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Prehosp Disaster Med [journal]
- Transfer of Real-time Ultrasound Video of FAST Examinations from a Simulated Disaster Scene Via a Mobile Phone. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 16.:1-4.
Disaster management is a complex and difficult undertaking that may involve limited health care resources and evaluation of multiple victims. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of real-time ultrasound video transmission from a simulated disaster triage location via commercially available video mobile phones and assess the ability of emergency physicians to accurately interpret the transmitted video of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) ultrasound examinations.This was a prospective, observational study that took place at a simulated disaster scene put on for an Advanced Disaster Life Support (ADLS) course. The second component occurred at a Level I academic urban emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 78,000. Nineteen subjects at a simulated disaster scene were scanned using a SonoSite Titan ultrasound system (Bothell, Washington USA). An off-the-shelf, basic, video-capable mobile phone was used to record each ultrasound examination; and then immediately transmit the videos to another mobile phone approximately 170 miles away. The transmitted video was received by three emergency physicians with hospital credentialing in emergency ultrasound. Each FAST examination video was assessed for pathology, such as free fluid. The reviewers graded the image quality and documented the overall confidence level regarding whether or not a complete and adequate examination was visualized. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the agreement between the reviewers and the sonologist who performed the ultrasound examinations.A total of 19 videos were transmitted. The median time for transmission of a video was 82.5 seconds (95% CI, 67.7 seconds-97.3 seconds). No video failed to transmit correctly on the first attempt. The image quality ratings for the three reviewers were 7.7, 7.5, and 7.4 on a 10-point Likert scale. There was a moderate agreement between the reviewers and sonologist in image quality rating and overall confidence level scores (rho = 0.6).Real-time portable ultrasound video transmission via commercially available video mobile phones from a simulated disaster triage location is feasible and emergency physicians were able to accurately interpret video of FAST ultrasound examinations. Adhikari S , Blaivas M , Lyon M , Shiver S . Transfer of real-time ultrasound video of FAST examinations from a simulated disaster scene via a mobile phone. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-4 .
- Emergency Response in Resource-poor Settings: A Review of a Newly-implemented EMS System in Rural Uganda. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 16.:1-6.
Introduction The goal of an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is to prevent needless death or disability from time-sensitive disease processes. Despite growing evidence that these processes contribute significantly to mortality in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), there has been little focus on the development of EMS systems in poor countries. Problem The objective of this study was to understand the utilization pattern of a newly-implemented EMS system in Ruhiira, Uganda.An EMS system based on community priorities was implemented in rural Uganda in 2009. Six months of ambulance logs were reviewed. Patient, transfer, and clinical data were extracted and analyzed.In total, 207 cases were reviewed. Out of all transfers, 66% were for chief complaints that were obstetric related, while 12% were related to malaria. Out of all activations, 77.8% were for female patients. Among men, 34% and 28% were related to malaria and trauma, respectively. The majority of emergency transfers were from district to regional hospitals, including 52% of all obstetric transfers, 65% of malaria transfers, and 62% of all trauma transfers. There was no significant difference in the call to arrival on scene time, the time to scene or the scene to treatment time during the day and night (P > .05). Cost-benefit analysis revealed a cost of $89.95 per life saved with an estimated $0.93/capita to establish the system and $0.09/capita/year to maintain the system.Contrary to current belief, EMS systems in rural Africa can be affordable and highly utilized, particularly for life-threatening, nontrauma complaints. Construction of a simple but effective EMS system is feasible, acceptable, and an essential component to the primary health care system of LMICs. Stewart De Ramirez S , Doll J , Carle S , Anest T , Arii M , Hsieh YH , Okongo M , Moresky R , Sachs SE , Millin M . Emergency response in resource poor-settings: a review of a newly-implemented EMS system in rural Uganda. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-6 .
- Frequency of Manuscript Publication Following Presentation of EMS Abstracts at National Meetings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 15.:1-5.
Introduction Specialized knowledge and a scientific body of literature are the foundation of the recognition of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) as a subspecialty within emergency medicine (EM). Emergency Medical Services research often is presented at national meetings and published in abstract form, but full publication occurs less frequently. Problem The primary goal of the study was to determine the rate at which EMS-related research presented at selected conferences went on to manuscript publication. A secondary goal was the determination of the time to manuscript publication.A cross-sectional study of published abstracts from the 2003-2005 national meetings of the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM), National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of EMS Educators (NAEMSE) was conducted to identify EMS-related abstracts. PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland USA) was searched using abstract title keywords and authors' names to determine if the study had been published in a PubMed-indexed journal in the time since presentation and abstract publication.Abstracts for the five conferences were reviewed for 2003-2005. Six hundred and thirty-five EMS-related abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The total number of EMS abstracts presented and the percent subsequently published as a manuscript were: SAEM 135, 53.3%; ACEP 128, 48.4%; NAEMSP 282, 42.9%; AAMS 66, 33.3%; and NAEMSE 24, 16.7%. The overall rate of publication was 44.3%. The average time to publication was 22.2 months (SD = 16.5 months, range = 0-94 months).Less than half of EMS abstracts go on to manuscript publication. This may represent missed opportunities for the growth of EMS as a subspecialty. Clemency BM , Thompson JJ , Lindstrom HA , Gurien S , Jaison BA , Grates-Sciarrino AA . Frequency of manuscript publication following presentation of EMS abstracts at national meetings. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-5.
- Dextrose 10% in the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Hypoglycemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 15.:1-5.
Introduction Prehospital first responders historically have treated hypoglycemia in the field with an IV bolus of 50 mL of 50% dextrose solution (D50). The California Contra Costa County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system recently adopted a protocol of IV 10% dextrose solution (D10), due to frequent shortages and relatively high cost of D50. The feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this approach are reported using the experience of this EMS system.Over the course of 18 weeks, paramedics treated 239 hypoglycemic patients with D10 and recorded patient demographics and clinical outcomes. Of these, 203 patients were treated with 100 mL of D10 initially upon EMS arrival, and full data on response to treatment was available on 164 of the 203 patients. The 164 patients' capillary glucose response to initial infusion of 100 mL of D10 was calculated and a linear regression line fit between elapsed time and difference between initial and repeat glucose values. Feasibility, safety, and the need for repeat glucose infusions were examined.The study cohort included 102 men and 62 women with a median age of 68 years. The median initial field blood glucose was 38 mg/dL, with a subsequent blood glucose median of 98 mg/dL. The median time to second glucose testing was eight minutes after beginning the 100 mL D10 infusion. Of 164 patients, 29 (18%) required an additional dose of IV D10 solution due to persistent or recurrent hypoglycemia, and one patient required a third dose. There were no reported adverse events or deaths related to D10 administration. Linear regression analysis of elapsed time and difference between initial and repeat glucose values showed near-zero correlation.In addition to practical reasons of cost and availability, theoretical risks of using 50 mL of D50 in the out-of-hospital setting include extravasation injury, direct toxic effects of hypertonic dextrose, and potential neurotoxic effects of hyperglycemia. The results of one local EMS system over an 18-week period demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of using 100 mL of D10 as an alternative. Additionally, the linear regression line of repeat glucose measurements suggests that there may be little or no short-term decay in blood glucose values after D10 administration. Kiefer MV , Hern HG , Alter HJ , Barger JB . Dextrose 10% in the treatment of out-of-hospital hypoglycemia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(2):1-5.
- Medical and Psychosocial Needs of Olympic and Pan American Athletes after the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti: An Opportunity to Promote Resilience Through Sports Medicine and Public Diplomacy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 10.:1-5.
Introduction On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti. Data regarding the prevalence of medical and psychosocial needs after the earthquake is scarce, complicating informed targeting of aid. The effects of the earthquake on athletes, as they differ from the general population, are especially unclear. The Center for Disaster Resilience (Boston, Massachusetts USA) and the Disaster Medicine Section at Harvard Medical School (Boston, Massachusetts USA) have partnered with Child in Hand to care for athletes training for the Pan American and Olympic games in Haiti, as well as for children from the general population. This report presents preliminary epidemiologic data illustrating the burden of medical and psychosocial needs of Haitian athletes and the general population after the earthquake of 2010.The study was a cross-sectional, comparative study conducted a year after the earthquake. The study group comprised 104 athletes, aged 12-18 years, enrolled from the National Sports Center in Haiti. The control group (N = 104) from the general population was age- and gender-matched from orphanages and schools in and around Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Medical teams assessed illness based on history and physicals. Psychosocial teams utilized the Child Psychosocial Distress Screener (CPDS). Two-proportion z tests and two-sample t tests were used to compare the proportions of medical illnesses, mean CPDS scores, and proportion of CPDS scores indicating treatment.The most prevalent medical condition in athletes was musculoskeletal pain, which was more common than in controls (49% versus 2.9%). All other medical conditions were more common in the controls than athletes: abdominal pain (28.8% versus 4.8%); headache (22.1% versus 5.8%); fever (15.4% versus 1%); and malnutrition (18.3% versus 1.9%). In contrast, there was no significant difference in mean psychosocial scores and the proportion of scores indicating treatment between athletes and controls.Elite athletes in Haiti have a low prevalence of most medical conditions after the disaster, suggesting that they may be protected from risk factors affecting the general population. However, athletes have a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal ailments and were not protected from psychosocial distress. This presents an opportunity for sports medicine physicians and mental health providers to engage in efforts to rebuild Haiti on an individual level by providing targeted care to athletes, and on a larger scale, by supporting international sports competition, which enhances human capital and facilitates public diplomacy. Yim ES , Macy RD , Ciottone G . Medical and psychosocial needs of Olympic and Pan American athletes after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti: an opportunity to promote resilience through sports medicine and public diplomacy. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-5.
- Emergency Medical Services in India: The Present and Future. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 10.:1-4.
India is the second most populous country in the world. Currently, India does not have a centralized body which provides guidelines for training and operation of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Emergency Medical Services are fragmented and not accessible throughout the country. Most people do not know the number to call in case of an emergency; services such as Dial 108/102/1298 Ambulances, Centralized Accident and Trauma Service (CATS), and private ambulance models exist with wide variability in their dispatch and transport capabilities. Variability also exists in EMS education standards with the recent establishment of courses like Emergency Medical Technician-Basic/Advanced, Paramedic, Prehospital Trauma Technician, Diploma Trauma Technician, and Postgraduate Diploma in EMS. This report highlights recommendations that have been put forth to help optimize the Indian prehospital emergency care system, including regionalization of EMS, better training opportunities, budgetary provisions, and improving awareness among the general community. The importance of public and private partnerships in implementing an organized prehospital care system in India discussed in the report may be a reasonable solution for improved EMS in other developing countries. Sharma M , Brandler ES . Emergency Medical Services in India: the present and future. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-4 .
- Pre-earthquake Burden of Illness and Postearthquake Health and Preparedness in Veterans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Apr 10.:1-7.
During an earthquake, vulnerable populations, especially those with chronic conditions, are more susceptible to adverse, event-induced exacerbation of chronic conditions such as limited access to food and water, extreme weather temperatures, and injury. These circumstances merit special attention when health care facilities and organizations prepare for and respond to disasters.This study explores the relationship between pre-earthquake burden of illness and postearthquake health-related and preparedness factors in the US. Data from a cohort of male veterans who were receiving care at the Sepulveda Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in Los Angeles, California USA during the 1994 Northridge earthquake were analyzed.Veterans with one or more chronic conditions were more likely to report pain lasting two or more days, severe mental/emotional stress for more than two weeks, broken/lost medical equipment, having difficulty refilling prescriptions, and being unable to get medical help following the quake compared to veterans without chronic conditions. In terms of personal emergency preparedness, however, there was no association between burden of illness and having enough food or water for at least 24 hours after the earthquake.The relationship that exists between health care providers, including both individual providers and organizations like the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and their vulnerable, chronically-ill patients affords providers the unique opportunity to deliver critical assistance that could make this vulnerable population better prepared to meet their postdisaster health-related needs. This can be accomplished through education about preparedness and the provision of easier access to medical supplies. Disaster plans for those who are burdened with chronic conditions should meet their social needs in addition to their psychological and physical needs. Der-Martirosian C , Riopelle D , Naranjo D , Yano E , Rubenstein L , Dobalian A . Pre-earthquake burden of illness and postearthquake health and preparedness in veterans. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-7 .
- Author reply. [Comment, Letter]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Feb; 29(1):111.
- Disaster Research and Evaluation Frameworks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Mar 26.:1-2.
- School Interventions After the Joplin Tornado. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prehosp Disaster Med 2014 Mar 21.:1-4.
Background/Objective To qualitatively describe interventions by schools to meet children's needs after the May 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado.Qualitative exploratory study conducted six months after the tornado. Key informant interviews with school staff (teachers, psychologists, guidance counselor, nurse, principal), public health official, and physicians. Report After the tornado, school staff immediately worked to contact every enrolled child to provide assistance and coordinate recovery services. Despite severe damage to half of the city's schools, the decision was made to reopen schools at the earliest possible time to provide a safe, reassuring environment and additional services. An expanded summer school session emphasized child safety and emotional wellbeing. The 2011-2012 school year began on time, less than three months after the disaster, using temporary facilities. Displaced children were bused to their usual schools regardless of their new temporary residence locations. In just-in-time training sessions, teachers developed strategies to support students and staff experiencing anxiety or depression. Certified counselors conducted school-based, small-group counseling for students. Selective referrals were made to community mental health providers for children with greatest needs.Evidence from Joplin adds to a small body of empirical experience demonstrating the important contribution of schools to postdisaster community recovery. Despite timely and proactive services, many families and children struggled after the tornado. Improvements in the effectiveness of postdisaster interventions at schools will follow from future scientific evidence on optimal approaches. Kanter RK , Abramson D . School interventions after the Joplin tornado. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(2):1-4 .