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Respir Res [journal]
- Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 May 15; 14(1):53.
BACKGROUND:Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases.
METHODS:In a population-based sample (n = 2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 >=5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted).
RESULTS:High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). High IL-6, high CRP and depressive symptoms were independently associated with decreased FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted predicted after adjusting for smoking status, BMI and number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Increasing grades of combination of inflammatory markers and/or depressive symptoms was associated with progressive increases in pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP.
CONCLUSIONS:This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults.
- Anti-inflammatory effects of clarithromycin in ventilator-induced lung injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 May 10; 14(1):52.
BACKGROUND:Mechanical ventilation can promote lung injury by triggering a pro-inflammatory response. Macrolides may exert some immunomodulatory effects and have shown significant benefits over other antibiotics in ventilated patients. We hypothesized that macrolides could decrease ventilator-induced lung injury.
METHODS:Adult mice were treated with vehicle, clarithromycin or levofloxacin, and randomized to receive mechanical ventilation with low (12 cmH2O, PEEP 2 cmH2O) or high (20 cmH2O, ZEEP) inspiratory pressures for 150 minutes. Histological lung injury, neutrophil infiltration, inflammatory mediators (NFkappaB activation, Cxcl2, IL-10) and levels of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM) and proteases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) were analyzed.
RESULTS:There were no differences among groups after low-pressure ventilation. Clarithromycin significantly decreased lung injury score and neutrophil count, compared to vehicle or levofloxacin, after high-pressure ventilation. Cxcl2 expression and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels increased and IL-10 decreased after injurious ventilation, with no significant differences among treatment groups. Both clarithromycin and levofloxacin dampened the increase in NFkappaB activation observed in non-treated animals submitted to injurious ventilation. E-selectin levels increased after high pressure ventilation in vehicle- and levofloxacin-treated mice, but not in those receiving clarithromycin.
CONCLUSIONS:Clarithromycin ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury and decreases neutrophil recruitment into the alveolar spaces. This could explain the advantages of macrolides in patients with acute lung injury and mechanical ventilation.
- Maresin-1 reduces the pro-inflammatory response of bronchial epithelial cells to organic dust. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 May 10; 14(1):51.
BACKGROUND:Exposure to organic dust causes detrimental airway inflammation. Current preventative and therapeutic measures do not adequately treat resulting disease, necessitating novel therapeutic interventions. Recently identified mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. We tested the potential of one of these mediators, maresin-1 (MaR1), in reducing organic dust-associated airway inflammation.
METHODS:As bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) are pivotal in initiating organic dust-induced inflammation, we investigated the in vitro effects of MaR1 on a human BEC cell line (BEAS-2B). Cells were pretreated for 1 hour with 0--200 nM MaR1, followed by 1--24 hour treatment with 5% hog confinement facility-derived organic dust extract (HDE). Alternatively, a mouse lung slice model was utilized in supportive cytokine studies. Supernatants were harvested and cytokine levels determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Epithelial cell protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms alpha and epsilon, and PKA activities were assessed via radioactivity assays, and NFkappaB and MAPK-related signaling mechanisms were investigated using luciferase vector reporters.
RESULTS:MaR1 dose-dependently reduced IL-6 and IL-8 production following HDE treatment of BECs. MaR1 also reduced HDE-stimulated cytokine release including TNF-alpha in a mouse lung slice model when given before or following HDE treatment. Previous studies have established that HDE sequentially activates epithelial PKCalpha and PKCepsilon at 1 and 6 hours, respectively that regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 release. MaR1 pretreatment abrogated these HDE-induced PKC activities. Furthermore, HDE treatment over a 24-hour period revealed temporal increases in NFkappaB, AP-1, SP-1, and SRE DNA binding activities, using luciferase reporter assays. MaR1 pretreatment did not alter the activation of NFkappaB, AP-1, or SP-1, but did reduce the activation of DNA binding at SRE.
CONCLUSIONS:These observations indicate a role for MaR1 in attenuating the pro-inflammatory responses of BECs to organic dust extract, through a mechanism that does not appear to rely on reduced NFkappaB, AP-1, or SP-1-related signaling, but may be mediated partly through SRE-related signaling. These data offer insights for a novel mechanistic action of MaR1 in bronchial epithelial cells, and support future in vivo studies to test MaR1's utility in reducing the deleterious inflammatory effects of environmental dust exposures.
- Complications associated with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a nationwide survey by the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy. [Journal Article]
- Respir Res 2013.:50.
With the recent widespread use of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), there have been occasional reports on complications associated with its use. Previous reviews on EBUS-TBNA have been limited to studies by skilled operators, thus the results may not always be applicable to recent clinical practice. To assess the safety of EBUS-TBNA for the staging and diagnosis of lung cancer in Japan, a nationwide survey on its current usage status and complications associated with its use was conducted by the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE).A questionnaire about EBUS-TBNA performed between January 2011 and June 2012 was mailed to 520 JSRE-accredited facilities.Responses were obtained from 455 facilities (87.5%). During the study period, EBUS-TBNA was performed in 7,345 cases in 210 facilities (46.2%) using a convex probe ultrasound bronchoscope, for 6,836 mediastinal and hilar lesions and 275 lung parenchymal lesions. Ninety complications occurred in 32 facilities. The complication rate was 1.23% (95% confidence interval, 0.97%-1.48%), with hemorrhage being the most frequent complication (50 cases, 0.68%). Infectious complications developed in 14 cases (0.19%) (Mediastinitis, 7; pneumonia, 4; pericarditis, 1; cyst infection, 1; and sepsis, 1). Pneumothorax developed in 2 cases (0.03%), one of which required tube drainage. Regarding the outcome of the cases with complications, prolonged hospitalization was observed in 14 cases, life-threatening conditions in 4, and death in 1 (severe cerebral infarction) (mortality rate, 0.01%). Breakage of the ultrasound bronchoscope occurred in 98 cases (1.33%) in 67 facilities (31.9%), and that of the puncture needle in 15 cases (0.20%) in 8 facilities (3.8%).Although the complication rate associated with EBUS-TBNA was found to be low, severe complications, including infectious complications, were observed, and the incidence of device breakage was high. Since the use of EBUS-TBNA is rapidly expanding in Japan, an educational program for its safe performance should be immediately established.
- Combination bronchodilator therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Journal Article]
- Respir Res 2013.:49.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, with a substantial economic impact. Recent changes in the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidance refined the classification of patients for treatment using a combination of spirometry, assessment of symptoms, and/or frequency of exacerbations. The aim of treatment remains to reduce existing symptoms while decreasing the risk of future adverse health events. Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy due to their proven efficacy. GOLD guidelines recommend combining long-acting bronchodilators with differing mechanisms of action if the control of COPD is insufficient with monotherapy, and recent years have seen growing interest in the additional benefits that combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), typified by tiotropium, with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), such as formoterol and salmeterol. Most studies have examined free combinations of currently available LAMAs and LABAs, broadly showing a benefit in terms of lung function and other patient-reported outcomes, although evidence is limited at present. Several once- or twice-daily fixed-dose LAMA/LABA combinations are under development, most involving newly developed monotherapy components. This review outlines the existing data for LAMA/LABA combinations in the treatment of COPD, summarizes the ongoing trials, and considers the evidence required to inform the role of LAMA/LABA combinations in treatment of this disease.
- Role of exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of atopy. [Journal Article]
- Respir Res 2013.:48.
The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive and safe measure of airways inflammation that may complement the assessment of asthma. Elevations of FeNO have recently been found to correlate with allergic sensitization. Therefore, FeNO may be a useful predictor of atopy in the general population. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO in predicting atopy in a population-based study.We conducted a cross-sectional study in an age- and sex- stratified random sample of 13 to 15 year-olds in two communities in Peru. We asked participants about asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics, and underwent spirometry, assessment of FeNO and an allergy skin test. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of atopy as a function of FeNO, and calculated area-under-the-curves (AUC) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO as a predictor of atopy.Of 1441 recruited participants, 1119 (83%) completed all evaluations. Mean FeNO was 17.6 ppb (SD=0.6) in atopics and 11.6 ppb (SD=0.8) in non-atopics (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, a FeNO>20 ppb was associated with an increase in the odds of atopy in non-asthmatics (OR=5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.5) and asthmatics (OR=16.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 77.5). A FeNO>20 ppb was the best predictor for atopy with an AUC of 68% (95% CI 64% to 69%). Stratified by asthma, the AUC was 65% (95% CI 61% to 69%) in non-asthmatics and 82% (95% CI 71% to 91%) in asthmatics.FeNO had limited accuracy to identify atopy among the general population; however, it may be a useful indicator of atopic phenotype among asthmatics.
- Adhesion molecules in subjects with COPD and healthy non-smokers: a cross sectional parallel group study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 May 1; 14(1):47.
BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to investigate how the expression of adhesion molecules changes as neutrophils migrate from the circulation to the lung and if these changes differ between non-smoking subjects and smokers with and without COPD.
METHODS:Non-smoking healthy subjects (n=22), smokers without (n=21) and with COPD (n=18) were included. Neutrophils from peripheral blood, sputum and bronchial biopsies were analysed for cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD62L, CD162). Serum, sputum supernatant and BAL-fluid were analysed for soluble adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, -3, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1, PECAM-1).
RESULTS:Expression of CD11b was increased on circulating neutrophils from smokers with COPD. It was also increased on sputum neutrophils in both smokers groups, but not in non-smokers, as compared to circulating neutrophils.Serum ICAM-1 was higher in the COPD group compared to the other two groups (p<0.05) and PECAM-1 was lower in smokers without COPD than in non-smoking controls and the COPD group (p<0.05). In BAL-fluid ICAM-1 was lower in the COPD group than in the other groups (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:Thus, our data strongly support the involvement of a systemic component in COPD and demonstrate that in smokers neutrophils are activated to a greater extent at the point of transition from the circulation into the lungs than in non-smokers.
- Impact of exacerbations of cystic fibrosis on muscle strength. [Journal Article]
- Respir Res 2013.:46.
Adult patients with cystic fibrosis have peripheral muscle weakness, which is related to exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. The influence of acute exacerbations on muscle strength has been poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate whether quadriceps force (QF), as assessed with an involuntary technique, changes during intravenous antibiotics therapy (IVAT) for an exacerbation.QF was measured in 20 patients using twitch stimulation of the femoral nerve at the day of hospitalization (day 1) and at termination (day 14) of the IVAT. Physical activity was monitored during IVAT using a SenseWear armband. Ten stable patients served as control subjects.QF did not change during exacerbation (potentiated twitch force at day 1: 140 ± 42 N, at day 14: 140 ± 47 N), but a decrease was observed in individual patients. Changes in twitch force during exacerbation were correlated with time spent in activities of at least moderate intensity (r = 0.61, p = 0.007).QF does not systematically decrease during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Individual changes in QF are well correlated with daily time spent in activities of at least moderate intensity.
- Critical role of aldehydes in cigarette smoke-induced acute airway inflammation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 Apr 17; 14(1):45.
BACKGROUND:Cigarette smoking (CS) is the most important risk factor for COPD, which is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. We hypothesize, that highly reactive aldehydes are critical for CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation.
METHODS:BALB/c mice were exposed to CS, water filtered CS (WF-CS) or air for 5 days. Levels of total particulate matter (TPM) and aldehydes in CS and WF-CS were measured. Six hours after the last exposure, inflammatory cells and cytokine levels were measured in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, Beas-2b bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or WF-CS extract (WF-CSE) in the absence or presence of the aldehyde acrolein and IL-8 production was measured after 24 hrs.
RESULTS:Compared to CS, in WF-CS strongly decreased (CS; 271.1 +/- 41.5 muM, WF-CS; 58.5 +/- 8.2 muM) levels of aldehydes were present whereas levels of TPM were only slightly reduced (CS; 20.78 +/- 0.59 mg, WF-CS; 16.38 +/- 0.36 mg). The numbers of mononuclear cells in BALF (p<0.01) and lung tissue (p<0.01) were significantly increased in the CS- and WF-CS-exposed mice compared to air control mice. Interestingly, the numbers of neutrophils (p<0.001) in BALF and neutrophils and eosinophils (p<0.05) in lung tissue were significantly increased in the CS-exposed but not in WF-CS-exposed mice as compared to air control mice. Levels of the neutrophil and eosinophil chemoattractants KC, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and IL-5 were all significantly increased in lung tissue from CS-exposed mice compared to both WF-CS-exposed and air control mice. Interestingly, depletion of aldehydes in WF-CS extract significantly reduced IL-8 production in Beas-2b as compared to CSE, which could be restored by the aldehyde acrolein.
CONCLUSION:Aldehydes present in CS play a critical role in inflammatory cytokine production and neutrophilic- but not mononuclear airway inflammation.
- The current position of surgical lung biopsy in the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 Apr 15; 14(1):43.
A new international statement defines usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) which is a histological and radiological form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) more precisely than previously. In the diagnosis of IPF, either in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) a UIP pattern must be present or alternatively specific combinations of HRCT and surgical lung biopsy findings can be accepted. In about two third of the cases IPF can be diagnosed by clinical and radiological criteria. Thus surgical lung biopsy is needed in about one third of cases to achieve the ultimate diagnosis, which requires multidisciplinary cooperation. In large clinical trials conducted during the last decade, lung biopsy was performed in about 30--60% of the cases. The most serious complication of lung biopsy is mortality within 30 days after the procedure, with a frequency of about 3--4% reported in most studies. Because of the histological variability, surgical lung biopsy should be taken from a minimum of two lobes. The number of fibroblast foci in surgical lung biopsy has been shown to correlate with survival in several studies.