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Planta medica [journal]
- In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Wound-Healing Potential of a Phyllostachys edulis Leaf Extract - Identification of Isoorientin as an Active Compound. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 15.
Extracts prepared from the leaves of Phyllostachys edulis (bamboo) have received attention in pharmacological research due to their potent antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of a bamboo leaf extract on tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced overproduction of interleukin 8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin 6 in immortalized human keratinocytes were investigated for the first time. In addition, wound-healing effects were evaluated in 3T3-swiss albino mouse fibroblasts. Bamboo leaf extract and isoorientin inhibited the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced release of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, isoorientin dose-dependently reduced levels of interleukin 6 in tumor necrosis factor alpha-α-treated immortalized human keratinocytes cells. Wound healing was evaluated using a modification of the classical scratch assay. For evaluation of the wound gap, a new computerized method based on time-lapse microscopy was developed. It was shown that bamboo leaf extract (10 µg/mL) improved wound closure by 28 % (12 h) and 54 % (24 h), respectively. In concentrations of 50 µg/mL and above, bamboo leaf extract inhibited cell migration without affecting cell viability. Isoorientin (10 µM) improved wound closure by 29 % (12 h) and 56 % (24 h), respectively. Comparable to bamboo leaf extract, higher concentrations of isoorientin prevented cell migration. It is suggested that bamboo leaf extract as well as isoorientin have a dual activity - in higher doses, they show anti-inflammatory effects, and in lower concentrations, they exert anti-angiogenic activities.
- Antimicrobial, Antioxidative, and Insect Repellent Effects of Artemisia absinthium Essential Oil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 15.
In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from < 0.08 to 2.43 mg/mL and from 0.08 to 38.80 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging methods and assessed as significant. Skin irritation potential and acute toxicity of the oil were also investigated. Results of the skin irritant reaction showed that none of the 30 volunteers developed a positive skin irritant reaction to undiluted A. absinthium essential oil. Acute oral exposure to the essential oil did not cause mortality in the treated mice, but it did cause neurological, muscle, and gastrointestinal problems. A subchronic toxicity test on Drosophila melanogaster showed that the essential oil of A. absinthium is toxic for developing insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit analysis revealed that the LC50 value of A. absinthium essential oil for D. melanogaster larvae after 15 days of exposure was 6.31 % (49 mg/mL). The essential oil also affected the development of D. melanogaster larvae and significantly delayed achievement of the pupa stadium.
- Oligostilbenoids with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity from Dipterocarpus alatus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 15.
Phytochemical investigation of the stem wood of Dipterocarpus alatus led to the isolation and characterization of four new oligostilbenoids, dipterocarpols A-D (1-4), together with two known resveratrol oligomers, hopeahainol (5) and hopeafuran (6). The structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and high-resolution MS. The absolute configurations were determined by NOESY and CD spectra. Dipterocarpol A (1) and hopeahainol A (5) showed moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 8.28 µM and 11.28 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the discovery of compound 3 gave the first evidence that the biosynthetic origin of resveratrol aneuploids is related to the loss of a half resveratrol unit by oxidative cleavage.
- Attenuation of Cisplatin-Induced Emetogenesis by Standardized Bacopa monniera Extracts in the Pigeon: Behavioral and Neurochemical Correlations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 8.
Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing and common side effects of cancer chemotherapy which often result in patient noncompliance. In the present study, standardized methanolic and n-butanolic fractions of Bacopa monniera were evaluated against cisplatin-induced emesis in the pigeon in relation to their activity on central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels. Cisplatin (7.0 mg/kg, i. v.) induced reproducible emesis without lethality in healthy pigeons. The methanolic (10-40 mg/kg) and the bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions of B. monniera (5-20 mg/kg), as well as the antioxidant N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (10 mg/kg), attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis by 66.3 % (p < 0.05), 71.6 % (p < 0.001), and 76.5 % (p < 0.001), respectively, where the standard antiemetic metoclopramide (30 mg/kg) produced a 48.9 % reduction (p < 0.01). The methanolic and n-butanolic fractions of B. monniera at all of the doses tested significantly reduced the serotonin concentration (p < 0.001) in the brain stem and intestine 3 h after cisplatin administration, while at the 18th h, B. monniera treatments attenuated not only the dopamine upsurge in the area postrema and brain stem (p < 0.05-0.001), but also the intestinal 5-HT concentration (p < 0.01-0.001). B. monniera treatments alone did not alter the basal neurotransmitters or their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine. The prolonged suppressive effect of B. monniera treatments on the behavioral signs of cisplatin-induced emesis, the subsequent supportive neural evidence, and the safety and tolerability profile suggest that B. monniera methanolic and bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions might be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of emetogenic chemotherapy, and this warrants further study in other models of emesis.
- Recovery of Polyphenols from Rose Oil Distillation Wastewater Using Adsorption Resins - A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 8.
The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins for the recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater suggesting an industrial scalability of the process.
- Antiproliferative Activity of Artemisia asiatica Extract and Its Constituents on Human Tumor Cell Lines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 8.
The extract of Artemisia asiatica herb with antiproliferative activity against four human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7) was analyzed by the MTT assay, and bioassay-directed fractionation was carried out in order to identify the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic activity. Guaianolide (1-4), seco-guianolide (5), germacranolide (6) and eudesmanolide sesquiterpenes (7), monoterpenes (8, 9), including the new compound artemisia alcohol glucoside (8), and flavonoids (10-16) were isolated as a result of a multistep chromatographic procedure (CC, CPC, PLC, and gel filtration). The compounds were identified by means of UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-and (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments. The isolated compounds 1-16 were evaluated for their tumor cell growth-inhibitory activities on a panel of four adherent cancer cell lines, and different types of secondary metabolites were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic effects of the extract. Especially cirsilineol (13), 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guai-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (3), and iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ester (5) exerted marked cytotoxic effects against the investigated cell lines, while jaceosidin (12), 6-methoxytricin (15), artecanin (2), and 5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxy-6,3'-dimethoxyflavone (14) were moderately active. All the sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes are reported here for the first time from this species, and in the case of artecanin (2), 3α-chloro-4β,10α-dihydroxy-1β,2β-epoxy-5α,7αH-guai-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (4), ridentin (6), and ridentin B (7), previously unreported NMR spectroscopic data were determined.
- Essential Oil from Myrcia ovata: Chemical Composition, Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 8.
The leaves of Myrcia ovata, popularly known as "laranjinha do mato", are frequently used as an infusion in folk medicine. The essential oil obtained from these leaves is rich in citral, a mixture of neral and geranial isomers, known for its analgesic effect. Male Swiss mice (20-22 g) were tested in models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick, and formalin tests) and acute inflammation (paw oedema and air pouch tests) as well as in a model for evaluation of spontaneous motor performance (open-field test). The essential oil from M. ovata was administered orally at doses of 50-300 mg/kg. In addition, water, vehicle, morphine (5.01 mg/kg for evaluation of pain and motor performance), acetyl salicylic acid (200 mg/kg in the formalin test), and dexamethasone (2.25 mg/kg for evaluation of oedema formation, leukocyte extravasation, and quantification of cytokines) were administered. The essential oil showed a significant effect at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg in the acute pain and acute inflammation tests. The effect of the essential oil was reduced by pretreatment with naloxone. The essential oil did not induce motor impairment. The extract was not toxic after oral administration (LD50 > 3000 mg/kg). These data provide initial evidence that the traditional use of M. ovata can be effective in reducing pain and inflammation.
- Antihypertensive Effect of Carica papaya Via a Reduction in ACE Activity and Improved Baroreflex. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 8.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension.
- Effects of Intraperitoneal Thymoquinone on Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Planta Med 2014 Oct 1.
In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds on the neuropathic pain of rats with chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Rats received repeated administration of thymoquinone (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i. p.) once a day for 14 days, beginning immediately after the nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed with the von Frey filament, acetone drop, or radiant heat stimulus, respectively. Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress, spinal glia activation, and cell death in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (a marker of microglia), glial fibrillary acidic protein (a marker of astroglia), Bcl2-associated X protein (a proapoptotic protein), and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (an antiapoptotic protein) were measured using Western blot on days 3, 7, and 14 post chronic constrictive injury. The changes in the protein levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione, biomarkers of oxidative stress, were assessed by spectrophotometric assay on day 14 post chronic constrictive injury. Repeated treatment with thymoquinone (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly alleviated behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. In the lumbar spinal cord of neuropathic rats, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 and Bcl2-associated X protein increased on day 3 post chronic constrictive injury, whereas B-cell lymphoma protein 2 did not significantly change. After repeated thymoquinone administration, the elevated Bcl2-associated X protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule reduced on day 3, while the level of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 was even stimulated. Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule and Bcl2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma protein 2 ratio declined by days 7 and 14; consequently, there were no significant differences among groups. No or little change was observed in the glial fibrillary acidic protein content during the study. Chronic constrictive injury produced a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and decrease in the contents of glutathione on day 14. Thymoquinone treatment (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) restored the levels of malondialdehyde. High dose of thymoquinone (5 mg/kg) also reversed the decreased glutathione in the injured animals. Our results indicate that, microglia, apoptotic factors, and oxidative stress rather than astroglia contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic constrictive injury, and thymoquinone plays an anti-nociceptive role possibly by antioxidant effects and inhibition of microglia activity.