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PPAR Res [journal]
- Interactions between Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Selective Drugs. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:938401.
Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular shuttles for fatty acids as well as lipophilic xenobiotics to the nucleus, where these ligands are released to a group of nuclear receptors called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR mediated gene activation is ultimately involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that target the activating ligand. Here we show that liver- (L-) FABP displays a high binding affinity for PPAR subtype selective drugs. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping and proteolytic protection experiments show that the binding of the PPAR subtype selective drugs produces conformational changes that stabilize the portal region of L-FABP. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies also revealed that L-FABP can form a complex with the PPAR ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPAR . This protein-protein interaction may represent a mechanism for facilitating the activation of PPAR transcriptional activity via the direct channeling of ligands between the binding pocket of L-FABP and the PPAR LBD. The role of L-FABP in the delivery of ligands directly to PPAR via this channeling mechanism has important implications for regulatory pathways that mediate xenobiotic responses and host protection in tissues such as the small intestine and the liver where L-FABP is highly expressed.
- PPARs and Liver Disease. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:896412.
- Expression and Function of PPARs in Placenta. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:256508.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of several tissues including placenta, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. The PPARs also control a variety of target genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Similar to other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation but also by crosstalk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, several mechanisms underlying negative regulation of gene expression by PPARs have been shown. It is suggested that PPARs are key messengers responsible for the translation of nutritional stimuli into changes in gene expression pathways for placental development.
- Molecular Implications of the PPARs in the Diabetic Eye. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:686525.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains as the leading cause of blindness among working age individuals in developed countries. Current treatments for DR (laser photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, and vitreoretinal surgery) are applicable only at advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments for the early stages of the disease are needed. Emerging evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors (PPARs) agonists (in particular PPARα) are useful for the treatment of DR. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are far from being elucidated. This paper mainly focuses on PPARs expression in the diabetic eye, its molecular implications, and the effect of PPAR agonists as a new approach for the treatment of DR. The availability of this new strategy will not only be beneficial in treating DR but may also result in a shift towards treating earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy, thus easing the burden of this devastating disease (Cheung et al. (2010)).
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor genetic polymorphisms and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease: any role in disease susceptibility? [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:452061.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extend from simple steatosis, that is, increased hepatic lipid content, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis with its associated complications. Nuclear hormone receptors act as intracellular lipid sensors that coordinate genetic networks regulating lipid metabolism and energy utilization. This family of transcription factors, in particular peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), represents attractive drug targets for the management of NAFLD and NASH, as well as related conditions such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The impact on the regulation of lipid metabolism observed for PPARs has led to the hypothesis that genetic variants within the human PPARs genes may be associated with human disease such as NAFLD, the metabolic syndrome, and/or coronary heart disease. Here we review the available evidence on the association between PPARs genetic polymorphism and the susceptibility to NAFLD and NASH, and we provide a meta-analysis of the available evidence. The impact of PPAR variants on the susceptibility to NASH in specific subgroup of patients, and in particular on the response to therapies, especially those targeting PPARs, represents promising new areas of investigation.
- Therapeutic implications of targeting energy metabolism in breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:109285.
PPARs are ligand activated transcription factors. PPARγ agonists have been reported as a new and potentially efficacious treatment of inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cancer, AD, and schizophrenia. Since cancer cells show dysregulation of glycolysis they are potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. Interestingly, several of the genes involved in maintaining the metabolic environment and the central energy generation pathway are regulated or predicted to be regulated by PPARγ. The use of synthetic PPARγ ligands as drugs and their recent withdrawal/restricted usage highlight the lack of understanding of the molecular basis of these drugs, their off-target effects, and their network. These data further underscores the complexity of nuclear receptor signalling mechanisms. This paper will discuss the function and role of PPARγ in energy metabolism and cancer biology in general and its emergence as a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer.
- Structural Features and Transcriptional Activity of Chicken PPARs (α, β, and γ). [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2013.:186312.
While an understanding of lipid metabolism in chickens is critical for a further improvement of food production, there are few studies concerning differences in lipid metabolism mechanisms between chickens and other species at a molecular level. Chickens have three PPAR gene subtypes (α, β, and γ) that function differently from those present in humans and mice. The chicken PPAR-gamma (cPPARγ) gene is shorter than that in humans and lacks a γ2 isoform. Moreover, in serum-free media, cPPARγ shows high transcriptional activity without exogenous ligands. Luciferase reporter assays were used to examine the effect of sera on cPPAR transcriptional activities and showed that adult bovine serum and chicken serum highly activate cPPARα and β functions. Moreover, we found that bezafibrate induces the transactivation function of cPPARβ, but not human PPARδ (human PPARβ ortholog). This ligand selectivity relies on one amino acid residue (chicken: Val419, human: Met444). These results show the possibilities for unique functions of cPPARs on chicken-specific lipid glucose metabolism. As such, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism in chickens could result in higher productivity for the poultry industry.
- Solution Structures of PPARγ2/RXRα Complexes. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2012.:701412.
PPARγ is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitization. PPARγ must heterodimerize with its dimeric partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR), to bind DNA and associated coactivators such as p160 family members or PGC-1α to regulate gene networks. To understand how coactivators are recognized by the functional heterodimer PPARγ/RXRα and to determine the topological organization of the complexes, we performed a structural study using small angle X-ray scattering of PPARγ/RXRα in complex with DNA from regulated gene and the TIF2 receptor interacting domain (RID). The solution structures reveal an asymmetry of the overall structure due to the crucial role of the DNA in positioning the heterodimer and indicate asymmetrical binding of TIF2 to the heterodimer.
- Prostaglandins as PPARγ Modulators in Adipogenesis. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2012.:527607.
Adipocytes and fat cells play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) is regulated via a complex process including coordinated changes in hormone sensitivity and gene expression. PPARγ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and important in adipogenesis, as it enhances the expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in adipocytes. Prostaglandins (PGs), which are lipid mediators, are associated with the regulation of PPARγ function in adipocytes. Prostacyclin promotes the differentiation of adipocyte-precursor cells to adipose cells via activation of the expression of C/EBPβ and δ. These proteins are important transcription factors in the activation of the early phase of adipogenesis, and they activate the expression of PPARγ, which event precedes the maturation of adipocytes. PGE(2) and PGF(2α) strongly suppress the early phase of adipocyte differentiation by enhancing their own production via receptor-mediated elevation of the expression of cycloxygenase-2, and they also suppress the function of PPARγ. In contrast, PGD(2) and its non-enzymatic metabolite, Δ(12)-PGJ(2), activate the middle-late phase of adipocyte differentiation through both DP2 receptors and PPARγ. This paper focuses on potential roles of PGs as PPARγ modulators in adipogenesis and regulators of obesity.
- Signaling Crosstalk between PPARγ and BMP2 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells. [Journal Article]
- PPAR Res 2012.:607141.
Recent studies have revealed that PPARγ's transactivation function is regulated by extracellular signals. In particular, cytokines and Wnt family proteins suppress the ligand-inducible transactivation function of PPARγ and attenuate adipogenesis/osteoblastogenesis switching in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). For example, Wnt5a suppresses PPARγ transcriptional activity through the NLK/SETDB1/CHD7 pathway. Among these factors, BMP2 strongly induces bone formation, but the effect of BMP2 on PPARγ function remains unclear. We examined the effect of BMP2 and PPARγ in ST2 cells and found that PPARγ activation affected BMP2's signaling pathway through epigenetic regulation. Although BMP2 did not interfere with PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis, BMP2 increased mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes (such as Fabp4 and Nr1h3) when cells were first treated with troglitazone (TRO). Moreover, PPARγ activation affected BMP2 through enhancement of histone activation markers (acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated Lys4 of histone H3) on the Runx2 promoter. After TRO treatment for three hours, BMP2 enhanced the levels of active histone marks on the promoter of a PPARγ target gene. These results suggest that the order of treatment with BMP2 and a PPARγ ligand is critical for adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis switching in MSCs.