- Hyperglycemia induced by pasireotide in patients with Cushing's disease or acromegaly. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 Jul 12.
Cushing's disease (CD) and acromegaly are characterized by excessive hormone secretion resulting in comorbidities such as impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes and hypertension. Pasireotide is a new-generation, multireceptor-targeted somatostatin receptor ligand approved for CD (subcutaneous [SC] injection formulation) and acromegaly (long-acting release [LAR] formulation). In clinical studies of pasireotide, hyperglycemia-related adverse events (AEs) were frequently observed. This review highlights differences in reported rates of hyperglycemia in pasireotide trials and discusses risk factors for and management of pasireotide-associated hyperglycemia.Clinical trials evaluating pasireotide in patients with CD or acromegaly were reviewed.The frequency of hyperglycemia-related AEs was lower in patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide LAR (57.3-67.0 %) than in patients with CD treated with pasireotide SC (68.4-73.0 %). Fewer patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide LAR discontinued therapy because of hyperglycemia-related AEs (Colao et al. in J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(3):791-799, 2014, 3.4 %; Gadelha et al. in Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2(11):875-884, 2014, 4.0 %) than did patients with CD treated with pasireotide SC (Boscaro et al. in Pituitary 17(4):320-326, 2014, 5.3 %; Colao et al. in N Engl J Med 366(10):914-924, 2012, 6.0 %). Hyperglycemia-related AEs occurred in 40.0 % of patients with acromegaly treated with pasireotide SC, and 10.0 % discontinued treatment because of hyperglycemia. Ongoing studies evaluating pasireotide LAR in patients with CD and management of pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia in patients with CD or acromegaly (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT01374906 and NCT02060383, respectively) will address these key safety issues.Disease pathophysiology, drug formulation, and physician experience potentially influence the differences in reported rates of pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia in CD and acromegaly. Hyperglycemic effects associated with pasireotide have a predictable pattern, can be managed with antidiabetic agents, and are reversible upon discontinuation.
- Clinical prevalence and outcome impact of pituitary dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review with meta-analysis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 Jun 10.
Pituitary dysfunction is reported to be a common complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of this meta-analysis is to analyze the literature on clinical prevalence, risk factors and outcome impact of pituitary dysfunction after aSAH, and to assess the possible need for pituitary screening in aSAH patients.We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis based on a comprehensive search of four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar).A total of 20 papers met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of pituitary dysfunction in the acute phase (within the first 6 months after aSAH) was 49.30 % (95 % CI 41.6-56.9), decreasing in the chronic phase (after 6 months from aSAH) to 25.6 % (95 % CI 18.0-35.1). Abnormalities in basal hormonal levels were more frequent when compared to induction tests, and the prevalence of a single pituitary hormone dysregulation was more frequent than multiple pituitary hormone dysregulation. Increasing age was associated with a lower prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in the acute phase, and surgical treatment of the aneurysm (clipping) was related to a higher prevalence of single hormone dysfunction. The prevalence of pituitary dysfunction did not correlate with the outcome of the patient.Neuroendocrine dysfunction is common after aSAH, but these abnormalities have not been shown to consistently impact outcome in the data available. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies to more precisely assess the incidence, clinical course, and outcome impact of pituitary dysfunction after aSAH.
- Combined treatment with octreotide LAR and pegvisomant in patients with pituitary gigantism: clinical evaluation and genetic screening. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 Jun 10.
Pituitary gigantism is a rare condition caused by growth hormone secreting hypersecretion, usually by a pituitary tumor. Acromegaly and gigantism cases that have a genetic cause are challenging to treat, due to large tumor size and poor responses to some medical therapies (e.g. AIP mutation affected cases and those with X-linked acrogigantism syndrome).We performed a retrospective study to identify gigantism cases among 160 somatotropinoma patients treated between 1985 and 2015 at the University Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela. We studied clinical details at diagnosis, hormonal responses to therapy and undertook targeted genetic testing. Among the 160 cases, eight patients (six males; 75 %) were diagnosed with pituitary gigantism and underwent genetic analysis that included array comparative genome hybridization for Xq26.3 duplications.All patients had GH secreting pituitary macroadenomas that were difficult to control with conventional treatment options, such as surgery or primary somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) therapy. Combined therapy (long-acting SRL and pegvisomant) as primary treatment or after pituitary surgery and radiotherapy permitted the normalization of IGF-1 levels and clinical improvement. Novel AIP mutations were the found in three patients. None of the patients had Xq26.3 microduplications.Treatment of pituitary gigantism is frequently challenging; delayed control increases the harmful effects of GH excess, such as, excessive stature and symptom burden, so early diagnosis and effective treatment are particularly important in these cases.
- Challenges in the diagnosis and management of acromegaly: a focus on comorbidities. [Journal Article]
- Pituitary 2016 Aug; 19(4):448-57.
Acromegaly is a rare, insidious disease resulting from the overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and is associated with a range of comorbidities. The extent of associated complications and mortality risk is related to length of exposure to the excess GH and IGF-1, thus early diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Unfortunately, acromegaly is often diagnosed late, when patients already have a wide range of comorbidities. The presence of comorbid conditions contributes significantly to patient morbidity/mortality and impaired quality of life.We conducted a retrospective literature review for information relating to the diagnosis of acromegaly, and its associated comorbidities using PubMed. The main aim of this review is to highlight the issues of comorbidities in acromegaly, and to reinforce the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.Successful management of acromegaly goes beyond treating the disease itself, since many patients are diagnosed late in disease evolution, they present with a range of comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea. It is important that patients are screened carefully at diagnosis (and thereafter), for common associated complications, and that biochemical control does not become the only treatment goal. Mortality and morbidities in acromegaly can be reduced successfully if patients are treated using a multimodal approach with comprehensive comorbidity management.
- Enhanced cosyntropin stimulation test performance enabled by electronic medical record. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 Jun 3.
To improve performance of the cosyntropin stimulation test (CST) used for diagnosis of adrenal-cortisol insufficiency by implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) system protocol.We implemented a SmartForm protocol of the validated CST in our EMR system (CS-Link™, EPIC) system and compared medical staff test performance before and after protocol implementation.Correct performance of the CST improved significantly after EMR implementation. The number of correctly performed CSTs increased from 16.1 % before to 53.5 % after implementation (p < 0.0001) while those performed incorrectly and were uninterpretable decreased from 36.2 to 7.1 % (p < 0.0001). This performance improvement result in a calculated cost savings of $50,414 for every 100 tests performed.The EMR system is useful for guiding medical staff to accurately perform the CST, reduce the number of wasted tests, and maximize staff time and resources.
- Accuracy of immunoassay and mass spectrometry urinary free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 Jun 3.
Urinary free cortisol (UFC) determination by highly specific methods as mass spectrometry instead of commercially available antibody-based immunoassays is increasingly recommended. However, clinical comparisons of both analytical approaches in the screening of Cushing's syndrome (CS) are not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of mass spectrometry versus immunoassay measurements of 24 h-UFC in the screening of CS.Cross-sectional study of 33 histologically confirmed CS patients: 25 Cushing's disease, 5 adrenal CS and 3 ectopic CS; 92 non-CS patients; and 35 healthy controls. UFC by immunoassay (UFCxIA) and mass spectrometry (UFCxMS), urinary free cortisone (UFCo) and UFC:UFCo ratio were measured, together with creatinine-corrected values. Sensitivity, specificity, AUC and Landis and Koch concordance index were determined.AUC for UFCxIA and UFCxMS were 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.87) and 0.77 (CI 0.67-0.87) respectively, with a kappa coefficient 0.60 and strong Landis and Koch concordance index. The best calculated cutoff values were 359 nmol/24 h for UFCxIA (78 % sensitivity, 62 % specificity) and 258.1 nmol/24 h for UCFxMS (53 % sensitivity, 86 % specificity). The upper limit of UFCxIA and UCFxMS reference ranges were 344.7 and 169.5 nmol/24 h respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for CS diagnosis at these cutpoints were 84 and 56 % for UFCxIA and 81 and 54 % for UFCxMS.According to our data, both methods present a very similar diagnostic value. However, results suggest that lower cutoff points for mass spectrometry may be necessary in order to improve clinical sensitivity.
- Second-line tests in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 May 28.
Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) can be a challenge, especially in ACTH-dependent CS, when it comes to detecting the origin of ACTH secretion.Retrospective data were collected on 170 patients with ACTH-dependent CS (149 CD, 21 EAS) referring to two endocrinology units, focusing on three non-invasive tests: dexamethasone 8 mg overnight challenge (HDDST); corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assay and the desmopressin (DDAVP) test.Patients with EAS were slightly older and had higher ACTH, serum and urinary cortisol levels than patients with CD (p < 0.01). CD patients had a stronger ACTH and cortisol response after CRH injection (p < 0.0001), and a more pronounced reduction in cortisol levels after HDDST (p < 0.0001). A threshold percentage ACTH increase after CRH stimulation of 72.4 % was able to identify CD with a sensitivity (SE) of 76 % (95 % CI 68-83) and a specificity (SP) of 100 % (95 % CI 83-100). As for HDDST, a cortisol suppression >52.7 % below the basal level suggested a pituitary origin with a SE of 88 % (95 % CI 81-93) and a SP of 90 % (95 % CI 68-99). There were no cases of EAS with positive responses to both these tests. Increases in ACTH and cortisol levels after the DDAVP test were also higher in CD than in EAS (p < 0.01), though the SE and SP were lower.Patients with CD showed a stronger response to HDDST and CRH, and the adopted cut-offs showed a good SE and SP in discriminating them from patients with EAS. Concordant tests indicated CD when positive, whereas no response to either test was highly suggestive of EAS. The DDAVP test was of limited utility in the diagnostic phase. In conclusion, the choice of tests may play an important part in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.
- Double separate versus contiguous pituitary adenomas: MRI features and endocrinological follow up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 May 21.
Double pituitary adenomas are defined as two adenomas within a gland. These have distinct light microscopic and immunohistochemical features and may be clearly-separate or contiguous. Most reports have focused on the various hormonal combinations in double tumors rather than on any potential increased risk for residual mass or endocrinopathy.Departmental files were searched to identify all double adenomas from 1/1/2000 to 3/1/2016, with review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if the dual nature of the lesions could be discerned retrospectively after histologic diagnosis of double adenoma. All cases were immunostained for standard anterior pituitary hormones.Eight cases were identified: 2 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/alpha subunit (ASU) + prolactinoma (PRL); 1 PRL + corticotroph (ACTH); 1 hormone-negative + PRL; 1 ACTH + ASU/growth hormone (GH)/PRL; 1 GH/PR + PRL; 1 FSH/ASU, + ACTH; 1 GH + luteinizing hormone (LH). One patient had clearly-separate lesions identified preoperatively and required two surgical procedures for gross total resection. A second patient had 2 lesions recognized at surgery and afterwards on retrospective neuroimaging. The remaining 6 patients had double adenomas discovered at the time of histologic examination that were not resolvable at surgery or on retrospective neuroimaging. Four patients, 2 with clearly-separate and 2 with contiguous double adenomas, had persistent MRI abnormalities, and one had continued endocrine abnormalities.Double contiguous pituitary adenomas are difficult to anticipate preoperatively or to resolve intraoperatively. Although double contiguous adenomas are much more common than double separate lesions, both have a risk for subtotal resection and, thus, residual mass and/or endocrinopathy may ensue.
- Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence in patients with acromegaly. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 May 20.
Acromegaly is a systemic disease which causes multiple bony alterations. Some authors reported that acromegalic patients have risk factors for an intraoperative vascular injury due to the specific anatomical features of their sphenoid sinus. The objective of our study was to analyze the anatomic characteristics of sphenoid sinus in acromegalic patients compared with controls, by evaluation of computed tomography (CT) findings.We examined 45 acromegalic (acromegaly group) and 45 non-acromegalic patients (control group) with pituitary adenomas who were matched for sex, age, height, tumor size, and cavernous sinus invasion (Knosp grade). Preoperative CT of the pituitary region including the sphenoid sinus was used to evaluate the following anatomic characteristics: type of sphenoid sinus (sellar or pre-sellar/conchal); intrasphenoid septa (non/single or multiple); carotid artery protrusion; carotid artery dehiscence; intercarotid distance.Sixteen acromegalic patients (35.5 %) and 6 controls (13.3 %) had carotid artery protrusion. Additionally, 10 acromegalic patients (22.2 %) and 3 controls (6.6 %) had carotid artery dehiscence. Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence were more frequent in the acromegaly group than in control group (p = 0.013 and 0.035, respectively). Other anatomic characteristics (type of sphenoid sinus, intrasphenoid septa, and intracarotid distance) showed no significant differences between acromegaly and control groups.Our study suggests that carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence occur more frequently among acromegalic patients, compared with non-acromegalic patients. It is important for surgeons to be aware of these anatomic variations to avoid vital complications, such as carotid injuries, during surgery.
- Investigating the role of cortisol and growth hormone in fatty liver development: fatty liver index in patients with pituitary adenomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2016 May 18.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Although glucocorticoids and growth hormone are known to be implicated in its pathophysiology, it has only rarely been investigated in the context of patients with pituitary insufficiency or former cortisol excess.Case-control study in patients with biochemically controlled Cushing's disease (CD; N = 33) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA; N = 79). NAFLD was estimated by calculating the fatty liver index (FLI) including BMI, waist circumference, GGT and triglyceride levels.Although there was no difference in FLI between patients with NFPA and CD, we identified average daily hydrocortisone (HC) intake in those with adrenal insufficiency to be an independent predictor of FLI (β = 1.124; p = 0.017), even after adjusting for BMI and waist circumference. In line, those with a FLI > 60 were also taking in average significantly more HC per day than those with a score <60 (21.05 mg ± 5.9 vs. 17.9 mg ± 4.4; p = 0.01). FLI was also the best independent predictor for HbA1c and fasting glucose levels (both p = 0.001). Growth hormone deficiency and replacement therapy were not associated with FLI in either group.While HC dosage affects FLI as an estimate of NFLD in patients with CD and NFPA, the benefit of GH replacement still needs to be determined. In contrast to reports in CD patients with active disease, NAFLD in those with biochemical control was not different from NFPA patients.