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Psychon Bull Rev [journal]
- Saccade target selection in Chinese reading. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 24.
In Chinese reading, there are no spaces to mark the word boundaries, so Chinese readers cannot target their saccades to the center of a word. In this study, we investigated how Chinese readers decide where to move their eyes during reading. To do so, we introduced a variant of the boundary paradigm in which only the target stimulus remained on the screen, displayed at the saccade landing site, after the participant's eyes crossed an invisible boundary. We found that when the saccade target was a word, reaction times in a lexical decision task were shorter when the saccade landing position was closer to the end of that word. These results are consistent with the predictions of a processing-based strategy to determine where to move the eyes. Specifically, this hypothesis assumes that Chinese readers estimate how much information is processed in parafoveal vision and saccade to a location that will carry novel information.
- Banana or fruit? Detection and recognition across categorical levels in RSVP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 24.
Pictured objects and scenes can be understood in a brief glimpse, but there is a debate about whether they are first encoded at the basic level (e.g., banana), as proposed by Rosch et al. (1976, Cognitive Psychology) , or at a superordinate level (e.g., fruit). The level at which we first categorize an object matters in everyday situations because it determines whether we approach, avoid, or ignore the object. In the present study, we limited stimulus duration in order to explore the earliest level of object understanding. Target objects were presented among five other pictures using RSVP at 80, 53, 27, or 13 ms/picture. On each trial, participants viewed or heard 1 of 28 superordinate names or a corresponding basic-level name of the target. The name appeared before or after the picture sequence. Detection (as d') improved as duration increased but was significantly above chance in all conditions and for all durations. When the name was given before the sequence, d' was higher for the basic than for the superordinate name, showing that specific advance information facilitated visual encoding. In the name-after group, performance on the two category levels did not differ significantly; this suggests that encoding had occurred at the basic level during presentation, allowing the superordinate category to be inferred. We interpret the results as being consistent with the claim that the basic level is usually the entry level for object perception.
- The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 24.
Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.
- Implicit learning mediates base rate acquisition in perceptual categorization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 19.
We explored the possibility, suggested by Koehler (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 1-53, 1996; also Spellman Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 38, 1996), that implicit learning mediates the influence of base-rates on category knowledge acquired through direct experience. In two experiments, participants learned simple perceptual categories with unequal base-rates (i.e., presentation frequency). In Experiment 1, participants received either response training or observational training. In Experiment 2, participants received response training with either immediate or delayed feedback. In previous studies, observational training and delayed feedback training have been shown to disrupt implicit learning. We found that base-rate influence was weaker in these conditions when category discriminability was low (i.e., when category membership was difficult to determine). This conclusion was based on signal detection β values as well as decision-bound modeling results. Because these disruptions to implicit learning attenuate the base-rate effect, we conclude that implicit learning does indeed underlie the influence of base-rates learned through direct experience. This suggests that the implicit learning system postulated by the COVIS theory of categorization (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Waldron Psychological Review, 105, 442-481, 1998) may be involved in developing sensitivity to category base-rates.
- Does ambiguity aversion influence the framing effect during decision making? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 17.
Decision-makers present a systematic tendency to avoid ambiguous options for which the level of risk is unknown. This ambiguity aversion is one of the most striking decision-making biases. Given that human choices strongly depend on the options' presentation, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether ambiguity aversion influences the framing effect during decision making. We designed a new financial decision-making task involving the manipulation of both frame and uncertainty levels. Thirty-seven participants had to choose between a sure option and a gamble depicting either clear or ambiguous probabilities. The results revealed a clear preference for the sure option in the ambiguity condition regardless of frame. However, participants presented a framing effect in both the risk and ambiguity conditions. Indeed, the framing effect was bidirectional in the risk condition and unidirectional in the ambiguity condition given that it did not involve preference reversal but only a more extreme choice tendency.
- Judgments of others' heights are biased toward the height of the perceiver. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 16.
We examined how observers use one aspect of their own morphology, height, when judging the physical characteristics of other people. To address this, participants judged the heights of people as they walked past. We tested the hypothesis that differences between participant and target height account for systematic patterns of variability and bias in height estimation. Height estimate error and error variability increased as the difference between participant height and target height increased, suggesting that estimates are scaled to observers' heights. Furthermore, participants' height estimates were biased toward two standards, demonstrating classic category effects. First, estimates were biased toward participants' own heights. Second, participants biased height estimates toward the average height of the target distribution. These results support past research on using both the body and categorical information to estimate target properties but extend to real-world situations involving interactions with moving people, such as height judgments provided during eyewitness testimony.
- The effects of increasing target prevalence on information processing during visual search. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 15.
The proportion of trials on which a target is presented (referred to as the target prevalence) during visual search influences the probability that the target will be detected. As prevalence increases, participants become biased toward reporting that the target is present. This bias results in an increase in detection rates for the target, coupled with an increased likelihood of making a false alarm. Previous work has demonstrated that, as prevalence increases, participants spend an increasing period of time searching on target-absent trials. The goal of the present study was to determine the information processing during the additional time spent searching on target-absent trials as prevalence increased. We recorded participants' eye movement behavior as they were engaged in low-prevalence (25% target-present trials), medium-prevalence (50%), or high-prevalence (75%) search. Increased prevalence primarily influenced search by increasing the time spent examining objects in the display, rather than by increasing the proportion of objects examined in each display. In addition, the additional time spent examining objects in high-prevalence target-absent trials was the result of revisiting objects. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to current models of search as well as ongoing efforts to alleviate the prevalence effect.
- Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 15.
Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information, and they facilitate localization of the sought-after individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face-voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate the visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training.
- How is letter position coding attained in scripts with position-dependent allography? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 15.
We examined how letter position coding is achieved in a script (Arabic) in which the different letter forms (i.e., allographs) may vary depending on their position within the letter string (e.g., compare the same-ligation pair and vs. the different-ligation pair and . To that end, we conducted an experiment in Uyghur, an agglutinative language from the Turkic family that employs an Arabic-based script in which both consonants and vowels are explicitly written. Participants had to reproduce the correct word forms in rapid serial visual presentation sentences that either contained jumbled words (with the same ligation or different ligation) or were intact. The results revealed that readers had more difficulty correctly reporting the target words in the jumbled sentences when the letter transposition involved changes in the ligation pattern, thus demonstrating that position-dependent allography affects letter position coding. This finding poses constraints to a universal model of letter position encoding.
- Knowledge and luck. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Jul 9.
Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.