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Prehosp Disaster Med [journal]
- What Are the Research Needs for the Field of Disaster Nursing? An International Delphi Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 27.:1-7.
Internationally there is an increasing amount of peer-reviewed literature pertaining to disaster nursing. The literature includes personal anecdotes, reflections, and accounts of single case studies. Furthermore, issues such as the willingness of nurses to assist in disasters, the role of nurses in disasters, leadership, competencies, and educational preparedness for nurses have been the focus of the literature. Aim The aim of this research was to determine the international research priorities for disaster nursing.This research used a three-round Delphi technique. The first round used a face-to-face workshop to generate research statements with nursing members of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM). The second and third rounds included the ranking of statements on a 5-point Likert scale with nursing members of WADEM and the World Society of Disaster Nursing (WSDN). Statements that achieved a mean of four or greater were considered a priority and progressed.Participants were from multiple countries. Research statements were generated in the areas of: education, training, and curriculum; psychosocial; strategy, relationship, and networking; and clinical practice. Psychosocial aspects of disaster nursing ranked the highest, with five statements appearing in the top ten research areas, followed by statements relating to: education, training, and curriculum; clinical practice; and finally, strategy, relationship, and networking.Future disaster nursing research should focus on the area of psychosocial aspects of disaster nursing, in particular, both the psychosocial needs of a disaster-affected community and the psychosocial wellbeing of nurses who assist in disaster health activities. Ranse J , Hutton A , Jeeawody B , Wilson R . What are the research needs for the field of disaster nursing? An international Delphi study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-7 .
- Clinical Characteristics of the Inhabitants of an Internally Displaced Persons Camp in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo After the Arms Dump Blast on March 4, 2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 27.:1-5.
On March 4, 2012, an arms dump exploded in a densely populated area in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo. At least 250 people were killed, 2,500 wounded, and 13,800 left homeless, of which 5,000 were relocated to a newly constructed internally displaced person (IDP) camp. Aim To describe the medical complaints of persons presenting to the IDP camp for medical evaluation. Patients and Methods All patients seen and treated by the Belgian First Aid and Support Team (B-FAST) in the IDP camp on March 10 and 11, 2012 were included. A unique number, age, gender, and inventory of complaints were registered on standard World Health Organization (WHO) forms.Out of 245 presenting patients, 242 files were processed. One in two patients were minors (<18 years-old), the male/female ratio was 50/50 in minors and 28/72 in adults; median (range) age in minors was three years (0-17) and for adults was 32.5 years (18-68). Twenty percent of the children were determined to be malnourished. Signs and symptoms related to infectious diseases were present in 75% of minors and 53% of adults. Trauma was present in 12% of minors and 21% of adults.One week following the disaster event, after people had relocated to IDP camps, infectious diseases became the predominate reason for seeking medical evaluation. Less than one in five people presenting to the medical post had injuries directly related to the event. Demographic data showed that around 50% of people in the IDP camp presenting for medical care were children, of which one in five was malnourished. Roggen I , van Berlaer G , Gijs G , Hubloue I . Clinical characteristics of the inhabitants of an internally displaced persons camp in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo after the arms dump blast on March 4, 2012. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-5 .
- The State of Leadership Education in Emergency Medical Services: A Multi-national Qualitative Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 26.:1-6.
This study investigated how leadership is learned in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from a multi-national perspective by interviewing EMS providers from multiple nations working in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.A phenomenological, qualitative methodology was developed and 19 EMS providers from multiple nations were interviewed in June 2013. Interview questions focused on how participants learned EMS leadership as an EMS student and throughout their careers as providers. Data were analyzed to identify themes, patterns, and codes to be used for final analysis to describe findings.Emergency Medical Services leadership is primarily learned from informal mentoring and on-the-job training in less than supportive environments. Participants described learning EMS leadership during their EMS education. A triangulation of EMS educational resources yielded limited results beyond being a leader of patient care. The only course that yielded results from triangulation was EMS Management. The need to develop EMS leadership courses was supported by the findings. Findings also supported the need to include leadership education as part of continuing medical education and training.Emergency Medical Services leadership education that prepares students for the complexities of the profession is needed. Likewise, the need for EMS leadership education and training to be part of continuing education is supported. Both are viewed as a way to advance the EMS profession. A need for further research on the topic of EMS leadership is recognized, and supported, with a call for action on suggested topics identified within the study. Leggio WJ Jr . The state of leadership education in Emergency Medical Services: a multi-national qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-6 .
- Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 26.:1-8.
In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners' achievements and satisfaction of a 1-month educational course on the fundamentals of disaster medicine. This experience might represent a valid and innovative solution for a disaster medicine curriculum for medical students that is easily delivered by medical schools. Table 1 List of Modules and Topics Module Topics 1. Introduction to disaster medicine and public health during emergencies - Modern taxonomy of disaster and common disaster medicine definitions - Differences between disaster and emergency medicine - Principles of public health during disasters - Different phases of disaster management 2. Prehospital disaster management - Mass-casualty disposition, treatment area, and transport issues - Disaster plans and command-and-control chain structure - Functional response roles 3. Specific disaster medicine and triage procedures in the - Mass-casualty triage definitions and principles management of disasters - Different methodologies and protocols - Patient assessment, triage levels and tags 4. Hospital disaster preparedness and response - Hospital disaster laws - Hospital preparedness plans for in-hospital and out-hospital disasters with an all-hazard approach - Medical management for a massive influx of casualties 5. Health consequences of different disasters - Characteristics of different types of disasters - Health impact of natural and man-made disasters - Disaster-related injury after exposure to a different disasters with an all-hazard approach 6. Psychosocial care - Techniques to deal with psychic reactions caused by exposure to disaster scenarios - Treatment approaches to acute and delayed critical incident stress reactions 7. Presentation of past disasters and public health emergencies, and Case study: review of assistance experiences - Haiti earthquake - Cholera outbreaks in Haiti - National and international disaster response mechanism Ingrassia PL , Ragazzoni L , Tengattini M , Carenzo L , Della Corte F . Nationwide program of education for undergraduates in the field of disaster medicine: development of a core curriculum centered on blended learning and simulation tools. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-8 .
- Education and Training Initiatives for Crisis Management in the European Union: A Web-based Analysis of Available Programs-CORRIGENDUM. [Journal Article]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug; 29(4):438.
- Research in prehospital and disaster health and medicine: developing a research objective statement. [Journal Article]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug; 29(4):341-3.
- The "ICE" Study: Feasibility of Inexpensive Commercial Coolers on Mobile EMS Units. [Journal Article]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Jun; 29(3):254-61.
Introduction Prehospital postresuscitation induced hypothermia (IH) has been shown to reduce neurological complications in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors. Retrofitting ambulances to include equipment appropriate to initiate hypothermia, such as refrigeration units for cooled saline, is expensive. The objective of this nonhuman subject research study was to determine if inexpensive, commercially available coolers could, in conjunction with five reusable ice packs, keep two 1 L bags of precooled 0.9% normal saline solution (NSS) at or below 4°C for an average shift of eight to 12 hours in a real-world environment, on board in-service Emergency Medical Service (EMS) units, over varying weather conditions in all seasons.The coolers were chosen based on availability and affordability from two nationally available brands: The Igloo MaxxCold (Igloo Products Corp., Katy, Texas USA) and Coleman (The Coleman Company, Wichita, Kansas USA). Both are 8.5 liter (nine-quart) coolers that were chosen because they adequately held two 1 L bags of saline solution, along with the reusable ice packs designated in the study design, and were small enough for ease of placement on ambulances. Initial testing of the coolers was conducted in a controlled environment. Thereafter, each EMS unit was responsible to cool the saline to less than 4°C prior to shift. Data were collected by emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and resident physicians working in seven different ambulance squads. Data analysis was performed using repeated measurements recorded over a 12-hour period from 19 individual coolers and were summarized by individual time points using descriptive statistics.Initial testing determined that the coolers maintained temperatures of 4°C for 12 hours in a controlled environment. On the ambulances, results based on the repeated measurements over time revealed that the saline solution samples as defined in the protocol, remained consistently below 4°C for 12 hours. Utilizing the lower bound of the 2-sided 95% exact binomial confidence intervals, there was less than a five percent chance that saline samples could not be maintained below 4°C for 12 hours, even during the summer months.Simple, commercially available coolers can maintain two 1 L bags of 0.9% NSS at 4°C for 12 hours in ambulances in varying environmental conditions. This suggests that EMS agencies could inexpensively initiate prehospital IH in appropriate cases. Kane KE , Tomsho RJ , Pheasant K , Stauffer T , Schoenfeldt B , Hamilton S , Kain T , Kane BG . The "ICE" study: feasibility of inexpensive commercial coolers on mobile EMS units. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-8 .
- Is there a scientific basis for disaster health and medicine? [Editorial]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Jun; 29(3):221-2.
- Does Hospital Disaster Preparedness Predict Response Performance During a Full-scale Exercise? A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 5.:1-7.
Introduction The assessment of hospital disaster preparedness and response performance is a way to find and remove possible gaps and weaknesses in hospital disaster management effectiveness. The aim of this pilot study was to test the association between the level of preparedness and the level of response performance during a full-scale hospital exercise.This pilot study was conducted in a hospital during a full-scale exercise in the Piedmont region of Italy. The preparedness evaluation was conducted by a group of three experts, three days before the exercise, and the response evaluation was conducted during the exercise. The functional capacity module was used for preparedness evaluation, and the response performance of the "command and control" function of the hospital was evaluated by nine semiquantitative performance indicators.The preparedness of the chosen hospital was 59%, while the response performance was evaluated as 70%. The hospital staff conducted Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (START) triage while they received 61 casualties, which was 90% correct for the yellow group and 100% correct for the green group.This pilot study showed that it is possible to use standardized evaluations tools, to simultaneously assess the relationship between preparedness elements and response performance measures. An experimental study including a group of hospitals, also using more comprehensive evaluation tools, should be done to evaluate the correlation between the level of preparedness and the response performance of a hospital, and the impact of hospital disaster planning, on the outcome of disasters victims. Djalali A , Carenzo L , Ragazzoni L , Azzaretto M , Petrino R , Della Corte F , Ingrassia PL . Does hospital disaster preparedness predict response performance during a full-scale exercise? A pilot study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(4):1-7 .
- The Need for a Systematic Approach to Disaster Psychosocial Response: A Suggested Competency Framework-CORRIGENDUM. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Aug 5.:1.