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- An Unexpected Cause of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Kidney Transplant Patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 10.
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. There are many different treatment-relevant causes of DAH, making the diagnostic approach to these patients complex and necessitating a multidisciplinary team. We report the case of a kidney transplant recipient in whom all diagnostic efforts did not reveal the cause of DAH, and only autopsy was able to establish an unexpected diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Normal Echocardiography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 11.:379-387.
Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a serious complication of pulmonary embolism (PE). Taking into account the reported incidence of CTEPH after acute PE, the number of patients with undiagnosed CTEPH may be high. Objectives: We aimed to determine if cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) could serve as complementary tool in the diagnosis of CTEPH and can detect CTEPH in patients with normal echocardiography. Methods: At diagnosis, we analyzed the data of CPET parameters in 42 patients with proven CTEPH and 51 controls, and evaluated the performance of two scores. Results: VE/VCO2 slope, EQO2, EQCO2, P(A-a)O2, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 at anaerobic threshold (PETCO2) and capillary to end-tidal carbon dioxide gradient [P(c-ET)CO2] were significantly different between patients with CTEPH and controls (p < 0.001). P(c-ET)CO2 was the single parameter with the highest sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (88.2%). A score combining VE/VCO2 slope, P(A-a)O2, P(c-ET)CO2, PETCO2 [4-parameter-CPET (4-P-CPET) score] reached a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 92.2% after cross-validation. In 42 patients with CTEPH, echocardiography identified PH in 29 patients (69%), but it was normal in 13 patients (31%). All patients with normal or unmeasurable right ventricular systolic pressure had a pathological CPET. Twelve of the 13 patients (92%) were detected by both CPET scores. Conclusion: CPET is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of CTEPH in patients with suspected PH but normal echocardiography. The 4-P-CPET score provides a high sensitivity with the highest specificity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Ultrasonographic Assessment of the Diaphragm in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Relationships with Pulmonary Function and the Influence of Body Composition - A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 11.:364-371.
Background: Skeletal muscle weakness with loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is one of the main systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The diaphragm is also involved, leading to disadvantageous conditions and poor contractile capacities. Objectives: We measured the thickness of the diaphragm (TD) by ultrasonography to evaluate the relationships between echographic measurements, parameters of respiratory function and body composition data. Methods: Thirty-two patients (23 males) underwent (1) pulmonary function tests, (2) echographic assessment of TD in the zone of apposition at various lung volumes, i.e. TD at residual volume (TDRV), TD at functional residual capacity (TDFRC) and TD at total lung capacity (TDTLC), and (3) bioelectrical body impedance analysis. The BMI and the BODE (BMI-Obstruction-Dyspnea-Exercise) index values were reported. Results: TDRV, TDFRC and TDTLC measured 3.3, 3.6 and 6 mm, respectively, with good intraobserver reproducibility (0.97, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively). All the TDs were found to be related to FFM, with the relationship being greater for TDFRC (r(2) = 0.39 and p = 0.0002). With regard to lung volumes, inspiratory capacity (IC) was found to be closely related to TDTLC (r(2) = 0.42 and p = 0.0001). The difference between TDTLC and TDRV, as a thickening value (TDTLCRV), was closely related to FVC (r(2) = 0.34 and p = 0.0004) and to air-trapping indices (RV/TLC, FRC/TLC and IC/TLC): the degree of lung hyperinflation was greater and the TDTLCRV was less. Finally, we found a progressive reduction of both thicknesses and thickenings as the severity of IC/TLC increased, with a significant p value for the trend in both analyses (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Ultrasonographic assessment of the diaphragm could be a useful tool for studying disease progression in COPD patients, in terms of lung hyperinflation and the loss of FFM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The 'Dark Side' of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 11.:355-356.
- The Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in an Elderly Korean Population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 4.:372-378.
Background: There are just a few epidemiological studies on sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the elderly, and the results are inconsistent. Study Objectives: We sought to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for SDB in a representative elderly population with the use of attended nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Methods: Among 6,959 individuals aged ≥60 years living in Yongin City, Korea, 696 subjects were selected using random sampling. All the subjects were invited to visit a hospital for NPSG, and SDB was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15. Results: Of the 696 participants investigated, 348 participants completed the sleep study and clinical evaluation. SDB was observed in 127 of the 348 participants, and the prevalence of SDB was 36.5% (52.6% in males and 26.3% in females). A body mass index ≥25 was associated with SDB in both male and female subjects, particularly in males, whereas snoring was independently associated with SDB in female participants only. In male participants, SDB was a significant risk factor for hypertension (p = 0.025). Conclusions: SDB was found to be common among elderly Koreans, and it was more prevalent and severe in male than in female subjects. Health consequences of SDB in the elderly need to be further explored. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Sputum Eicosanoid Profiling in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Apr 4.:408-415.
Background: Eicosanoids are small lipid molecules with diverse biological functions in the airways. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 8-isoprostane, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cysteinyl-leukotriene (cys-LT) levels in the sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at the onset of a severe exacerbation and during the course of recovery. Methods: Thirty-seven ex-smoker COPD patients suffering an episode of acute exacerbation were enrolled. Samples were taken (i) on hospital admission and (ii) after regular treatment. Twenty-five stable ex-smoker COPD patients served as controls. Eicosanoids were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: Sputum PGE2 [39.8 (13.3-103.3) vs. 5.05 (2.3-12.1) pg/ml, p < 0.001], 8-isoprostane [89.5 (36.9-184.7) vs. 29.7 (13.8-68.8) pg/ml, p < 0.01] and LTB4 [587.7 (252.9-774.8) vs. 276.1 (105.4-594.7) pg/ml, p < 0.05] levels were increased in patients with exacerbation compared to stable subjects. After treatment only PGE2 levels decreased significantly [at discharge: 19.6 (4.6-52.5) pg/ml, p < 0.01], the levels of other eicosanoids remained elevated (p = NS). Sputum cys-LT levels were similar in stable patients and in those with exacerbation and treatment did not influence cys-LTs either. There was a significant correlation between PGE2 and sputum neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts in patients with exacerbation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 but not cys-LTs may be involved in exacerbation-associated inflammatory processes in the airways of patients with COPD. Validation of PGE2 for use as a biomarker of recovery from an exacerbation requires further studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Gesellschaftsnachrichten / informations de la société. [Journal Article]
- Respiration 2014; 87(4):352.
- Netrin-1 Promotes Epithelial Sodium Channel-Mediated Alveolar Fluid Clearance via Activation of the Adenosine 2B Receptor in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Mar 21.
Background: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the driving force for pulmonary edema absorption in acute lung injury (ALI). Netrin-1 is a newly found anti-inflammatory factor that works by activating the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BAR). Meanwhile, activated A2BAR has the potential to enhance ENaC-dependent alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). However, whether netrin-1 can increase ENaC-mediated AFC by activating A2BAR remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the effect of netrin-1 on AFC in ALI and clarify the pathway via which netrin-1 regulates the expression of ENaC in vivo and in vitro. Methods: An ALI model was established by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg) in C57BL/J mice, followed by netrin-1 with or without pretreatment with PSB1115, via the caudal vein. Twenty-four hours later, the lungs were isolated for determination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, AFC, the expressions of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. LPS-stimulated MLE-12 cells were incubated with netrin-1 with or without preincubation with PSB1115. Twenty-four hours later, the expressions of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC were detected. Results: In vivo, netrin-1 expression was significantly decreased during ALI. Substituted netrin-1 significantly dampened the lung injury, decreased the W/D ratio, and enhanced AFC, the expressions of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC, and cAMP levels in ALI, which were abolished by specific A2BAR inhibitor PSB1115. In vitro, netrin-1 increased the expressions of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC, which were prevented by PSB1115. Conclusion: These results indicate that netrin-1 dampens pulmonary inflammation and increases ENaC-mediated AFC to alleviate pulmonary edema in LPS-induced ALI by enhancing cAMP levels through the activation of A2BAR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice Are Susceptible to the Development of Acute Lung Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Mar 22.
Background: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, attributable to its function in lipid trafficking and immune modulating properties; however, its role in modulating inflammation in the setting of acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. Objective: To determine whether apoE-deficient mice (apoE-/-) are more susceptible to ALI compared to wild-type (WT) animals. Methods: Two independent models of ALI were employed. Firstly, WT and apoE-/- mice were randomized to acid aspiration (50 μl of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid) followed by 4 h of mechanical ventilation. Secondly, WT and apoE-/- mice were randomized to 72 h of hyperoxia exposure or room air. Thereafter, the intrinsic responses of WT and apoE-/- mice were assessed using the isolated perfused mouse lung (IPML) setup. Finally, based on elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in apoE-/-, the effect of oxLDL on lung endothelial permeability and inflammation was assessed. Results: In both in vivo models, apoE-/- mice demonstrated greater increases in lung lavage protein levels, neutrophil counts, and cytokine expression (p < 0.05) compared to WT mice. Experiments utilizing the IPML setup demonstrated no differences in intrinsic lung responses to injury between apoE-/- and WT mice, suggesting the presence of a circulating factor as being responsible for the in vivo observations. Finally, the exposure of lung endothelial cells to oxLDL resulted in increased monolayer permeability and IL-6 release compared to native (nonoxidized) LDL. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a susceptibility of apoE-/- animals to ALI that may occur, in part, due to elevated levels of oxLDL. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.