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Psychiatr Hung [journal]
- [Beauticians' eating attitudes and body attitudes.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):70-76.
Some professional groups (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. Beauticians may be a possible risk group, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Measures: Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale.
Results:Questionnaire data of 276 subjects were analysed. The study sample comprised 128 beauticians from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females). This group was compared with a control group consisting of 148 subjects (25 males, 123 females). Such weight reducing methods as dieting, exercise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics were significantly more prevalent in the beautician group. Mean total score and the scores of the Dieting subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the beautician group in comparison with the control group. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical eating disorders (2.4% subclinical bulimia nervosa and 1.6% subclinical anorexia nervosa) was significantly higher in the beautician group. Beauticians invest significantly (p < 0.0001) more money and time for body care.
Conclusion:The above results suggest that working in the beauty industry may represent an increased risk of developing eating disorders.
- [The pictorial expression of aggression in the drawings of adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):57-69.
The visual expression of adolescent and preadolescent people including their representation of aggression is a negleted field of both the child psychology's and pedagogy's research. The author offers a survey of pubescent people's portrayal of aggression based upon the data of the scientific literature and her own pedagogical experience. The representation of aggression is strongly influenced by the young people's cultural background and the media (history, literature, religion, the traditions of the different nations, and gender too) conserning both form and content. Aggression can appear directly or in a hidden, symbolic way. Pictorial expression aggression is closely bound up with depressed feelings, congestion and humour and can also refer to the fact that the drawing person was sexually, physically or psychologically abused. The survey is completed with a case study that shows the connection between the aggressive content and the anxiety. The case study also calls our attention to the weakness of the pedagogical practice in making use of the self-expressive aspect of visual communication.
- [The relationship between reactive/proactive aggression, callous/unemotional traits and behavioural problems in Hungarian adolescents.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):48-56.
Introduction: The relationship between the type of physical aggressive behavior, callous/unemotional traits and behavioral problems was extensively studied in the literature, but no similar data exist in Hungarian adolescents.
Aim:In the present study, the type of aggressive behavior was assessed in adolescents on a normative sample to study its relationship with callous/unemotional traits and behavioral problems. Sample: 223 students were participated in the study after informed consent (girls, n=106, age: 14.2±1.5 years; boys, n=117, age: 13.9±1.6 years) from primary and secondary schools in Miskolc and adjacent areas.
Methods:The Reactive/Proactive Aggression Questionnaire was used to assess the level of aggressive behavior, the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits was used to measure callous/unemotional traits, while behavioral problems were established by the means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
Results:In the present non-clinical sample, the level of reactive aggression was higher than the level of proactive aggressive behavior. In boys, proactive and total aggression measures were significantly higher compared to girls. In both genders, reactive aggression was specifically associated with emotional and peer-related problems. Proactive aggression was correlated positively with callous traits in both genders, while self-reported prosocial behavior had an inverse correlation with proactive aggressive behavior in boys. Self reported conduct- and hyperactivity problems were positively correlated with both types of aggressive behavior in both genders. The strongest positive correlation was observed between self-reported conduct symptoms and both types of aggressive behavior.
Conclusions:Callous/unemotional traits were related with proactive forms of aggression, similar to literature data. Reactive aggressive behavior was related to peer-related and emotional problems, thus our data outlined the importance of the distinction between the two main types of aggression.
- [Erotica in the Arts and Brain.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):39-47.
Erotic arts express the relation of a person to his or her sexual orientation. Scrutinizing works of arts of that kind could explore unanswered questions about 'normal' and 'perverse' sexuality. Beyond the possibilities of forensic psychiatry the ethical, legal, and social consequences should be more intensely studied. At the same time the employment of modern functional brain imaging techniques is also warranted in the research of eroticism.
- [Methodological background and descriptive features of the ESPAD 2011 Study (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs) in Hungary.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):30-38.
Background and aims: The aim of the ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs) study - launched in 1995 and repeated in every four years - is to collect representative data on alcohol and drug consumtion patterns of the 16 year old population, in as many European countries as possible. Method: The survey followed standardized methodology to gain comparable data in every participating country. Students fill in the self-report questionnaire during a school lesson. Beside the compulsory core-question blocks, the Hungarian survey in 2011 contained questions on behavioral addictions (online gaming, internet, eating disorders and gambling) as well. All classes were included into the sample pool, where at least 10% of the students were born in 1995. Data collection took place between 1-20 March 2011. The sample was representative in terms of type of school; class and geographic location.
Results:Data was gathered from 370 classes and resulted in 8570 questionnaires. Only 0,96 percent of the total collected data was unreliable. Obtained data is valid and reliable; and can be compared to data from previous years, as well as to data from other ESPAD countries. Representative data on behavioral addictions is highly valuable, because our current knowledge is limited on this domain.
- [Problems of aggressive behaviour and its measurement in various age levels. Introduction into two questionnaires.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):13-29.
Authors give a detailled overwiev on aspects of aggressive behaviour in childhood and adolescence especially on the basis of the literature of the last two decades, than the measurement opportunities of aggression is discussed. The Childrens' Aggression Scale- parent version (Halperin et al 2002) rated by parents is presented and Hungarian validity data are published. In the second part of the publication, authors focus on the viewpoints of differences between agressiveness of IQ deficit people and those of having normative intelligence, preliminary experiences are reported about the behaviour dimensions of intellectually disabled (ID) patients rated by the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn et al, 2001) suitable for measuring frequency and seriosity of behaviour qualities of both ID adolescents and adults.
- [Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dysfunctional attitudes and ways of coping in a clinical sample of PTSD patients.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Hung 2013; 28(1):5-12.
Introduction: In the present study specific characteristics of PTSD patients were explored in a clinical sample with particular regard to dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies. The purpose was to draw attention to this rarely investigated but presumably prevalent psychiatric disorder in the Hungarian population. Method: Twenty-two PTSD patients' retrospective data was analyzed who presented at our clinic for outpatient psychotherapy treatment. Patients were assessed on depressive, anxiety, hopelessness, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies.
Results:Thirty-two percent (n=7) of the sample is male and 68% (n=15) is female, the mean age is 34.77 years. Based on trauma type 40.9% (n=9) had a motor vehicle accident, 18.2% (n=4) lost a close relative, 18.2% (n=4) was a victim of sexual or physical assault. There is great variance in the duration since the trauma (2 months to 10 years). The results suggest that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) are associated with the dysfunctional attitudes of need for achievement and external control, and with avoidant and conforming coping styles. Additionally, PTSSs were highly comorbid with depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Conclusion:The results imply that PTSD patients in Hungary have similar characteristics as international findings indicate.
- [The first psychotic episode]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Hung 2012; 27(6):459-63.
In the large Second Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of County Hospital, Gyula, the author treated several thousand children, adolescents and young adults with the diagnosis of first psychotic episode between 1970-2003. Beside his experience with thousands of patients he reviews the data of literature published in the last years. Beside the survey of symptomatology he deals with the causes of psychoses existing in childhood and displayed by imaging techniques (MRI, PET, CT), especially the loss of grey matter, the cortical abnormalities of frontal, frontotemporal lobes as well as the functional disturbances of the continuous reverberations with subcortical regions. He also surveys the causative developmental disorders of the brain in the background as well as the genetic and environmental risk factors. Along with first generation antipsychotic medication he reviews second generation antipsychotics.
- [Dyadic coping and well-being -- the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Hung 2012; 27(6):446-58.
In studying coping processes, there is often a focus on individual coping while dyadic processes in couples are seldom addressed. Therefore we present here data with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) that was developed to assess dyadic forms of coping (e.g., stress communication, support, delegated and negative coping).473 adult participants, living in committed relationships (176 male and 296 female, aged 34,0 +/- 11,9 years) were involved in a questionnaire study. Along with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory we assessed satisfaction with life (SWLS) and marital satisfaction (Marital Stress Scale).Subscales of the Dyadic Coping Inventory were found reliable and the expected factor structure for both the dyadic coping of oneself and the partner were replicable. Moreover, specific forms of dyadic coping accounted for significant amount of explained variance in life satisfaction (31,8 and 27,7% for male and female respondents) and marital satisfaction (1,8 and 48,5%). Results imply possible gender differences, since marital satisfaction of women was negatively predicted both by negative coping of oneself and the partner (betas=-0,174 and -0,152), and positively by the support of the partner and the evaluation of the common dyadic coping (betas= 0,255 and 0,187), whereas there was only one significant link in male respondents, supportive coping of oneself (beta= 0,320).Results show that 1. the Hungarian version of the DCI is a reliable and valid measure, and 2. there may be specific gender differences in dyadic coping that has to be considered when planning further research, training programs and therapeutic interventions for couples.
- [Examination of the Young maladaptive schemes in a group of Gamblers Anonymous]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Hung 2012; 27(6):435-45.
Literature of gambling addiction has become widespread in last years. Many studies were written about the vulnerability factors helping the development of addiction, theoretical models, comorbid problems and therapy possibilities. Currently there is no integrated theoretical model that could explain sufficiently the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The treatment issue is also unresolved. Cognitive psychology is a dynamically developing field of psychology and good results are achieved in gambling treatment with applying cognitive techniques. Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy is a recent theoretical and therapeutic direction within cognitive psychology which emphasizes the necessity of emotional changes beside rational ones in the interest of efficiency.The purpose of our research is to examine and analyse active maladaptive schemas among gamblers who are members of Gamblers Anonymous self-help group. Sample and methods: 23 control persons and 23 gamblers associated with support group of Gamblers Anonymous took part in our research. The severity of gambling behaviour was measured by Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. For exploring maladaptive schemas we used the shorter 114-item version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3).All the examined gamblers were considered as problem gamblers based on Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. In the control group there where no active schemas while in the group of gamblers several schemas (Emotional deprivation, Self-sacrifice, Recognition seeking, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards, Self-punitiveness, Insufficient self-control) showed activity. Active schemas show similarity in their matter with main establishments of researches about gamblers and support the role of impulsivity, narcissistic traits, self-medicalization and emotional deprivation in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.