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Psychon Bull Rev [journal]
- The effect of motoric fluency on metamemory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 21.
Prior research has demonstrated that certain types of fluency can influence memory predictions, with more fluent processing being associated with greater memory confidence. However, no study has systematically examined whether this pattern extends to the fluency of motoric output. The current study investigated the effect of a motoric-fluency manipulation of hand dominance on judgments of learning (JOLs) and memory performance. Participants predicted better memory for fluently written than nonfluently written stimuli despite no differences in actual recall. A questionnaire-based study suggested that the effect of motoric fluency on predictions was not due to peoples' a priori beliefs about memory. These findings are consistent with other fluency effects on JOLs.
- Limits to the attentional boost effect: the moderating influence of orthographic distinctiveness. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 21.
The Attentional Boost Effect (ABE) refers to the counter-intuitive finding that the detection of infrequent targets in a divided-attention (DA) condition enhances memory of images co-occurring with targets (as compared with images co-occurring with distractors; Swallow & Jiang Cognition, 115, 118-132, 2010). Previous studies have shown that the ABE also applies to verbal materials (words; Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1223-1231 , 2013) and documented an important moderating factor, word frequency-the ABE was robust for high-frequency words, but small or non-significant for low-frequency words (Mulligan, Spataro, & Picklesimer Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1049-1063, 2014). The present experiment tested the predictions of the early-phase-elevated-attention hypothesis of the ABE by manipulating the orthographic distinctiveness of the to-be-remembered words. Results revealed that the ABE was significant for low-frequency words with common orthographic features, but not for low-frequency words with rare orthographic features. As a consequence, the orthographic distinctiveness effect (ODE) was eliminated in the DA condition. These findings are in line with the proposal that the ABE-related attentional enhancement occurs during an early phase of stimulus perception and comprehension, as well as with the proposal that the ODE is mediated by high-level, attention demanding comparative processes.
- The influence of perceptual information on control processes involved in self-regulated learning: evidence from item selection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 21.
Previous research has shown that perceptual information such as font size has an impact on learners' judgments of their own learning. The present study extended the font-size effect to examine the influence of font size on how people decide which items to study first. Across three experiments, we showed that participants preferred to first select items presented in a large font size (48 pt) more than items presented in a small font size (18 pt), and that this effect continued even when more diagnostic cues (difficulty and reward value of items) were presented, suggesting that perceptual cues can strongly influence control process involved in self-regulated learning. These results provide evidence that perceptual information plays a key role in higher cognition. Moreover, our results also suggest that control processes are influenced by multiple cues, including font size, difficulty of items, and the reward value of items.
- Judging the familiarity of strangers: does the context matter? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 20.
Context affects face recognition, with people more likely to recognize an acquaintance when that person is encountered in an expected and familiar place. However, we demonstrate that a familiar context can also incorrectly lead to feeling that a stranger is known. More specifically, we asked whether a familiar place can increase the belief that a stranger has been encountered outside of the experimental context (e.g., in the news or in real life). Novel faces were paired with novel places, famous places (landmarks), or neutral (solid color) backgrounds, and participants rated the pre-experimental familiarity of each novel face. Across four experiments, participants misinterpreted the familiarity of the landmark backgrounds as evidence of knowing the faces outside of the experimental context. This effect only disappeared when participants failed to integrate the face with the place, judging that the two did not fit together. Our findings suggest that familiarity is not judged in isolation; rather, people are unable to completely disentangle the familiarity of the individual components of a scene.
- Response dynamics in prospective memory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 19.
Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to execute a delayed behavior. Most theoretical and empirical work on PM has focused on the attentional resources that might facilitate successfully executing a delayed behavior. In the present study, we enhance the current understanding of attention allocation and also introduce novel evidence for the dynamics of PM retrieval. We recorded mouse-tracking trajectories during a prospective memory task to examine the continuous nature of attentional processes that support PM cue retrieval. We found that the velocity profiles of response trajectories differed as a function of PM cue focality while controlling for the canonical measure of response time, supporting the notions that monitoring is evident in the continuous nature of response trajectories and that such trajectories are sensitive to cue focality. Conditional velocity profiles of ongoing task trials indicated that monitoring occurred when the processing of PM cues differed from ongoing task instructions (Nonfocal PM condition): responses were made later in the profile, suggestive of a more controlled retrieval process. Analysis of PM cue retrieval profiles indicated correctly retrieved Focal PM cues were qualitatively and quantitatively different from all other PM cue retrieval trials. This provides evidence that retrieval dynamics of a delayed behavior differ as a function of cue focality and suggests that controlled processing may contribute to spontaneous retrieval of a PM task.
- Through the looking-glass: Objects in the mirror are less real. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 19.
Is an object reflected in a mirror perceived differently from an object that is seen directly? We asked observers to label "everything" in photographs of real-world scenes. Some scenes contained a mirror in which objects could be seen. Reflected objects received significantly fewer labels than did their nonreflected counterparts. If an object was visible only as a reflection, it was labeled more often than a reflected object that appeared both as a reflection and nonreflected in the room. These unique reflected objects were still not labeled more often than the unique nonreflected objects in the room. In a second experiment, we used a change blindness paradigm in which equivalent object changes occurred in the nonreflected and reflected parts of the scene. Reaction times were longer and accuracy was lower for finding the changes in reflections. These results suggest that reflected information is easily discounted when processing images of natural scenes.
- Direct evidence of cognitive control without perceptual awareness. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 18.
A central question within the domain of human cognition is whether or not the ability to replace a current action with a new one (i.e., cognitive control) depends on a conscious appreciation of the environmental change that necessitates the new behavior. Specifically, it is not yet known if non-consciously perceived stimuli can trigger the modification of a currently ongoing action. We show for the first time that individuals are able to use non-consciously perceived information to modify the course and outcome of an ongoing action. Participants were presented with a masked (i.e., subliminal) 'stop' or 'go-on' prime stimulus whilst performing a routine reach-to-touch action. Despite being invisible to participants, the stop primes produced more hesitations mid-flight and more movement reversals than the go-on primes. This new evidence directly establishes that cognitive control (i.e., the ability to modify a currently ongoing action) does not depend on a conscious appreciation of the environmental trigger.
- When more data steer us wrong: replications with the wrong dependent measure perpetuate erroneous conclusions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 11.
There is a replication crisis in science, to which psychological research has not been immune: Many effects have proven uncomfortably difficult to reproduce. Although the reliability of data is a serious concern, we argue that there is a deeper and more insidious problem in the field: the persistent and dramatic misinterpretation of empirical results that replicate easily and consistently. Using a series of four highly studied "textbook" examples from different research domains (eyewitness memory, deductive reasoning, social psychology, and child welfare), we show how simple unrecognized incompatibilities among dependent measures, analysis tools, and the properties of data can lead to fundamental interpretive errors. These errors, which are not reduced by additional data collection, may lead to misguided research efforts and policy recommendations. We conclude with a set of recommended strategies and research tools to reduce the probability of these persistent and largely unrecognized errors. The use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves is highlighted as one such recommendation.
- Making sense of the noise: Replication difficulties of Correll's (2008) modulation of 1/f noise in a racial bias task. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 11.
Correll (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 48-59, 2008; Study 2) found that instructions to use or avoid race information decreased the emission of 1/f noise in a weapon identification task (WIT). These results suggested that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflected an effortful deliberative process, providing new insights regarding the mechanisms underlying implicit racial biases. Given the potential theoretical and applied importance of understanding the psychological processes underlying implicit racial biases - and in light of the growing demand for independent direct replications of findings to ensure the cumulative nature of our science - we attempted to replicate Correll's finding in two high-powered studies. Despite considerable effort to closely duplicate all procedural and methodological details of the original study (i.e., same cover story, experimental manipulation, implicit measure task, original stimuli, task instructions, sampling frame, population, and statistical analyses), both replication attempts were unsuccessful in replicating the original finding challenging the theoretical account that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflects a deliberative process. However, the emission of 1/f noise did consistently emerge across samples in each of our conditions. Hence, future research is needed to clarify the psychological significance of 1/f noise in racial bias tasks.
- Holistic processing does not require configural variability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Nov 4.
Using the Garner speeded classification task, Amishav and Kimchi (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 743-748, 2010) found that participants could selectively attend to face features: Classifying faces based on the shape of the eyes was not influenced by task-irrelevant variation in the shape of the mouth, and vice versa. This result contrasts with a large body of work using another selective attention task, the composite task, in which participants are unable to selectively attend to face parts: Same/different judgments for one-half of a composite face are influenced by the same/different status of the task-irrelevant half of that composite face. In Amishav and Kimchi, faces all shared a common configuration of face features. By contrast, configuration is typically never controlled in the composite task. We asked whether failures of selective attention observed in the composite task are caused by faces varying in both features and configuration. In two experiments, we found that participants exhibited failures of selective attention to face parts in the composite task even when configuration was held constant, which is inconsistent with Amishav and Kimchi's conclusion that face features can be processed independently unless configuration varies. Although both measure failures of selective attention, the Garner task and composite task appear to measure different mechanisms involved in holistic face perception.