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- The BODE Index, a Multidimensional Grading System, Reflects Impairment of Right Ventricle Functions in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Speckle-Tracking Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Aug 15.
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not only characterized by chronic airflow limitation, but is also a systemic disease. There is no information about alterations in right ventricle (RV) functions precipitated by systemic manifestations of COPD. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index that evaluates systemic manifestations of COPD and RV functions by means of 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in COPD patients. Methods: The study involved 135 COPD patients and 37 control subjects. All patients underwent 2D-STE, pulmonary function tests and 6-min walk tests, and were divided into quartiles according to their calculated BODE index score. Results: COPD patients had impaired RV and left-ventricle diastolic functions compared to controls. There was a decreasing trend from quartile 1 (Q1) to Q4 in RV functional parameters, i.e. RV free wall strain (RVFW-S, p < 0.001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (p < 0.001), systolic myocardial velocity (p < 0.001), RV fractional area change (p < 0.001), RV myocardial performance index (p < 0.001) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p < 0.001). The transmitral Doppler E wave/lateral mitral annular tissue Doppler E wave ratio was similar in the 4 BODE index quartiles (p = 0.159). Multivariate analysis was performed to find independent predictors of decreased RVFW-S (≤19.06), and the BODE index (in quartiles; OR 4.61 and 95% CI 1.85-11.63) was found to be an independent predictor. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for forced expiratory volume in 1s % predicted, RVFW-S was correlated with the 6-min walk distance (r = 0.498). Conclusion: The BODE index, which can be easily evaluated in office settings, may provide information about reduced RV functions as well as guiding treatment and helping to predict prognosis in COPD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Pirfenidone in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Real-Life Experience from a German Tertiary Referral Center for Interstitial Lung Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Aug 9.
Background: Pirfenidone is a novel antifibrotic drug for the treatment of mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, adverse events may offset treatment benefits and compliance. Objectives: To assess recent course of disease, adverse events and compliance in patients who started pirfenidone. Methods: In an observational cohort study, 63 patients with mild-to-moderate IPF who started pirfenidone between May 2011 and June 2013 were reviewed. Pulmonary function, adverse events and treatment compliance were recorded at each clinic visit. Disease progression was defined as a reduction of vital capacity ≥10% and/or diffusion capacity (DLCO) ≥15%. Results: Follow-up time on pirfenidone treatment was 11 (±7) months. Sixty-six percent of the patients continued with pirfenidone monotherapy and 34% of the patients received pirfenidone combined with corticosteroids (CCS) and/or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). There was a nonsignificant reduction in mean decline of percent predicted forced vital capacity after treatment start (0.7 ± 10.9%) compared to the pretreatment period (6.6 ± 6.7%, p = 0.098). Sixty-two percent of the patients had stable disease on pirfenidone treatment. Adverse events affected 85% of the patients, leading to discontinuation of pirfenidone in 20%. Adverse events and treatment discontinuation were seen more frequently in patients with concomitant CCS and/or NAC treatment. Conclusions: Adverse events affect the majority of patients treated with pirfenidone, but are mostly manageable with supportive measures. In this heterogeneous patient group, a nonsignificant effect of pirfenidone treatment on pulmonary function was seen, underlining the need for more data on patient selection criteria and efficacy of pirfenidone, particularly in patients with coexistent emphysema and concomitant NAC/CCS treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Response to Chemotherapy, Reexposure to Crizotinib and Treatment with a Novel ALK Inhibitor in a Patient with Acquired Crizotinib Resistance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Aug 7.
The treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically changed over the last decade. It has developed from an unspecific approach based on platinum doublet chemotherapy to a personalized, molecularly targeted therapy. Crizotinib is a new tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of NSCLC with gene rearrangement of EML4 and ALK. Despite good initial responses, patients treated with crizotinib relapse after an average of 10 months. In this case report, we present a patient with acquired crizotinib resistance whose adenocarcinoma responded to a second course of crizotinib following a drug holiday and chemotherapy with pemetrexed. This is the second case report to suggest that retreatment with crizotinib is an option for patients with initial benefit from ALK inhibition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The ADO Index as a Predictor of Two-Year Mortality in General Practice-Based Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cohorts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Aug 7.
Background: Existing prediction models for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have not yet been validated in primary care, which is where the majority of patients receive care. Objectives: Our aim was to validate the ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) index as a predictor of 2-year mortality in 2 general practice-based COPD cohorts. Methods: Six hundred and forty-six patients with COPD with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages I-IV were enrolled by their general practitioners and followed for 2 years. The ADO regression equation was used to predict a 2-year risk of all-cause mortality in each patient and this risk was compared with the observed 2-year mortality. Discrimination and calibration were assessed as well as the strength of association between the 15-point ADO score and the observed 2-year all-cause mortality. Results: Fifty-two (8.1%) patients died during the 2-year follow-up period. Discrimination with the ADO index was excellent with an area under the curve of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.84]. Overall, the predicted and observed risks matched well and visual inspection revealed no important differences between them across 10 risk classes (p = 0.68). The odds ratio for death per point increase according to the ADO index was 1.50 (95% CI 1.31-1.71). Conclusions: The ADO index showed excellent prediction properties in an out-of-population validation carried out in COPD patients from primary care settings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Risk Factors for Acquiring Potentially Drug-Resistant Pathogens in Immunocompetent Patients with Pneumonia Developed Out of Hospital. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jul 2.
Background: The concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) exists to identify patients infected with highly resistant pathogens who are exposed to the healthcare environment. However, many studies have included immunosuppressed patients who were excluded from the original concept. Objectives: The risk factors of potentially drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens in patients with pneumonia developed outside the hospital were reevaluated after excluding the patients who had immunosuppression. Methods: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from all consecutive patients with pneumonia who were admitted to hospital via the emergency department between January 2008 and December 2011. Results: Pathogens were isolated in a total of 315 patients with pneumonia from our cohort; 33% with PDR pathogens did not meet the criteria for HCAP, but 44% without PDR pathogens did meet the criteria. Variables independently associated with PDR included nursing home residency, hospitalization in the preceding 90 days, antibiotics in the 30 days prior to pneumonia, poor function status and chronic lung disease. The new predictive scoring system based on the logistic regression model had a higher predictive power for the risk of PDR pathogens than the presence of the risk factors or the HCAP criteria. Conclusions: Functional status, pulmonary comorbidity and previous exposure to the healthcare environment were significantly associated with acquiring PDR pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia that developed out of hospital. However, a risk stratification model was more accurate than the presence of the risk factors or the HCAP criteria for assessing the probability of PDR pathogens. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Is Springing with Potential for Patients with Homogenous Emphysema. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jul 2.:89-91.
- Endobronchial Ultrasonography with a Guide Sheath for Pure or Mixed Ground-Glass Opacity Lesions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jul 2.:137-143.
Background: Ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions are difficult to diagnose by transbronchial biopsy (TBB). Objectives: We attempted to diagnose solitary peripheral GGO predominant-type lesions by TBB using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance, and to evaluate several factors associated with diagnostic yield. Methods: The medical records of 67 patients with GGO predominant-type lesions who underwent TBB using EBUS-GS under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 67 lesions, 38 (57%) were successfully diagnosed by EBUS-GS (5/11 pure GGO lesions and 33/56 mixed GGO lesions). The diagnosable lesions were significantly larger than the nondiagnosable lesions (24 vs. 17 mm, respectively; p < 0.01). Regarding the diagnostic yield by signs on computed tomography, the lesions with a bronchus leading directly to a lesion had a significantly higher diagnostic yield than the others (p < 0.05). When GGO lesions were confirmed under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance, the diagnostic yield was 79% (vs. 40% in lesions not visible on X-ray fluoroscopy; p < 0.05). Conclusions: EBUS-GS is a useful and valuable diagnostic modality, even for GGO predominant-type lesions located at the lung periphery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Can Lung Ultrasound Replace Chest Radiography for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jul 2.:112-115.
Background: Lung ultrasound is a non-radiating accurate alternative tool to chest X-ray (CXR) in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults. Objectives: The aim of our study was to define the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of CAP in children. Methods: 107 consecutive children with suspected CAP underwent clinical examination, blood sample analysis, CXR and lung ultrasound on admission to the Pediatric Department of the San Paolo Hospital. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made by an independent committee of physicians on the basis of the overall clinical and CXR data. Results: The diagnosis of CAP was confirmed by the committee in 81 patients (76%). Ultrasound and CXR were performed in all patients. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 96%, while CXR showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 94%. In patients with CAP, ultrasound revealed subpleural consolidations with air bronchogram in 70 cases and focal B-lines in 6. A parapneumonic pleural effusion was detected in 17 patients by ultrasound, while only 11 of them could be detected by CXR. Conclusions: In our series, lung ultrasound was highly accurate for the diagnosis of CAP in hospitalized children. These results provide the rationale for a multicenter study in children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Respiratory Impedance and Response to Salbutamol in Healthy Individuals and Patients with COPD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jul 2.:101-111.
Background: Recent studies suggested that the bronchodilator response depends on airway obstruction. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) may help improve our understanding of the changes in respiratory mechanics that occur after the application of a bronchodilator. Objectives: We aimed to (1) assess the response to salbutamol and to compare the impedance changes in healthy individuals and COPD patients, (2) investigate the effects of airway obstruction on this response and (3) evaluate the utility of the FOT as a complementary measurement to assess the response to the bronchodilator. Methods: Twenty-five healthy individuals and 82 patients with COPD were assessed with the FOT followed by spirometry before and after the use of salbutamol. Results: The changes exhibited by the COPD subgroups were greater than in the healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Increased obstruction resulted in decreased reductions in mean resistance and increased improvements in mean reactance (p < 0.001). In addition, the bronchodilation reduced the ventilation heterogeneity and the impedance modulus in all COPD stages (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients for the spirometric and FOT changes were low (0.21-0.38). Conclusions: In the initial phases of COPD (stage I), the effects of bronchodilation are greater than in healthy volunteers. The bronchodilator use improved the oscillatory mechanics in all of the studied groups of COPD patients. These improvements are reduced in more advanced phases of airway obstruction (II, III and IV). The FOT provides information that complements the data supplied by spirometry, contributing to an improvement in the evaluation of the bronchodilator response in COPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Propofol versus Midazolam in Medical Thoracoscopy: A Randomized, Noninferiority Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respiration 2014 Jun 21.
Background: Hypoxemia is a surrogate marker for periprocedural endoscopic complications. There are no data comparing the safety of propofol sedation with another sedative regimen in medical thoracoscopy. Objective: To evaluate whether sedation with propofol is as safe and effective as sedation with midazolam. Methods: Ninety consecutive patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous propofol or midazolam. Predefined periprocedural complications included hypoxemia, hypotension, bleeding, need for airway insertion, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit transfer and death. The primary endpoint was the mean lowest oxygen saturation during the procedure. Results: Randomized groups had similar demographics (64 ± 16 years, 57% male, 91% American Society of Anesthesiologists class III-IV) and a balanced distribution of procedures. The mean lowest oxygen saturation during the procedure was significantly lower in the propofol group as compared to the midazolam group (93 ± 6 vs. 96 ± 3%, p = 0.007). Patients randomized to propofol showed more episodes of hypoxemia (27 vs. 4%, p = 0.007) and hypotension (82 vs. 40%, p < 0.0001). No procedure had to be aborted. None of the patients required an artificial airway, mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit care, and none died. Conclusions: As assessed by the surrogate marker hypoxemia, propofol should not be considered the first choice for sedation in medical thoracoscopy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.