodontium following molar intrusion in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Oct 17.
To investigate periodontal tissue changes during and after molar intrusion in rats.The Department of Orthodontics at Yonsei University. Thirty 12-week-old male rats were assigned to 1 control and 5 experimental groups (n = 5 each).In the experimental groups, two maxillary molars were intruded for 2 weeks; the control group underwent the same procedures without the intrusion force. After 2 weeks of intrusion, rats in one of the experimental groups and in the control group were killed. In the other four experimental groups, the new molar positions were either retained or not retained with an occlusal bite block for 1 or 2 weeks prior to euthanization. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for sulcus depth, osteoclast number per unit alveolar bone length, and root resorption area per unit root surface length.Sulcus depth increased during intrusion (P < 0.05), but decreased after 2 weeks of retention (P < 0.05). The number of osteoclasts increased during intrusion (P < 0.05), but subsequently decreased regardless of the retention regime (P < 0.05). Root resorption area increased after molar intrusion, irrespective of the retention regimen, relative to that of the control group (P < 0.05) and was the greatest after 2 weeks of retention.These results indicated that root resorption occurred during and after molar intrusion and that the surrounding periodontium remodeled accordingly as tooth positions were altered, regardless of retention regime.
- An in vitro study into the efficacy of complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment achieved by various small cross-section archwire/bracket combinations using the orthodontic measurement and simulation system.The study comprised three types of orthodontic brackets 1) conventional ligating (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2) self-ligating (SmartClip a passive self-ligating bracket and Time3 an active self-ligating bracket), and 3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. Brackets were combined with 1) 0.012″ stainless steel, 2) 0.012″ Orthonol, 3) 0.012″ Thermalloy, and 4) 0.0155″ coaxial archwires. Archwires were tied to the conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures and elastomeric rings. The malocclusion simulated represented a central upper incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis).The inciso-gingival correction achieved by the different archwire/bracket combinations ranged from 15 to 95%, while the labio-lingual correction ranged from 10 to 95%. The smallest correction was achieved by coaxial, Orthonol, and thermally archwires when ligated with the elastomeric rings to conventional brackets. Stainless steel archwires achieved from 65 to 90% of inciso-gingival correction and from 60 to 90% of labio-lingual correction.The resultant tooth alignment was the product of interaction between the archwire type, bracket type, and bracket design including ligature type. Small cross-sectional archwires might produce up to 95% correction if combined properly with the bracket system. Elastomeric rings when used with conventional brackets limit the efficacy of malalignment correction.
- Craniofacial cephalometric morphology in 8-year-old children with operated sagittal synostosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 29.
To evaluate cephalometrically craniofacial morphology in children with operated sagittal synostosis and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched controls.Forty-two children (37 boys) with operated primary sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively with age- and sex-matched controls from lateral cephalograms taken at a mean age of 8.1 (range 7.0-8.9) years.The operations had been performed between the ages of 2 months and 6.3 years at three Finnish hospitals. The surgical methods included strip craniectomy, pi-plasty and cranial vault expansion. A paired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis were used in the statistical analyses.Children with operated sagittal synostosis had wide cranial base angles and their mandibles were retrognathic with labially inclined lower incisors relative to the controls. Age at craniosynostosis operation did not correlate with the cranial base angle.This study suggests that children with operated sagittal synostosis have minor distinctive morphological features in the cranial base and mandible. Orthodontic evaluation of craniofacial growth is recommended.
- Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 25.
Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit ratio (indicative of increased prenatal androgen exposure) is associated with a more masculine facial phenotype.3D facial surface images and digit measures were collected on a sample of 151 adult males. Facial landmarks collected from the images were aligned by Procrustes superimposition and the resulting shape coordinates regressed on 2D:4D. Variations in facial shape related to 2D:4D were visualized with deformable surface warps.A significant statistical relationship was observed between facial shape variation and 2D:4D (p = 0.0084). Lower 2D:4D ratio in adult males was associated with increased facial width relative to height, increased mandibular prognathism, greater nasal projection, and increased upper and lower lip projection.A statistical relationship between 2D:4D and facial shape in adult males was observed. Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics.
- The relationship between upper airways and craniofacial morphology studied in 3D. A CBCT study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Sep 19.
To assess whether morphology and dimension of the upper airway differ between patients characterized by various craniofacial morphology.Ninety young adult patients from the Postgraduate Clinic, Section of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Health, Aarhus University, Denmark, with no obvious signs of respiratory diseases and no previous adeno-tonsillectomy procedures. Thirty patients were characterized as Class I (-0.5 < ANB < 4.5), 30 as Class II (ANB > 4.5), and 30 as Class III (ANB < -0.5).Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans obtained in a supine position for all patients. Cephalometric landmarks were identified in 3D. Sagittal and transversal dimensions, cross sections, and partial and total volumes of the upper airway were correlated with the cephalometric measurements in all three planes of space. The cross-sectional minimal area of the upper airway was assessed as well.No statistical significant relationships between dimension and morphology of upper airways and skeletal malocclusion were found.Differences in craniofacial morphology as identified by the sagittal jaw relationship were not correlated with variation in upper airway volumes. A clinical significant relation was detected between minimal area and total upper airway volume.
- Maturation of the middle phalanx of the third finger and cervical vertebrae: a comparative and diagnostic agreement study. [Journal Article]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Nov; 17(4):270-9.
Diagnostic agreement on individual basis between the third middle phalanx maturation (MPM) method and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method has conjecturally been based mainly on overall correlation analyses. Herein, the true agreement between methods according to stage and sex has been evaluated through a comprehensive diagnostic performance analysis.Four hundred and fifty-one Caucasian subjects were included in the study, 231 females and 220 males (mean age, 12.2 ± 2.5 years; range, 7.0-17.9 years). The X-rays of the middle phalanx of the third finger and the lateral cephalograms were examined for staging by blinded operators, blinded for MPM stages and subjects' age. The MPM and CVM methods based on six stages, two pre-pubertal (1 and 2), two pubertal (3 and 4), and two post-pubertal (5 and 6), were considered. Specifically, for each MPM stage, the diagnostic performance in the identification of the corresponding CVM stage was described by Bayesian statistics.For both sexes, overall agreement was 77.6%. Most of the disagreement was due to 1 stage apart. Slight disagreement was seen for the stages 5 and 6, where the third middle phalanx shows an earlier maturation.The two maturational methods show an overall satisfactorily diagnostic agreement. However, at post-pubertal stages, the middle phalanx of the third finger appears to mature earlier than the cervical vertebrae. Post-pubertal growth phase should thus be based on the presence of stage 6 in MPM.
- The effect of IL-17 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-1 by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2014 Feb; 17(1):60-8.
To investigate the effects of IL-17 on IL-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) production, and to compare the MMP-1 production between the individual and combined effects of IL-1β and IL-6 in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF).Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured with IL-17 for 0.5, 1, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h, and were cultured with IL-1β, IL-6/sIL-6R, or a combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R for 24 h. To measure the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1, total RNA was extracted from the cultured HPDLF, and a real-time PCR analysis was performed. The protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-1 in supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).IL-17 significantly increased the expression of IL-6 and MMP-1 mRNA and protein, while IL-17 transiently increased the expression of IL-1β mRNA. The combination of IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R induced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 protein than IL-1β alone.IL-17 upregulated the production of IL-6 and MMP-1 sequentially in HPDLF. IL-6/sIL-6R may enhance the effects of IL-1β on MMP-1 production. The present results suggest that IL-17 induces MMP-1 production not only directly, but also indirectly by promoting IL-6 production, thus resulting in the degradation of collagens in the PDL.