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Prehosp Disaster Med [journal]
- Ebola: Who is Responsible for the Political Failures? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec; 29(6):553-554.
- Burden of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Following Humanitarian Emergencies: A Systematic Literature Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 15.:1-9.
The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 (Version 5.2, The Nordic Cochrane Centre; Copenhagen Denmark,) was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis.The search retrieved 1,697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters and seven studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: four were population-based, 15 were single-center, and five were multicenter studies. Twenty-three studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and one utilized primarily geographical controls. Discussion Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects, including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD.In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from noncommunicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects. Hayman KG , Sharma D , Wardlow RD II , Singh S . Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-9 .
- Professionalization of Anesthesiologists and Critical Care Specialists in Humanitarian Action: A Nationwide Poll Among Italian Residents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 15.:1-6.
Over the last decades, humanitarian crises have seen a sharp upward trend. Regrettably, physicians involved in humanitarian action have often demonstrated incomplete preparation for these compelling events which have proved to be quite different from their daily work. Responders to these crises have included an unpredictable mix of beginner-level, mid-level, and expert-level providers. The quality of care has varied considerably. The international humanitarian community, in responding to international calls for improved accountability, transparency, coordination, and a registry of professionalized international responders, has recently launched a call for further professionalization within the humanitarian assistance sector, especially among academic-affiliated education and training programs. As anesthetists have been involved traditionally in medical relief operations, and recent disasters have seen a massive engagement of young physicians, the authors conducted, as a first step, a poll among residents in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine in Italy to evaluate their interest in participating in competency-based humanitarian assistance education and in training incorporated early in residencies.The Directors of all the 39 accredited anesthesia/critical care training programs in Italy were contacted and asked to submit a questionnaire to their residents regarding the objectives of the poll study. After acceptance to participate, residents were enrolled and asked to complete a web-based poll.A total of 29 (74%) of the initial training programs participated in the poll. Out of the 1,362 questionnaires mailed to residents, 924 (68%) were fully completed and returned. Only 63(6.8%) of the respondents voiced prior participation in humanitarian missions, but up to 690 (74.7%) stated they were interested in participating in future humanitarian deployments during their residency that carried over into their professional careers. Countrywide, 896 (97%) favored prior preparation for residents before participating in humanitarian missions, while the need for a specific, formal, professionalization process of the entire humanitarian aid sector was supported by 889 (96.2%).In Italy, the majority of anesthesia/critical care residents, through a formal poll study, affirmed interest in participating in humanitarian assistance missions and believe that further professionalization within the humanitarian aid sector is required. These results have implications for residency training programs worldwide. Ripoll Gallardo A , Ingrassia PL , Ragazzoni L , Djalali A , Carenzo L , Burkle FM Jr , Della Corte F . Professionalization of anesthesiologists and critical care specialists in humanitarian action: a nationwide poll among Italian residents. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-6 .
- Emergency Resuscitation of Patients Enrolled in the US Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin (DCLHb) Clinical Efficacy Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 15.:1-8.
Introduction Optimal emergent management of traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients requires a better understanding of treatment provided in the prehospital/Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) settings. Hypothesis/Problem Described in this research are the initial clinical status, airway management, fluid and blood infusions, and time course of severely-injured hemorrhagic shock patients in the EMS and ED settings from the diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) clinical trial.Data were analyzed from 17 US trauma centers gathered during a randomized, controlled, single-blinded efficacy trial of a hemoglobin solution (DCLHb) as add-on therapy versus standard therapy.Among the 98 randomized patients, the mean EMS Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 10.6 (SD = 5.0), the mean EMS revised trauma score (RTS) was 6.3 (SD = 1.9), and the mean injury severity score (ISS) was 31 (SD = 17). Upon arrival to the ED, the GCS was 20% lower (7.8 (SD = 5.3) vs 9.7 (SD = 6.3)) and the RTS was 12% lower (5.3 (SD = 2.0) vs 6.0 (SD = 2.1)) than EMS values in blunt trauma patients (P < .001). By ED disposition, 80% of patients (78/98) were intubated. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) was utilized in 77% (60/78), most often utilizing succinylcholine (65%) and midazolam (50%). The mean crystalloid volume infused was 4.2 L (SD = 3.4 L), 80% of which was infused within the ED. Emergency department blood transfusion occurred in 62% of patients, with an average transfused volume of 1.2 L (SD = 2.0 L). Blunt trauma patients received 2.1 times more total fluids (7.4 L vs 3.5 L, < .001) and 2.4 times more blood (2.4 L vs 1.0 L, P < .001). The mean time of patients taken from injury site to operating room (OR) was 113 minutes (SD = 87 minutes). Twenty-one (30%) of the 70 patients taken to the OR from the ED were sent within 60 minutes of the estimated injury time. Penetrating trauma patients were taken to the OR 52% sooner than blunt trauma patients (72 minutes vs 149 minutes, P < .001).Both GCS and RTS decreased prior to ED arrival in blunt trauma patients. Intubation was performed using RSI, and crystalloid infusion of three times the estimated blood loss volume (L) and blood transfusion of the estimated blood loss volume (L) were provided in the EMS and ED settings. Surgical intervention for these trauma patients most often occurred more than one hour from the time of injury. Penetrating trauma patients received surgical intervention more rapidly than those with a blunt trauma mechanism. Sloan EP , Koenigsberg M , Weir WB , Clark JM , O'Connor R , Olinger M , Cydulka R . Emergency resuscitation of patients enrolled in the US diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) clinical efficacy trial. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8 .
- Glasgow Coma Scale Scoring is Often Inaccurate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 9.:1-8.
Introduction The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is widely applied in the emergency setting; it is used to guide trauma triage and for the application of essential interventions such as endotracheal intubation. However, inter-rater reliability of GCS scoring has been shown to be low for inexperienced users, especially for the motor component. Concerns regarding the accuracy and validity of GCS scoring between various types of emergency care providers have been expressed. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to determine the degree of accuracy of GCS scoring between various emergency care providers within a modern Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system.This was a prospective observational study of the accuracy of GCS scoring using a convenience sample of various types of emergency medical providers using standardized video vignettes. Ten video vignettes using adults were prepared and scored by two board-certified neurologists. Inter-rater reliability was excellent (Cohen's κ = 1). Subjects viewed the video and then scored each scenario. The scoring of subjects was compared to expert scoring of the two board-certified neurologists.A total of 217 emergency providers watched 10 video vignettes and provided 2,084 observations of GCS scoring. Overall total GCS scoring accuracy was 33.1% (95% CI, 30.2-36.0). The highest accuracy was observed on the verbal component of the GCS (69.2%; 95% CI, 67.8-70.4). The eye-opening component was the second most accurate (61.2%; 95% CI, 59.5-62.9). The least accurate component was the motor component (59.8%; 95% CI, 58.1-61.5). A small number of subjects (9.2%) assigned GCS scores that do not exist in the GCS scoring system.Glasgow Coma Scale scoring should not be considered accurate. A more simplified scoring system should be developed and validated. Bledsoe BE , Casey MJ , Feldman J , Johnson L , Diel S , Forred W , Gorman C . Glasgow Coma Scale scoring is often inaccurate. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8 .
- Intra-articular Placement of an Intraosseous Catheter. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 8.:1-4.
Gaining vascular access is essential in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. Intraosseous (IO) placement is a fundamentally important alternative to intravenous (IV) access in conditions where IV access delays resuscitation or is not possible. This case report presents a previously unreported example of prehospital misplacement of an IO catheter into the intra-articular space of the knee joint. This report serves to inform civilian and military first responders, as well as emergency medicine physicians, of intra-articular IO line placement as a potential complication of IO vascular access. Infusion of large amounts of fluid into the joint space could damage the joint and be catastrophic to a patient who needs immediate IV fluids or medications. In addition, intra-articular IO placement could result in septic arthritis of the knee. Grabel Z , DePasse JM , Lareau CR , Born CT , Daniels AH . Intra-articular placement of an intraosseous catheter. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-4 .
- Emergency Medical Services Provider Comfort with Prehospital Analgesia Administration to Children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Dec 8.:1-6.
Introduction The undertreatment of pediatric pain is a significant concern among families, clinicians, and researchers. Although some have examined prehospital pain management, the deterrents to pediatric analgesia administration by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) have not yet been examined in Canada. Problem This study describes EMS pain-management practices and prehospital provider comfort treating pediatric pain. It highlights differences in pain management between adults and children and assesses the potential barriers, misconceptions, difficulties, and needs related to provision of pediatric analgesia.A study-specific survey tool was created and distributed to all Primary Care Paramedics (PCPs) and Advanced Care Paramedics (ACPs) over four mandatory educational seminars in the city of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) from September through December 2008.Ninety-four percent (191/202) of EMS personnel for the city of Edmonton completed the survey. The majority of respondents were male (73%, 139/191), aged 26-35 (42%, 80/191), and had been in practice less than 10 years (53%, 101/191). Seventy-four percent (141/191) of those surveyed were ACPs, while 26% (50/191) were PCPs. Although the majority of respondents reported using both pain scales and clinical judgement to assess pain for adults (85%, 162/191) and adolescents (86%, 165/191), children were six times more likely than adults (31%, 59/191 vs 5%, 10/191) to be assessed by clinical judgement alone. Emergency Medical Services personnel felt more comfortable treating adults than children (P < .001), and they were less likely to treat children even if they were experiencing identical types and intensities of pain as adults (all P values <.05) and adolescents (all P values < .05). Twenty-five percent of providers (37/147) assumed pediatric patients required less analgesia due to immature nervous systems. Three major barriers to treating children's pain included limited clinical experience (34%, 37/110), difficulty in communication (24%, 26/110) and inability to assess children's pain accurately (21%, 23/110).Emergency Medical Services personnel self-report that children's pain is less rigorously measured and treated than adults' pain. Educational initiatives aimed at increasing clinical exposure to children, as well as further education regarding simple pain measurement tools for use in the field, may help to address identified barriers and discomfort with assessing and treating children. Rahman A , Curtis S , DeBruyne B , Sookram S , Thomson D , Lutz S , Ali S . Emergency Medical Services provider comfort with prehospital analgesia administration to children. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-6 .
- An Evaluation of Trauma Outcomes Related to Insurance Status in Patients Requiring Prehospital Helicopter Transport. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Nov 20.:1-4.
Introduction Disparities in access to medical care and outcomes of medical treatment related to insurance status are documented. However, little attention has been given to the effect of health care funding status on outcomes in trauma patients. Hypothesis/Problem This study evaluated if adult trauma patients who arrived by air transport to a trauma center had different clinical outcomes based on their health insurance status.A retrospective analysis was performed of all adult trauma patients arriving by prehospital flight services to a Level I Trauma Center over a 5-year period. Patients were classified as unfunded or funded based on health insurance status. Injury severity scores (ISS) were compared, while the end points evaluated in the study included duration of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), duration of hospitalization, and mortality.A total of 1,877 adult patients met inclusion criteria for the study, with 14% (n = 259) classified as unfunded and 86% (n = 1,618) classified as funded. Unfunded patients compared to funded patients had a significantly lower average ISS (12.82 vs 15.56; P < .001) but a significantly higher mortality rate (16.6% vs 10.7%; P < .01) and a 1.54 relative risk of death (95% CI, 1.136-2.098). Neither mean ICU stay (3.44 days vs 4.98 days; P = .264) nor duration of hospitalization (11.18 days vs 13.34 days; P = .382) was significantly different when controlling for ISS.Unfunded health insurance status is associated with worse outcomes following less significant injury. Further investigation of baseline health disparities for identification and early intervention may improve outcomes. Additionally, these findings may have implications for the health systems of other countries that lack universal health care coverage. Gurien LA , Chesire DJ , Koonce SL , Burns JB Jr . An evaluation of trauma outcomes related to insurance status in patients requiring prehospital helicopter transport. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(6):1-4 .
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Resource-limited Health Systems-Considerations for Training and Delivery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Nov 19.:1-5.
In the past 50 years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has gained widespread recognition as a life-saving skill that can be taught successfully to the general public. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be considered a cost-effective intervention that requires minimal classroom training and low-cost equipment and supplies; it is commonly taught throughout much of the developed world. But, the simplicity of CPR training and its access for the general public may be misleading, as outcomes for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest are poor and survival is dependent upon a comprehensive "chain-of-survival," which is something not achieved easily in resource-limited health care settings. In addition to the significant financial and physical resources needed to both train and develop basic CPR capabilities within a community, there is a range of ethical questions that should also be considered. This report describes some of the financial and ethical challenges that might result from CPR training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is determined that for many health care systems, CPR training may have financial and ethically-deleterious, unintended consequences. Evidence shows Basic Life Support (BLS) skills training in a community is an effective intervention to improve public health. But, health care systems with limited resources should include CPR training only after considering the full implications of that intervention. Friesen J , Patterson D , Munjal K . Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in resource-limited health systems-considerations for training and delivery. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-5 .
- Multi-disciplinary Care for the Elderly in Disasters: An Integrative Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Nov 19.:1-8.
Introduction Older adults are disproportionately affected by disaster. Frail elders, individuals with chronic diseases, conditions, or disabilities, and those who live in long-term care facilities are especially vulnerable. Purpose The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to describe the system-wide knowledge and skills that multi-disciplinary health care providers need to provide appropriate care for the elderly during domestic-humanitarian and disaster-relief efforts. Data sources A systematic search protocol was developed in conjunction with a research librarian. Searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were conducted using terms such as Disaster, Geological Processes, Aged, Disaster Planning, and Vulnerable Populations. Forty-six articles met criteria for inclusion in the review.Policies and guidance regarding evacuating versus sheltering in place are lacking. Tenets of elderly-focused disaster planning/preparation and clarification of legal and ethical standards of care and liability issues are needed. Functional capacity, capabilities, or impairments, rather than age, should be considered in disaster preparation. Older adults should be included in disaster planning as population-specific experts. Implications for Practice A multifaceted approach to population-specific disaster planning and curriculum development should include consideration of the biophysical and psychosocial aspects of care, ethical and legal issues, logistics, and resources. Johnson HL , Ling CG , McBee EC . Multi-disciplinary care for the elderly in disasters: an integrative review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8 .