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Pediatr Allergy Immunol [journal]
- The gut mucosal immune system in the neonatal period. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May 19.
Invasive sepsis in the newborn period is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The infant immune system undoubtedly differs intrinsically from the mature adult immune system. Current understanding is that the newborn infant immune system displays a range of competencies and is developing rather than deficient. The infant gut mucosal immune system is complex and displays a plethora of phenotypic and functional irregularities that may be clinically important. Various factors affect and modulate the infant gut mucosal immune system: components of the intestinal barrier, the infant gut microbiome, nutrition and the maternal-infant hybrid immune system. Elucidation of the phenotypic distribution of immune cells, their functional significance and the mucosa-specific pathways used by these cells is essential to the future of research in the field of infant immunology.
- Decrease in antigen-specific CD63 basophil expression is associated with the development of tolerance to egg by SOTI in children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May 19.
BACKGROUND:In the last decade, there have been an increasing number of studies on achieving tolerance to foods by specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI). Still, the underlying mechanism of SOTI is unknown. Our aim was to describe changes in CD63 expression on basophils following in vitro Ag-specific stimulation by basophil activation test (BAT), after SOTI with egg in a pediatric population.
METHODS:Ten children with persistent allergy to egg were included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) and open food challenges (OFCs) were performed before SOTI. Specific IgE determination and BAT with egg white (EW), ovomucoid (OM), and ovalbumin (OVA) were performed before and after 1 month of the buildup phase of SOTI.
RESULTS:Total tolerance to egg was achieved in 9 cases and partial in one. After SOTI, there was a significant decrease in mean specific IgE levels (p < 0.05). CD63 expression also decreased (p < 0.05) in all patients.
CONCLUSION:Decrease in Ag-specific basophil responsiveness is associated with the development of clinical tolerance by SOTI.
- Validation of the Paediatric Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (PFA-QL). [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):288-92.
The Paediatric Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (PFA-QL) was the first tool to be developed for assessing health-related quality of life (QoL) in children with food allergy. It has been used in a number of published studies, but has not been validated.The aim of the current study was to validate child (PFA-QL) and parent-proxy (PFA-QL-PF) versions of the scale in a specialist allergy clinic and in parents of children with food allergy.For the clinic sample, a generic QoL scale (PedsQL) and the PFA-QL were completed by 103 children (age 6-16 yrs) with peanut or tree nut allergy; test-retest reliability of the PFA-QL was tested in 50 stable patients. For the non-clinical sample, 756 parents of food allergic children completed the PFA-QL-PF, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50), Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB) and a Food Allergy Impact Measure.The PFA-QL and PFA-QL-PF had good internal consistency (α's of 0.77-0.82), and there was moderate-to-good agreement between the generic- and disease-specific questionnaires. The PFA-QL was stable over time in the clinic sample, and in both samples, girls were reported to have poorer QoL than boys.The PFA-QL and PFA-QL-PF are reliable and valid scales for use in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Unlike other available tools, they were developed and validated in the UK and thus provide a culture-specific choice for research, clinical trials and clinical practice in the UK. Validation in other countries is now needed.
- New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):282-7.
Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acid-based product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 8-10 and 14-15 yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p > 0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.
- Variable presentation of primary immune deficiency: Two cases with CD3 gamma deficiency presenting with only autoimmunity. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):257-62.
CD3 chain expression defects including CD3 gamma, epsilon, delta, and zeta chain subunits, are autosomal recessive inherited severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). The phenotype is usually T-B+NK+ SCID with lymphopenia where the clinical findings may be mild (CD3γ) or severe (CD3δ, ε, ζ) owing to the underlying molecular defect. There is limited information about the disease in literature.Here, we present two siblings from non-consanguineous family with autoimmunity including Evans syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and with no previous history of infections. To define the molecular basis of the disease, we performed linkage analysis around the CD3 receptor cluster and found consistent linkage to this region.The patient one displayed low TCRαβ expression, low IgG, low IgA, low IgM, low CD3, low CD4, low CD8. The patient two also displayed low TCRαβ expression and low anti-HBs titer. We went onto identify a homozygous splicing mutation (IVS2-1G>C) in the two affected individuals in the CD3γ gene.To date, only four cases have been reported with CD3γ deficiency. Occasionally, the patients present with only autoimmunity including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, vitiligo, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and autoimmune enteropathy. However, Evans syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and nephrotic syndrome have not been reported in previous cases. We believe that our cases will contribute to the literature.
- Association of atopic and non-atopic asthma with emotional symptoms in school children. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):230-6.
To date, there is conflicting evidence whether the association between asthma and depression depends on the atopic or non-atopic asthma phenotype. This study investigates associations between emotional symptoms and atopic and non-atopic asthma in school-aged children.Cross-sectional data on asthma and allergic diseases at the 10-year follow-up of two birth cohorts were collected by parent-reported physician diagnoses. Specific IgE levels including most common inhalant allergens (SX1) and food allergens (FX5) were measured by RAST-CAP FEIA. Atopic asthma was defined as asthma ever and positive specific IgE test, non-atopic asthma as asthma ever and no IgE sensitization. Emotional symptoms were assessed by parent-reported strength and difficulty questionnaire. Logistic regression modeling were applied to determine likelihood of emotional symptoms in children with atopic and non-atopic asthma controlling for socio-demographic factors, body mass index, atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and pubertal development.Non-atopic asthma was associated with about 3-fold higher likelihood of emotional symptoms compared to children with no asthma (ORadj = 2.90, CI95% = 1.46-5.73). Atopic asthma was not associated with emotional symptoms (ORadj = 1.35, CI95% = 0.81-2.26).Atopic and non-atopic asthma in children might have different etiologies, whereas for non-atopic asthma, emotional symptoms are relevant, this is not the case in atopic asthma. The relationship between the non-atopic asthma phenotype and emotional symptoms might be dependent on gender.
- The Editor recommends this issue's articles to the reader. [Editorial]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):211.
- Inflammatory response and IgE sensitization at early age. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 Apr 11.
BACKGROUND:Microbial exposure may induce low-grade inflammation at an early age and decrease the risk of allergic diseases, as suggested by the hygiene hypothesis. We examined the associations between low-grade inflammation and the development of allergic sensitization, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma at the age of 4.5 yr.
METHODS:We studied 636 children participating in the PASTURE study in Finland, Germany, Austria, France, and Switzerland. Data of environmental factors, doctor-diagnosed AD, and asthma were collected by questionnaire. The serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) values were measured at the age of 1 yr, and serum-specific IgE concentrations (sIgE) at the age of one and 4.5 yr. Analyses were made by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS:The risk of allergic sensitization at the age of 4.5 yr was decreased in children who had increased CRP levels at the age of 1 yr (level in the highest vs. lowest quartile: aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.95; p = 0.014). The risk of AD and asthma was not significantly related to CRP.
CONCLUSION:The findings confirm that elevated levels of CRP at early age showed association with decreased allergic sensitization later in life. Our results suggest that poor inflammatory response could predispose for IgE sensitization.
- Influence of Mediterranean diet on asthma in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 Apr 11.
BACKGROUND:There is epidemiological evidence that Mediterranean diet exposure is associated with lower asthma prevalence in children. We aimed to summarize the available data and to know whether the Mediterranean setting modifies this association.
METHODS:The literature search, up to May 2012, was on epidemiological studies in the general population of children assessing whether adherence to Mediterranean diet (measured as a score) was associated with the prevalence of 'current wheeze'; 'current severe wheeze'; or 'asthma ever'. Odds ratios (OR) of the eight included studies compared the highest tertile of the score with the lowest. Random-effects meta-analyses for the whole group of studies and stratified by Mediterranean setting (centers <100 Km from the Mediterranean coast) were performed. Differences between strata were assessed using the Q test.
RESULTS:For 'current wheeze', there was a negative significant association with the highest tertile of Mediterranean diet score (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.98; p = 0.02), driven by Mediterranean centers (0.79, 0.66-0.94, p = 0.009), although the difference with the non-Mediterranean centers (0.91, 0.78-1.05, p = 0.18) was not significant. The results for 'current severe wheeze' were as follows: 0.82, 0.55-1.22, p = 0.330 (all); 0.66, 0.48-0.90, p = 0.008 (Mediterranean); and 0.99, 0.79-1.25, p = 0.95 (non-Mediterranean); with the difference between regions being significant. For 'asthma ever', the associations were as follows: 0.86, 0.78-0.95, p = 0.004 (all); 0.86, 0.74-1.01, p = 0.06 (Mediterranean); 0.86, 0.75-0.98; p = 0.027 (non-Mediterranean); with the difference between regions being negligible.
CONCLUSIONS:Adherence to the Mediterranean diet tended to be associated with lower occurrence of the three respiratory outcomes. For current and current severe wheeze, the association was mainly driven by the results in Mediterranean populations.
- Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 Apr 11.
The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.