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Psychiatria polska [journal]
- [In Process Citation]. [Letter]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):401-5.
- [Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):395-400.
The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP). Founded in 1990, the PNTZP's supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work.
- [Research and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in krakow before World War II in the context of psychiatry in Europe]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):383-93.
The aim of this article is to offer an overview of the research into diagnosis and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow before the outbreak of World War II. It also includes a profile of the work of Prof. Jan Piltz, the then director of the Clinic, and his major scientific achievements. The publications cited in the article date in the main from the period of World War I, and comprise clinical analyses of the consequences of stress suffered at the front as well as a description of the ways in which they were treated. These are presented alongside other major findings related to war neuroses being made in Europe at the time. The article draws attention to the very modern thinking on treatment of war neuroses, far ahead of the average standards of the day, evinced by Prof. Piltz and his team. The most important innovative elements of their treatment of these conditions were the fact that they perceived the cause of the neurosis to lie in previous personality disorders in the patients, their recommendation of psychotherapy as the main method of treatment, and their emphasis on the need for further rehabilitation following the completion of the course of hospital treatment. They also paid significant attention to the importance of drawing up individual therapy plans for each patient.
- [Sense of coherence and ways of coping in the relationship with brother or sister in healthy siblings of mentally ill persons]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):371-82.
The aim of the present study was to investigate sense of coherence in healthy siblings of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their ways of coping in the relationship with ill brother or sister.40 healthy brothers and sisters of persons with ICD- 10 diagnosis of F20 to F29 participated in the present study. Orientation to Life Scale (SOC- 29) was used to assess sense of coherence and Ways of Coping with Stress questionnaire (SRSS) was used to examine stress coping strategies.Mean global score of siblings of persons with schizophrenia was 111 points. Subjects used coping strategies focused on problem significantly more often than those focused on emotions.Therapeutic work with healthy siblings should focus on strengthening sense of personal competence, development of personal resources and different ways of coping with stress, investigation of emotions that healthy siblings experience in the relationship with ill brother or sister as well as supporting the process of accepting changes in the relationship with the ill sibling.
- [Worrying behaviour in pre-school children aged three to seven years: a factor analysis of the results of a questionnaire]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):359-69.
The aims of the study were: 1) the assessment of the interaction between the factors specified for behavioural problems observed in pre-school children based on a factor analysis and 2) the assessment of the relationship the specified factors have with the age and gender of the study group.A factor analysis based on a Principal Component Analysis of the main results of a Disturbing Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) completed by pre-school teachers, which includes categories of behaviour observed among pre-school age children that provoke the greatest concern among parents, guardians and educators.Nine-hundred and sixty-one children aged from 2.7 to 7.9 years (mean: 5.4; SD 1.13) from randomly chosen pre-schools in all districts of Krak6w.Based on a screen plot, as well as on a substantive analysis of the results, a decision was taken to employ a four-factor analysis (Lagging behind, Excessive behaviour, Eating-avoidance and Overeating) explaining 68% of the common factor variance. A very high Cronbach's alpha value was returned for the reliability of the individual scales. The conducted analysis of the relationship of the scales with age and gender indicated a greater intensity of disturbing behaviour in boys for the Lagging behind factor, the Excessive behaviour factor and the overall scale for the Disturbing Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). These were the scales, along with the Eating-avoidance scale, that were found to be related to age. A greater intensity of disturbing behaviour was found to occur in the younger children. The relationship between the Overeating and Excessive behaviour scales that was found among girls but not among boys indicated that--even at such a young age--the characteristics associated with eating in the context of gender were already present.The authors consider that the coherence of the results obtained and their consistency with other studies ofpre-school age children provide a sound platform for further analyses using the questionnaire described above.
- [Validation of the Polish version of the symptom checklist-27-plus questionnaire]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):345-58.
The goal of this research is to evaluate the psychometric qualities of the Polish version of the SCL-27-plus questionnaire in terms of its five factor structure, internal consistency and theoretical accuracy.A total of 1.350 persons of which 62% were males, participated in the study. 651 persons were tested with a paper version, 699 subjects received an electronic version of the questionnaire. 336 (tested with the paper version) were patients with diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Paper version participants also filled out the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28).Confirmatory factor analysis validated the five factor structure of SCL-27-plus when some errors terms within subscales are allowed to correlate (Depending on the sample: 1.64 < or = chi2/df < or = 2.46; 0.05 < or = RMSEA < or = 0.06; 0.91 < or = CFI < or = 0.95). Cronbach's Alpha reliability measures for the Global Severity Index was 0.90 to 0.92 and for the particular subscales 0.71 to 0.88. The GSI and symptom subscales for SCL-27-plus correlated with their equivalences in the GHQ-28 moderately to highly (r = 0.38 to 0.68). Strong differences occurred between the "clinical" and "non-clinical" groups in the levels of general and specific symptoms (Cohen's d from 0.42 to 1.15).The Polish version of the SCL-27-plus questionnaire demonstrates good psychometric qualities. It can be used to measure the general intensity of psychopathological impairment as well as the specific subscales.
- [Diagnostic value of neuropsychological tests in mild cognitive impairment comorbid with Parkinson's disease]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):331-43.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in on average one-fourth of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with no dementia diagnosis. Only recently has PD-MCI been treated as a new diagnostic entity. In 2012, unified criteria were adopted which allow both diagnosing MCI in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) and further classification taking into account the profile of cognitive dysfunctions and the probability of evolution towards dementia. The diagnostic criteria were presented in the form of stipulations and guidelines assuming that diagnostic process is based on the neuropsychological assessment of the patient. The notion of MCI had been borrowed and for a couple of years had been relying on definitions developed in relation to Alzheimer's disease. For the first time, in the proposed criteria memory dysfunction is not the basis of classification. Only two categories of dysfunctions have been retained, single-domain and multiple-domain. Whether the adopted criteria will contribute to an accurate diagnosis of cognitive dysfunctions and PD-specific dementing processes remains an open question. In spite of some limitations, the presented criteria can certainly improve the efficacy of monitoring the patient's state at the same time allowing the hope for an appropriate therapy and a higher quality of life. Moreover, the unification of diagnostic criteria will be crucial in assessing usefulness ofneuropsychological test instruments as a basic method of investigating neurodegenerative processes not only in PD.
- [Neurobehavioral manifestation in early period of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):319-30.
AD and VD are preceded by a preclinical stage. Small but tangible cognitive impairments sometimes occur many years before the onset and diagnosis ofdementia. The ongoing degenerative process can be conductive to behavioural and psychological symptoms.The aim of the study was to investigate the rates of neurobehavioral symptoms in the preclinical stages of AD and VD. Methods: Two hundred and ninety one residents of nursery homes were included in the study. Participants of the study did not display symptoms of dementia in accordance with DSM IV criteria and obtained at least 24 points on the MMSE scale and were on the first or second level of the Global Deterioration Scale. Participants were screened for behavioural and psychological symptoms with the NPI-NH scale, while their cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of the ADAS-cog. Participants of the study were evaluated with the MMSE scale annually. Participants who obtained less than 24 points on the MMSE scale were evaluated by a senior psychiatrist. Diagnosis of dementia was done on the basis of DSM criteria. Alzheimer's Disease was diagnosed on the basis of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and vascular dementia on the NINDS-AIREN criteria. The study was carried out over a period of seven consecutive years.A hundred and fifty people were included in the final analysis--in 111 of them were found not to be afflicted with dementia, 25 were found to have AD and in 14 VD was diagnosed. The control group differed from the AD and VD group with respect to the initial level of cognitive impairment (ADAS-cog) and the intensity of behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI -NH scale). Particular items of the NPI -NH scale differentiated the two groups to a different degree. In people with AD the greatest differences were observed with respect to agitation/aggression, mood swings, irritability/emotional liability and the rates of anxiety. People with VD, similarly to people with AD, significantly differed from the control group with respect to mood disorders and irritability/emotional liability, as well as disinhibition and anxiety. People with VD were found not have high rates of agitation/aggression. In the AD group, the shorter the period between the evaluation with the NPI-NH scale and the diagnosis of AD was the greater the rates of agitation/aggression, anxiety, and elevated mood/euphoria were.In preclinical stages of both AD and VD behavioural and psychological symptoms occur very frequently. The closer the diagnosis of dementia is the greater the possibility of behavioural and psychological symptoms occurring, especially in AD.
- [Specificity of attention and cognitive inhibition processes in relapsing -remitting multiple sclerosis patients with consideration of their mood level]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):307-18.
The results of contemporary neuropsychological analyses lay foundation for a broad discussion of the nature and causes of cognitive deficits in MS patients.The aim of this study was to determine the level of alternating attention and dominant reaction inhibition in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, with consideration of their mood level, age and disease duration.Experimental group consisted of 43 adults (30 women and 13 men) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, with Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) results ranging between 2.5-6.5. Control group comprised 38 healthy adults (26 women and 12 men) selected according to sex, age and education. The following tasks were used in the study: the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT), Stroop Colour-Word Test (SCWT), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).Experimental group was characterized by significantly worse performance in TMT (p < 0.001) and SCWT (p < 0.001) than the control group. No differences were observed in performance of TMT (p > 0.05) and SCWT (p > 0.05) in the experimental group between subjects with depressed and neutral mood. Disease duration proved significantly related to the level of dominant reaction inhibition (p < 0.001).Cognitive impairments within areas of concentration, attention shifting and dominant reaction inhibition were all revealed in the experimental group.
- [Psychotic disorder in the course of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with subcortical calcifications--case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Mar-Apr; 48(2):299-306.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is autoimmunological disease of connective tissue which is characterized with clinical symptoms of many systems and organs injury. There are often neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychotic disorder is the least frequent syndrome. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are important because they deteriorate the quality of life and are poor prognostic factor.The aim of the study is to present the patient with chronic, lasting for many years, skin lesions and laboratory tests results characteristic for SLE, who had psychotic disorder diagnosed as schizophrenia and in the next few years there were observed other neuropsychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment and mood disorder.Psychotic disorder is rare syndrome of neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). It may primarily originate from SLE or be secondary either to the therapy or the complications of the disease. It is not possible to define if the psychosis is the primary schizophrenic process or secondary to the autoimmune disease in presented patient. However the clinical picture pays attention to the significance of careful diagnostic process, including neuroimaging. In head CT of presented patient there were revealed massive, bilateral, calcifications of subcortical structures which probably substantially enhanced neuropsychiatric symptoms.