Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Osteoporosis international [journal]
- Bone health and aldosterone excess. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 22.
A picture of hyperparathyroidism secondary to increased urinary calcium excretion was found in 116 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), compared with 110 essential hypertensives. After medical or surgical treatment in 40 PA patients, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were significantly reduced and bone mineral density (BMD) significantly increased at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip.
INTRODUCTION:Recent studies have shown that aldosterone induces urinary calcium excretion leading to a reduction of calcemia with consequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and BMD loss. In patients with PA, this picture of hyperparathyroidism is significantly improved by treatment with adrenal surgery or with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. On these premises, the aim of the present study was to evaluate calcium and phosphate metabolism parameters in PA patients, compared with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and the effect of treatment of aldosterone excess on bone health in PA patients.
METHODS:We studied 226 patients: 116 with PA (46 with an aldosterone-producing adenoma and 70 with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia) and 110 patients with EH. In 40 patients with PA, we evaluated biochemical parameters and bone mass, using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 24 months from treatment.
RESULTS:In PA patients, compared with EH, PTH levels and urinary calcium excretion significantly increased while serum calcium significantly decreased with comparable vitamin D levels. At follow-up in PA patients, PTH levels were significantly reduced compared with basal evaluation, despite similar vitamin D amounts. At follow-up, we observed a significant improvement of the Z-score at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and at total hip sites.
CONCLUSIONS:Our results support previous data showing secondary hyperparathyroidism in PA patients, which is reversible after treatment. Moreover, this targeted treatment appears to be able to determine a significant improvement of BMD both at the spine and hip sites.
- Adherence to raloxifene therapy: assessment methods and relationship with efficacy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 22.
Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response.
INTRODUCTION:Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring.
METHODS:Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study.
RESULTS:The two methods correlated significantly (p <0.001, Spearman's rho = 0.73) but the tablet count showed a higher median adherence than the MEMS caps (95.7 vs. 85.0 %, p <0.001), with greater divergence at lower adherence levels. MEMS adherence in 65 subjects with complete data correlated with NTX response (p <0.01, rho = -0.33) but with BMD response only at the femoral neck. However, adherence in the lowest quartile was associated with poorer BMD response at all sites (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION:Tablet counts may give similar results overall but conceal substantial individual non-adherence. Monitoring caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy.
- Changes in bone mineral density and body composition of children with well-controlled homocystinuria caused by CBS deficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 18.
Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of methionine. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, dislocation of the optic lens, vascular lesions, arterial and venous thromboembolism, skeletal abnormalities, and osteoporosis. Most homocystinuria patients diagnosed in adulthood have severe osteoporosis, and homocystinuria is frequently mentioned as a cause of osteoporosis. Good control of plasma homocysteine may prevent or delay some of these complications. However, the effectiveness of bone mineral density (BMD) gain or fracture prevention has not been addressed. Here, we describe changes in BMD and body composition in 5 CBS deficiency patients who were diagnosed at young age and were managed with good metabolic control. We found that the BMD of each region was within the normal range. BMD gain was adequate and the patients had no significant change in skeletal morphology.
- Pseudoarthrosis in atypical femoral fracture: case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment; they have a high frequency of delayed healing. The authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy. Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment even if, in the literature, there is no clarity on the exact pathogenetic mechanism. The Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research described the major and minor features to define atypical fractures and recommends that all the five major features must be present while minor features are not necessary. Another controversial aspect regarding the atypical femoral fractures is the higher frequency of the delayed healing that can be probably related to a suppressed bone turnover caused by a prolonged period of bisphosphonates treatment. This concept could be corroborated by the Spet Tc exam. In the case of a pseudoarthrosis, there is not a standardization of the treatment. In this report, the authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy; the patient was studied with clinical, bioumoral end SPECT-Tc exam of both femurs. Many studies show the relationship between bisphosphonates and the presence of atypical fractures. These fractures should be monitored more closely due to the risk of nonunion and they require considering an initial treatment with pharmacological augmentation to reduce the complications for the patient and the health care costs.
- Bisphosphonate use and subsequent hip fracture in South Korea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
We determined the incidence of second hip fracture and evaluated whether compliant and persistent users of bisphosphonate had a lower incidence of second hip fracture after prior hip fracture, from a national claim registry.
INTRODUCTION:Bisphosphonate is prescribed worldwide for the primary prevention of osteoporotic fracture. However, the association between adherent use of bisphosphonate and prevention of second hip fracture is unclear. Our purpose was to determine whether the adherent use of bisphosphonate was associated with a decreased risk of second hip fracture in South Korea, using a nationwide database.
METHODS:From 2007 to 2011, first and second hip fractures were identified using the ICD-10 and procedure code form from the nationwide database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Compliant use of bisphosphonate was defined as a patient medication possession ratio of 80 or more. Persistent users were defined patients with a refill gap of 30 days or less. We compared the incidence of second hip fracture in compliant and persistent users and non-users.
RESULTS:Among 59,782 patients with first hip fracture, in this study, 1,336 second hip fracture occurred after the initial hip fracture during the study period. The mean age at the first hip fracture was 75.4 years (range, 50 to 100 years). The cumulative 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year incidence of second hip fracture was 1.0 % (552/59,782), 1.9 % (1,123/59,782), and 2.2 % (1,336/59,782), respectively. After multivariate analysis, compliant and persistent use of bisphosphonate was significantly independent protectors for second hip fracture (HR, 0.595; 95 % CI, 0.400-0.885; HR, 0.433; 95 % CI, 0.327-0.573, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS:Compliant and persistent use of bisphosphonate decreases the risk of second hip fracture, in terms of secondary prevention.
- Ankle fractures have features of an osteoporotic fracture. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
We report the bone attenuation of ankle joint measured on computed tomography (CT) and the cause of injury in patients with ankle fractures. The results showed age- and gender-dependent low bone attenuation and low-energy trauma in elderly females, which suggest the osteoporotic features of ankle fractures.
INTRODUCTION:This study was performed to investigate the osteoporotic features of ankle fracture in terms of bone attenuation and cause of injury.
METHODS:One hundred ninety-four patients (mean age 51.0 years, standard deviation 15.8 years; 98 males and 96 females) with ankle fracture were included. All patients underwent CT examination, and causes of injury (high/low-energy trauma) were recorded. Mean bone attenuations of the talus, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, and distal tibial metaphysis were measured on CT images. Patients were divided into younger age (<50 years) and older age (≥50 years) groups, and mean bone attenuation and causes of injury were compared between the two groups in each gender.
RESULTS:Proportion of low-energy trauma was higher in the older age group than in the younger age group, but the difference was only significant in female gender (p = 0.011). The older age group showed significantly lower bone attenuation in the talus, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, and distal tibial metaphysis than the younger age group in both genders. The older age group showed more complex pattern of fractures than the younger age group. With increasing age, bone attenuations tended to decrease and the difference of bone attenuation between the genders tended to increase in the talus, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, and distal tibial metaphysis.
CONCLUSIONS:Ankle fracture had features of osteoporotic fracture that is characterized by age- and gender-dependent low bone attenuation. Ankle fracture should not be excluded from the clinical and research interest as well as from the benefit of osteoporosis management.
- Bone mass and density in preadolescent boys with and without Down syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
Preadolescent boys with Down syndrome at 7-10 years of age have lower bone mass and density in the pelvis than age-matched children without Down syndrome. However, bone mass and density of total body less head and lumbar spine are not different between these two groups.
INTRODUCTION:This study aimed to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in preadolescent boys with and without Down syndrome (DS) at 7-10 years of age.
METHODS:Eleven preadolescent boys with DS and eleven age-matched children without DS participated in this study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMC and BMD in whole body and lumbar spine. Both BMC and BMD of total body less head (TBLH) and lumbar spine (vertebrae L2-L4) were compared between the two groups, with and without adjusting for physical characteristics such as bone area, body height, and total lean mass. Two bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) variables were calculated to estimate volumetric BMD in the lumbar spine.
RESULTS:Both BMC and BMD in the pelvis were lower in the DS group, after adjusting for physical characteristics. However, with and without adjusting for physical characteristics, the two groups were not different in BMC and BMD of the arms, legs, and TBLH from the whole body scan and in BMC, BMD, and BMAD of the lumbar spine from the lumbar spine scan.
CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that the pelvis may be the first site to show the significant difference in BMC and BMD between preadolescent boys with and without DS. It also suggests that significantly lower BMC and BMD in whole body and lumbar spine, which is usually observed in young adults with DS, may not occur before adolescence.
- The efficacy of calcium supplementation alone in elderly Thai women over a 2-year period: a randomized controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
Supplementation with elemental calcium 500 mg/day alone for 2 years is able to decrease bone turnover and is effective in retarding bone loss at lumbar spine and slowing bone loss at femoral neck in elderly Thai women who had low dietary calcium intake.
INTRODUCTION:Most elderly Thais have a total dietary calcium intake of less than the recommended amount. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density and biochemical indices of bone remodeling in Thai postmenopausal women.
METHODS:Four hundred and four healthy postmenopausal women 60 years old or older without osteoporosis were recruited and conducted in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. They were randomly given elementary calcium 500 mg/day or placebo for 2 years. Dietary calcium intake was calculated from the nutrient compositional analysis of the 3-day food records. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay and bone turnover markers were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.
RESULTS:The age of the subjects was 65.8 ± 4.4 years. All baseline characteristics of the subjects in the calcium-supplemented group and the placebo group were not statistically different. At the end of the study, significant decreases in serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and serum total procollagen type I amino terminal propeptide in the calcium-supplemented group were observed, while there was no change in the placebo group. In addition, plasma parathyroid hormone decreased, although not significantly, only in the calcium-supplemented group. Percent changes from baseline of lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density increased 2.76 % in the calcium-supplemented group and 0.87 % in the placebo group, whereas the percent changes from baseline of femoral neck decreased 0.21 % in the calcium-supplemented group and 0.90 % in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS:Calcium supplementation is necessary for the decrease of bone turnover and prevention of bone loss in Thai elderly women.
- Generation and validation of a normative, age-specific reference curve for lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) in French women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 17.
Age-related changes in lumbar vertebral microarchitecture are evaluated, as assessed by trabecular bone score (TBS), in a cohort of 5,942 French women. The magnitude of TBS decline between 45 and 85 years of age is piecewise linear in the spine and averaged 14.5 %. TBS decline rate increases after 65 years by 50 %.
INTRODUCTION:This study aimed to evaluate age-related changes in lumbar vertebral microarchitecture, as assessed by TBS, in a cohort of French women aged 45-85 years.
METHODS:An all-comers cohort of French Caucasian women was selected from two clinical centers. Data obtained from these centers were cross-calibrated for TBS and bone mineral density (BMD). BMD and TBS were evaluated at L1-L4 and for all lumbar vertebrae combined using GE-Lunar Prodigy densitometer images. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) also were determined. To validate our all-comers cohort, the BMD normative data of our cohort and French Prodigy data were compared.
RESULTS:A cohort of 5,942 French women aged 45 to 85 years was created. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry normative data obtained for BMD from this cohort were not significantly different from French prodigy normative data (p = 0.15). TBS values at L1-L4 were poorly correlated with BMI (r = -0.17) and weight (r = -0.14) and not correlated with height. TBS values obtained for all lumbar vertebra combined (L1, L2, L3, L4) decreased with age. The magnitude of TBS decline at L1-L4 between 45 and 85 years of age was piecewise linear in the spine and averaged 14.5 %, but this rate increased after 65 years by 50 %. Similar results were obtained for other region of interest in the lumbar spine. As opposed to BMD, TBS was not affected by spinal osteoarthrosis.
CONCLUSION:The age-specific reference curve for TBS generated here could therefore be used to help clinicians to improve osteoporosis patient management and to monitor microarchitectural changes related to treatment or other diseases in routine clinical practice.
- Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 15.
In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese.