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Qual Manag Health Care [journal]
- Letter to the editor. [Comment, Letter]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):64-5.
- The impact of critical total quality management practices on hospital performance in the ministry of health hospitals in saudi arabia. [Journal Article]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):59-63.
Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a method for solving quality and patient safety problems and bringing significant improvement to hospital performance. However, only few studies have been conducted in this area in developing countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. This research is carried out in an attempt to address this gap, exploring the impact of applying TQM practices on hospital performance in the Saudi Ministry of Health hospitals. The study has included 4 hospitals in Tabuk Region, namely, King Khaled Hospital, King Fahad Hospital, Maternity and Children Hospital, and Hagel General Hospital. The data collection was done by the researcher when 400 questionnaires were distributed using a convenient sampling technique to access the required data. The response rate was 67.25% of the total questionnaires distributed. The TQM practices used in the study were as follows: leadership, employee management, information analysis, training, customer focus, continuous improvement, process management, and supplier management. The findings of the research show a significant positive correlation between the 8 practices of TQM and hospital performance with a correlation coefficient r value of 0.9 (P = .0001). The study also reveals that Saudi hospitals are facing difficulties in engaging the clinical staff in their quality initiative. Moreover, our findings show that accredited hospitals have significantly applied TQM practices more than unaccredited hospitals.
- Role of communication content and frequency in enabling evidence-based practices. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):43-58.
Many hospitals are unable to successfully implement evidence-based practices. For example, implementation of the central line bundle (CLB), proven to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), is often challenging. This problem is broadly characterized as a "change implementation failure." A prospective study was conducted in 2 intensive care units (ICUs), a medical ICU (MICU) and a pediatric ICU (PICU), within an academic health center. Both units had low baseline adherence to CLB and higher-than-expected CRBSIs. The study sought to promote CLB implementation in both units through periodic quality improvement (QI) interventions over a 52-week period. Simultaneously, it examined (1) the content and frequency of communication related to CLB through weekly "communication logs" completed by physicians, nurses, and managers, and (2) outcomes, that is, CLB adherence rates through weekly medical record reviews. The aim of the study was 2-fold: (1) to examine associations between QI interventions and communication content and frequency at the unit level, and (2) to examine associations between communication content and frequency and outcomes at the unit level. The periodic QI interventions were expected to increase CLB adherence and reduce CRBSIs through their influence on communication content and frequency. A total of 2638 instances of communication were analyzed. Both units demonstrated a statistically significant increase in "proactive" communications-that is, communication intended to reduce infection risk between physicians and nurses over time. Proactive communications increased by 68% in the MICU (P < .05) and 61% in the PICU (P < .05). During the same timeframe, both units increased CLB adherence to 100%. Both units also demonstrated statistically significant declines in (1) catheter days: 34% decline in the MICU (P < .05) and 30% in the PICU (P < .05); and (2) CRBSI rates: 63% decline in the MICU (P < .05) and 100% in the PICU (P < .10). Direct costs savings from reduced CRBSIs in 1 year were estimated to be at least $840 000. Periodic QI interventions were effective in reframing interprofessional communication dynamics and enabling practice change. The prospective design provides insights into communication content and frequency associated with collective learning and culture change. The study identifies evidence-based management strategies for positive practice change at the unit level.
- Reducing hospital readmissions among medicaid patients: a review of the literature. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):20-42.
Reducing hospital readmissions is a key approach to curbing health care costs and improving quality and patient experience in the United States. Despite the proliferation of strategies and tools to reduce readmissions in the general population and among Medicare beneficiaries, few resources exist to inform initiatives to reduce readmissions among Medicaid beneficiaries. Patients covered by Medicaid also experience readmissions and are likely to experience distinct challenges related to socioeconomic status. This review aims to identify factors related to readmissions that are unique to Medicaid populations to inform efforts to reduce Medicaid readmissions. Our search yielded 254 unique results, of which 37 satisfied all review criteria. Much of the Medicaid readmissions literature focuses on patients with mental health or substance abuse issues, who are often high utilizers of health care within the Medicaid population. Risk factors such as medication noncompliance, postdischarge care environments, and substance abuse comorbidities increase the risk of readmission among Medicaid patients.
- An alternative to satisfaction surveys: let the patients talk. [Journal Article]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):10-9.
We propose to replace the standardized 27-item hospital version of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey with 1-item questionnaire that asks "What worked well and what needs improvement?" Sentiment analysis can take the responses to this single question and reconstruct a report on frequency of dissatisfied customers and reasons for dissatisfaction similar to reports received from longer surveys. This article shows, by way of an example, how benchmarked and quantitative reports can be generated from patients' comments. The CAHPS survey asks more leading questions, is less granular in its feedback, has lower response rate, has costly repeated reminders, and may not be as timely as sentiment analysis of a single, open-ended question. This article also shows the implementation of the proposed approach in one critical access hospital and its affiliated clinic and calls for additional research to compare sentiment analysis and CAHPS satisfaction surveys.
- Physician nonadherence with a hepatitis C screening program. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):1-9.
Testing for patients at risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is recommended, but it is unclear whether providers adhere to testing guidelines. We aimed to measure adherence to an HCV screening protocol during a multifaceted continuous intervention.Prospective cohort design to examine the associations between patient-level, physician-level, and visit-level characteristics and adherence to an HCV screening protocol. Study participants included all patients with a visit to 1 of the 3 study clinics and the physicians who cared for them. Adherence to the HCV screening protocol and patient-level, physician-level, and visit-level predictors of adherence were measured.A total of 8981 patients and 154 physicians were examined. Overall protocol adherence rate was 36.1%. In multivariate analysis, patient male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18), new patient (OR = 1.23), morning visit (OR = 1.32), and patients' preferred language being non-English (OR = 0.87) were significantly associated with screening adherence. There was a wide variation in overall adherence among physicians (range, 0%-92.4%). Screening adherence continuously declined from 59.1% in week 1 of the study to 13.7% in week 15 (final week). When implementing complex clinical practice guidelines, planners should address physician attitudinal barriers as well as gaps in knowledge to maximize adherence.
- Medical home interventions and quality outcomes for older adults: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2013 Oct-Dec; 22(4):327-40.
Medical home care has been identified as a model for improving primary care delivery and population-specific quality and safety outcomes. Questions remain how this model affects older adult quality. This systematic review addresses 2 important questions: Are quality and safety outcomes associated with medical home and patient-centered interventions, and how is quality studied in older adult primary care research?The authors searched MEDLINE for articles that examined interventions that were associated with medical home principles. Each article was evaluated using a standardized data abstraction form. Studies were categorized according to how interventions influenced specific quality and safety outcomes-improved clinical and treatment measures and care delivery processes-for older adults.Thirteen research studies were identified by the authors. A great deal of variety exists in both research design and how quality and safety outcomes for older adults are operationalized in primary care. In general, studies indicate potentially beneficial relationships between 3 types of medical home interventions targeting health care utilization, disease management, and patient-provider communication to improved quality outcomes.It would be advantageous for practices looking to align with patient-centered medical home quality and safety goals to consider the needs of older adults when redesigning care delivery.
- An exploratory analysis of the correlation of pain scores, patient satisfaction with relief from pain, and a new measure of pain control on the total dose of opioids in pain care. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2013 Oct-Dec; 22(4):322-6.
We explored the associations between opioid dose and multiple measures of pain.Thirty-two consecutive patients admitted solely for an acute exacerbation of cancer-related pain or for surgery were followed for their entire hospital stay (115 days of pain). For each hospital day, we collected pain scores, the number of pain scores, trends in pain scores, the percentage of time patients had 100% acceptable relief from pain, and the number of times patients were asked about acceptable pain relief. Finally, we asked those who had 100% relief of pain whether they could have used more pain medicine. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the amount of variation explained (R) in dose of medication, by each pain measurement variable.Nineteen patients with cancer (74 days of pain) and 13 patients undergoing surgery (41 days of pain) were evaluated. Pain scores, the number of pain scores, trends in pain scores, and 100% acceptable relief scores poorly correlated with the use of medication in the linear regression models (R for all models ≤0.2). A question about needing more pain medicine explained the greatest amount of variation in opioid dose.Pain and acceptable relief scores do not adequately reflect the use of medication. A prospective study is needed to further assess the value of additional measures of the adequacy of pain care.
- The structure of service quality perceptions for multiple-encounter services. [Journal Article]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2013 Oct-Dec; 22(4):306-21.
The objective of this study was to examine a complex service environment-hospitals-to suggest how service quality could be reframed and measured for multiple-encounter service situations more effectively.In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 371 patients completed the survey instrument. Service quality measures were guided by the literature but allowed to flow from the respondents at the preliminary stage.Confirmatory factor analysis, along with structural equation modeling, was used to test the hypothesized relationships among key actors' performance metrics (KAPMs).Patient satisfaction is significantly influenced by perceived service quality based on KAPMs. For multiple-encounter services, service quality dimensions and measures ought to be tied to KAPMs.Primary actors-ie, doctors-need knowledge and skills about patient psychology, negotiation, handling difficult patients, and, importantly, "putting the customer first." Sensitivity training on such matters should be provided. The secondary actors are the nurses who have more frequent contact with the patients. Nurses need to be perceived as "patient advocates." Effective advocacy begins with prompt and caring services to build trust. The tertiary actors in their support role also ought to be integrated into becoming vital part of the service provided.
- Improving patient access in nuclear medicine: a case study of PET scanner scheduling. [Journal Article]
- Qual Manag Health Care 2013 Oct-Dec; 22(4):293-305.
We used the systems engineering technique of discrete event simulation modeling to assist in increasing patient access to positron emission tomographic examinations in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. The model was used to determine the best universal slot length to address the specific access challenges of a destination medical center such as Mayo Clinic. On the basis of the modeling, a new schedule was implemented in April 2012 and our before and after data analysis shows an increase of 2.4 scans per day. This was achieved without requiring additional resources or negatively affecting patient waiting, staff satisfaction (as evaluated by day length), or examination quality.