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Rev Mal Respir [journal]
- [Lung cancer surgery and HIV infection]. [Letter]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):771-2.
- [Maximal isometric voluntary quadriceps strength assessment in COPD.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):765-770.
- [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and dyspnea in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):754-764.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the most comprehensive investigation for understanding the mechanisms responsible for dyspnea in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The two observations presented here illustrate how CPET can contribute to the management of patients with interstitial lung diseases. A 60-year-old woman had been followed for 20years for non-progressive pulmonary sarcoidosis, untreated for many years. CPET led to the diagnosis of an atrial septal defect. A 76-year-old man was treated for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Before pulmonary rehabilitation, CPET was performed which revealed significant aortic valve stenosis, which had been to that point asymptomatic. In these two observations, CPET determined the presence of an associated disease, distinct from the interstitial lung disease.
- [Management of malignant pericardial effusion in lung cancer.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):746-753.
Acute pericarditis associated with lung cancer is a relatively frequent complication but is usually not symptomatic unless it causes tamponade. The clinical presentation is classically with dyspnea, thoracic pain, signs of right cardiac failure then left cardiac failure and syncope but it is often a difficult diagnosis in a patient with multi-symptomatic disease. The diagnosis is based on cardiac echography. Toxicity due to radiotherapy or more rarely an infectious etiology must be considered. Clinically significant effusions must be drained because of the high rate of recurrence after a simple aspiration. Drainage is formally indicated when, at echocardiography, the effusion exceeds 20mm in diastole, in cases of tamponade or in cases of compromised hemodynamic status. The formation of a pericardial window at thoracotomy prevents recurrences. Based on old, retrospective, very heterogeneous case series the prognosis, is generally considered to be poor with a median survival which does not exceed 100days and a one year survival generally lower than 10%. Prognosis is better where diagnosis occurs at an earlier stage allowing regular follow-up and surgical intervention in a non-emergency setting.
- Diagnosis of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Modalities, indications and diagnosis strategy. [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):729-745.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which predisposes affected patients to development of pulmonary emphysema or liver cirrhosis. Despite the guidelines from the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society about α1-AT deficiency screening, it remains significantly under recognized. So, it seems necessary to propose an efficient and suitable biological approach to improve diagnosis and management of α1-AT deficiency. α1-AT is a 52kDa glycoprotein predominantly produced in the liver and its physiological serum concentration for adults ranges from 0.9 to 2.0g/L (17-39μmol/L). It is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene, which is highly pleomorphic, and to date, more than 100 alleles have been identified. α1-AT testing would initially involve quantification of serum α1-AT concentration with possible complementary measurement of the elastase inhibitory capacity of serum. If the serum α1-AT concentration is reduced below the reference value, two strategies for laboratory testing can be used: (i) serum α1-AT phenotyping by isoelectric focusing which allows identification of the most common variant designated as the PI M variant but also of various deficient variants besides the predominant PI S and PI Z ones; (ii) genotyping by allele-specific PCR methods which allows only identification of the deficient PI S and PI Z alleles. Identification of the null alleles or of other rare deficient alleles can be performed by direct sequencing of the whole SERPINA1 gene as a reflex test.
- [Breaking bad news in oncology: The Belgian experience.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):721-728.
Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.
- [Placebo effect: A contribution of social psychology.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):714-720.
This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.
- [A new fixed dose combination of fluticasone and formoterol in a pressurised metered-dose inhaler for the treatment of asthma.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014; 31(8):700-713.
The combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long acting beta-2 agonist is indicated for the regular treatment of persistent moderate-to-severe asthmatics whose asthma is not controlled by inhaled corticosteroids and the occasional use of a short acting beta-2 agonist. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the rationale of combining formoterol and fluticasone and to analyze the clinical data concerning a new fixed combination of fluticasone and formoterol in a pressurised metered-dose inhaler with a dose counter (Flutiform(®)) that was approved for the treatment of asthma in France in 2013. The clinical studies provide evidence that combined fluticasone/formoterol is more efficacious than fluticasone or formoterol given alone, and provides similar improvements in lung function to fluticasone (Flixotide(®)) and formoterol (Foradil(®)) administered concurrently. The combination of fluticasone/formoterol gave a more rapid bronchodilatation than the combination fluticasone/salmeterol. As a whole, the combination of fluticasone/formoterol had similar efficacy and tolerability profiles to the combinations of either budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol.