Prehosp Disaster Med [journal]
- Assessment of Groin Application of Junctional Tourniquets in a Manikin Model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 27.:1-6.
Introduction To aid in preparation of military medic trainers for a possible new curriculum in teaching junctional tourniquet use, the investigators studied the time to control hemorrhage and blood volume lost in order to provide evidence for ease of use. Hypothesis Models of junctional tourniquet could perform differentially by blood loss, time to hemostasis, and user preference.In a laboratory experiment, 30 users controlled simulated hemorrhage from a manikin (Combat Ready Clamp [CRoC] Trainer) with three iterations each of three junctional tourniquets. There were 270 tests which included hemorrhage control (yes/no), time to hemostasis, and blood volume lost. Users also subjectively ranked tourniquet performance. Models included CRoC, Junctional Emergency Treatment Tool (JETT), and SAM Junctional Tourniquet (SJT). Time to hemostasis and total blood loss were log-transformed and analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the users represented as random effects and the tourniquet model used as the treatment effect. Preference scores were analyzed with ANOVA, and Tukey's honest significant difference test was used for all post-hoc pairwise comparisons.All tourniquet uses were 100% effective for hemorrhage control. For blood loss, CRoC and SJT performed best with least blood loss and were significantly better than JETT; in pairwise comparison, CRoC-JETT (P .5, all models).The CRoC and SJT performed best in having least blood loss, CRoC performed best in having least time to hemostasis, and users did not differ in preference of model. Models of junctional tourniquet performed differentially by blood loss and time to hemostasis. Kragh JF Jr , Lunati MP , Kharod CU , Cunningham CW , Bailey JA , Stockinger ZT , Cap AP , Chen J , Aden JK 3d , Cancio LC . Assessment of groin application of junctional tourniquets in a manikin model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-6.
- Impact of Hurricane Sandy on the Staten Island University Hospital Emergency Department. [Journal Article]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 Jun; 31(3):335-9.
Introduction On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy touched down in New York City (NYC; New York USA) causing massive destruction, paralyzing the city, and destroying lives. Research has shown that considerable damage and loss of life can be averted in at-risk areas from advanced preparation in communication procedures, evacuation planning, and resource allocation. However, research is limited in describing how natural disasters of this magnitude affect emergency departments (EDs). Hypothesis/Problem The aim of this study was to identify and describe trends in patient volume and demographics, and types of conditions treated, as a result of Hurricane Sandy at Staten Island University Hospital North (SIUH-N; Staten Island, New York USA) site ED.A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to SIUH-N in the days surrounding the storm, October 26, 2012 through November 2, 2012, was completed. Data were compared to the same week of the year prior, October 28, 2011 through November 4, 2011. Daily census, patient age, gender, admission rates, mode of arrival, and diagnoses in the days surrounding the storm were observed.A significant decline in patient volume was found in all age ranges on the day of landfall (Day 0) with a census of 114; -55% compared to 2011. The daily volume exhibited a precipitous drop on the days preceding the storm followed by a return to usual volumes shortly after. A notably larger percentage of patients were seen for medication refills in 2012; 5.8% versus 0.4% (P<.05). Lacerations and cold exposure also were increased substantially in 2012 at 7.6% versus 2.8% (P<.05) and 3.8% versus 0.0% (P<.05) of patient visits, respectively. A large decline in admissions was observed in the days prior to the storm, with a nadir on Day +1 at five percent (-22%). Review of admitted patients revealed atypical admissions for home care service such as need for supplemental oxygen or ventilator. In addition, a drop in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) utilization was seen on Days 0 and +1. The SIUH-N typically sees 18% of patients arriving via EMS. On Day +1, only two percent of patients arrived by ambulance.The daily ED census saw a significant decline in the days preceding the storm. In addition, the type of conditions treated varied from baseline, and a considerable drop in hospital admissions was seen. Data such as these presented here can help make predictions for future scenarios. Greenstein J , Chacko J , Ardolic B , Berwald N . Impact of Hurricane Sandy on the Staten Island University Hospital emergency department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):335-339.
- Public Access Bleeding Control: Enhancing Local Resilience. [Journal Article]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 Jun; 31(3):235-6.
Levy MJ . Public Access Bleeding Control: enhancing local resilience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):235-236.
- You Can't Make a Silk Purse Out of a Sow's Ear: Time to Start Again with MCI Triage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 26.:1-2.
Horne S , Nutbeam T . You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear: time to start again with MCI triage. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-2.
- Randomizing Patients without Consent: Waiver vs Exception from Informed Consent. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 26.:1-2.
Cole JB , Ho JD , Biros MH . Randomizing patients without consent: waiver vs exception from informed consent. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-2.
- A Geographic Simulation Model for the Treatment of Trauma Patients in Disasters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 25.:1-9.
Though the US civilian trauma care system plays a critical role in disaster response, there is currently no systems-based strategy that enables hospital emergency management and local and regional emergency planners to quantify, and potentially prepare for, surges in trauma care demand that accompany mass-casualty disasters.A proof-of-concept model that estimates the geographic distributions of patients, trauma center resource usage, and mortality rates for varying disaster sizes, in and around the 25 largest US cities, is presented. The model was designed to be scalable, and its inputs can be modified depending on the planning assumptions of different locales and for different types of mass-casualty events.To demonstrate the model's potential application to real-life planning scenarios, sample disaster responses for 25 major US cities were investigated using a hybrid of geographic information systems and dynamic simulation-optimization. In each city, a simulated, fast-onset disaster epicenter, such as might occur with a bombing, was located randomly within one mile of its population center. Patients then were assigned and transported, in simulation, via the new model to Level 1, 2, and 3 trauma centers, in and around each city, over a 48-hour period for disaster scenario sizes of 100, 500, 5000, and 10,000 casualties.Across all 25 cities, total mean mortality rates ranged from 26.3% in the smallest disaster scenario to 41.9% in the largest. Out-of-hospital mortality rates increased (from 21.3% to 38.5%) while in-hospital mortality rates decreased (from 5.0% to 3.4%) as disaster scenario sizes increased. The mean number of trauma centers involved ranged from 3.0 in the smallest disaster scenario to 63.4 in the largest. Cities that were less geographically isolated with more concentrated trauma centers in their surrounding regions had lower total and out-of-hospital mortality rates. The nine US cities listed as being the most likely targets of terrorist attacks involved, on average, more trauma centers and had lower mortality rates compared with the remaining 16 cities.The disaster response simulation model discussed here may offer insights to emergency planners and health systems in more realistically planning for mass-casualty events. Longer wait and transport times needed to distribute high numbers of patients to distant trauma centers in fast-onset disasters may create predictable increases in mortality and trauma center resource consumption. The results of the modeled scenarios indicate the need for a systems-based approach to trauma care management during disasters, since the local trauma center network was often too small to provide adequate care for the projected patient surge. Simulation of out-of-hospital resources that might be called upon during disasters, as well as guidance in the appropriate execution of mutual aid agreements and prevention of over-response, could be of value to preparedness planners and emergency response leaders. Study assumptions and limitations are discussed. Carr BG , Walsh L , Williams JC , Pryor JP , Branas CC . A geographic simulation model for the treatment of trauma patients in disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-9.
- The Broselow and Handtevy Resuscitation Tapes: A Comparison of the Performance of Pediatric Weight Prediction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 25.:1-12.
To assess the performance of two pediatric length-based tapes (Broselow and Handtevy) in predicting actual weights of US children.In this descriptive study, weights and lengths of children (newborn through 13 years of age) were extracted from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Using the measured length ranges for each tape and the NHANES-extracted length data, every case from the study sample was coded into Broselow and Handtevy zones. Mean weights were calculated for each zone and compared to the predicted Broselow and Handtevy weights using measures of bias, precision, and accuracy. A sub-sample was examined that excluded cases with body mass index (BMI)≥95th percentile. Weights of children longer than each tape also were examined.A total of 3,018 cases from the NHANES database met criteria. Although both tapes underestimated children's weight, the Broselow tape outperformed the Handtevy tape across most length ranges in measures of bias, precision, and accuracy of predicted weights relative to actual weights. Accuracy was higher in the Broselow tape for shorter children and in the Handtevy tape for taller children. Among the sub-sample with cases of BMI≥95th percentile removed, performance of the Handtevy tape improved, yet the Broselow tape still performed better. When assessing the weights of children who were longer than either tape, the actual mean weights did not approximate adult weights; although, those exceeding the Handtevy tape were closer.For pediatric weight estimation, the Broselow tape performed better overall than the Handtevy tape and more closely approximated actual weight. Lowe CG , Campwala RT , Ziv N , Wang VJ . The Broselow and Handtevy resuscitation tapes: a comparison of the performance of pediatric weight prediction. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-12.
- What Kinds of Skills Are Necessary for Physicians Involved in International Disaster Response? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 25.:1-10.
Introduction Physicians are key disaster responders in foreign medical teams (FMTs) that provide medical relief to affected people. However, few studies have examined the skills required for physicians in real, international, disaster-response situations. Problem The objectives of this study were to survey the primary skills required for physicians from a Japanese FMT and to examine whether there were differences in the frequencies of performed skills according to demographic characteristics, previous experience, and dispatch situations to guide future training and certification programs.This cross-sectional survey used a self-administered questionnaire given to 64 physicians with international disaster-response site experience. The questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics (sex, age, years of experience as a physician, affiliation, and specialty), previous experience (domestic disaster-relief experience, international disaster-relief experience, or disaster medicine training experience), and dispatch situation (length of dispatch, post-disaster phase, disaster type, and place of dispatch). In addition, the frequencies of 42 performed skills were assessed via a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the participants' characteristics and total scores as the frequencies of performed skills. Mean scores for surgical skills, health care-related skills, public health skills, and management and coordination skills were compared according to the demographic characteristics, previous experience, and dispatch situations.Fifty-two valid questionnaires (81.3% response rate) were collected. There was a trend toward higher skill scores among those who had more previous international disaster-relief experience (P=.03). The more disaster medicine training experience the participants had, the higher their skill score was (P<.001). Physicians reported involvement in 23 disaster-relief response skills, nine of which were performed frequently. There was a trend toward higher scores for surgical skills, health care-related skills, and management and coordination skills related to more disaster medicine training experience.This study's findings can be used as evidence to boost the frequency of physicians' performed skills by promoting previous experience with international disaster relief and disaster medicine training. Additionally, these results may contribute to enhancing the quality of medical practice in the international disaster relief and disaster training curricula. Noguchi N , Inoue S , Shimanoe C , Shibayama K , Matsunaga H , Tanaka S , Ishibashi A , Shinchi K . What kinds of skills are necessary for physicians involved in international disaster response? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-10.
- Primary Trauma Triage Performed by Bystanders: An Observation Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 25.:1-5.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bystanders with no training in triage can correctly prioritize three injured patients by using a triage instrument.An observational study was conducted. Participants performed a primary triage on three paper-based patient cases and answered 11 questions during a public event in the center of Stockholm, Sweden.A total of 69 persons participated in the study. The success rate among all the participants for correct triage of the three patient cases was 52 percent. The female participants and younger participants (<55 years of age) performed correct triage to a greater extent. The over-triage was 12.5 percent and under-triage was 6.3 percent.Participants with no prior knowledge of triage instruments may be capable of triaging injured patients with the help of an easy triage instrument. The over- and under-triage percentages were low, and this may indicate that the developed triage instrument is relatively easy to use. It may also indicate that bystanders can identify a severely injured patient. Nordberg M , Castrén M , Lindström V . Primary trauma triage performed by bystanders: an observation study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):1-5.
- Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2016 May 24.:1-6.
Introduction Traditionally, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators have divided the pediatric population into age groups to assist in targeting their clinical and didactic curriculum. Currently, the accrediting body for paramedic training programs requires student exposure to pediatric patients based entirely on age without specifying exposure to specific pathologies within each age stratification. Identifying which pathologies are most common within the different pediatric age groups would allow educators to design curriculum targeting the most prevalent pathologies in each age group and incorporating the physiologic and psychological developmental milestones commonly seen at that age. Hypothesis It was hypothesized that there are unique clusterings of pathologies, represented by paramedic student primary impressions, that are found in different age groups which can be used to target provider education.This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data documented by paramedic students in the Fisdap (Field Internship Student Data Acquisition Project; Saint Paul, Minnesota USA) database over a one-year period. For the purposes of this study, pediatric patients were defined arbitrarily as those between the ages of 0-16 years. All paramedic student primary impressions recorded in Fisdap for patients aged 0-16 years were abstracted. Primary impression by age was calculated and graphed. The frequency of primary impression was then assessed for significance of trend by age with an alpha ≤.05 considered significant.The following primary impressions showed clinically and statistically significant variability in prevalence among different pediatric age groups: respiratory distress, medical-other, abdominal pain, seizure, overdose/poisoning, behavioral, and cardiac. In patients less than 13 years old, respiratory and other-medical were the most common two primary impressions and both decreased with age. In patients 5-16 years old, the prevalence of abdominal pain and behavioral/psych increased. Bimodal distributions for overdose were seen with one spike in the toddler and another in the adolescent population. Seizures were most common in the age group associated with febrile seizure. Sepsis was seen most often in the youngest patients and its prevalence decreased with age.There are statistically significant variations in the frequency of paramedic student primary impressions as a function of age in the pediatric population. Emphasizing paramedic student exposure to the most common pathologies encountered in each age group, in the context of the psychological and physiological milestones of each age, may improve paramedic student pediatric practice. Ernest EV , Brazelton TB , Carhart ED , Studnek JR , Tritt PL , Philip GA , Burnett AM . Prevalence of unique pediatric pathologies encountered by paramedic students across age groups. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(4):1-6.