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Rev Mal Respir [journal]
- [Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):568-577.
Epidemiological cohorts based on population samples, established in the 1990s, have helped to clarify the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and to identify key risk factors and co-morbidities.OSAS is a common disease whose prevalence increases with age. Its main risk factor is obesity, but familial and genetic predisposition may also promote the condition. The association of OSAS with increased cardiovascular mortality has been known for several years and has been confirmed by recent data from epidemiological cohorts showing increased mortality including an increased incidence of coronary events and stroke in particular in men aged below 70 years. Recent studies also show an independent association between OSAS and cancer mortality.OSAS is a common disease whose prevalence continues to increase with the increase of obesity in the population. Large epidemiological studies have shown an independent relationship between OSAS and cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and more recently cancer.
- [Chest physical therapy of the distal lung. Mechanical basis of a new paradigm.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):552-567.
Recent medical literature has shown that there has been renewed interest focused on the small airways deep in the lung tissue. Although there is involvement of the distal airways at an early stage in mucus secreting lung diseases, no specific chest physical therapy (CPT) manoeuver has been proposed for small airways clearance. A four-tier classification of CPT has been established with identification of its benefits at each level of a monoalveolar respiratory tract model. The usual expiratory techniques directed towards the upper and middle respiratory tract are not applicable to the small airways and new paradigm is proposed appropriate to their specific mechanical characteristics. This comprises a slow resistive inspiratory manoeuver in the lateral position. Clinical auscultation of the lung is the cornerstone of the validation and follow-up of the technique.
- [Physiological significance and interpretation of plasma lactate concentration and pH in clinical exercise testing.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):525-551.
According to a widely accepted model, based on the theory of the anaerobic threshold (AT), the increase in plasma lactate concentration which develops after the first ventilatory threshold (VT1, considered as an AT) is due to compensation for insufficient aerobic metabolism by anaerobic glycolysis, with accumulation of lactic acid resulting in a decrease in pH. Bicarbonate is the main buffer of protons (>90%) producing non-metabolic CO2 in muscle and thus increasing the CO2 flux to the lungs. This phenomenon, along with the low pH, triggers hyperventilation. Because of this model, great importance has been placed on plasma lactate and pH. We argue that this importance is excessive and these variables should be used with caution in the interpretation of clinical exercise testing, because the model based on AT is not valid: there is no aerobic failure above VT1 and, thus, there is no evidence of an AT; the increase in plasma lactate does not reflect anaerobiosis but is the marker of the increase in the error signal needed for the stimulation of mitochondrial respiration; bicarbonate is not the main buffer during exercise (these are proteins and phosphocreatine breakdown in the muscle; hemoglobin in the blood); non-metabolic CO2 is not produced in the muscle but in the lung because of the low pH and hyperventilation (the control of which remains unknown); and the flux of CO2 to the lung does not increase at faster rate after than before VT1.
- [Adjuvant surgical resection for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A review.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):511-524.
The frequency of multi and extensively drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) is increasing worldwide, with major issues related to treatment modalities and outcome. In this setting, the exact benefits associated with surgical resection are still unknown.We performed a literature review to determine the indications, morbidity, mortality and bacteriological success associated with the surgical management of MDR/XDR-TB patients.Altogether, 177 publications dealing with surgical resection and MDR/XDR-TB have been analyzed, including 35 surgical series and 24 cohort studies summarized in one meta-analysis. The surgical series reported success rates from 47% to 100%, complication rates from 0 to 29%, and mortality rates from 0 to 8%. The published meta-analysis reported a statistically significant association between surgical resection and treatment success (OR 2.24, IC95% 1.68-2.97). However, all these studies were associated with selection bias. International consensual guidelines included a multidisciplinary assessment in a reference centre, a personalized and prolonged antibiotic treatment and a medico-surgical discussion on a case-to-case basis.These guidelines are now applied for the management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB in our centre. Further studies are required to avoid further increase in the burden of MDR/XDR-TB and to establish the optimal timing of medical and surgical treatments.
- [COPD and perception of the new GOLD document in Europe. Workshop from the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF).] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):499-510.
The organization of care for chronic non-infectious diseases, notably COPD, is a common preoccupation in developed countries in which this disease is among the main causes of mortality and disability. We report a summary of a workshop organized on this theme in April 2013 by the Société de pneumologie de langue française.Experts from several European countries presented the organizational practices for the management of COPD in their countries, in particular the detection of the disease and the systems of care. The common objectives were to obtain better motivation to stop smoking, earlier detection of the disease and education in the recognition of the signs of exacerbation and their severity. The experts agreed that mass detection is of little benefit and difficult to organize. Early individual screening is preferable on the basis of precise, easily identified criteria. The classification recommended by the GOLD committee since 2011 does not seem to be adopted universally throughout Europe. If there is a real improvement over the previous classification due to taking into account clinical criteria, quality of life and exacerbations, criticisms have arisen concerning the choice of certain pathways and therapeutic recommendations not based on prospective studies with a high level of evidence.European experiences concerning the management of COPD are varied and complementary. One remaining question is who to screen: all subjects at risk (all smokers, all occupations at risk), only symptomatic subjects, subjects with severe and disabling symptoms?
- [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):488-498.
Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.
- [Asthma in the elderly.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):478-487.
Asthma is a common condition in the elderly although often confounded with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in this population. Asthma in the elderly seems to represent a specific phenotype characterized by more severe, but often less perceived, airway obstruction, a neutrophilic or mixed-type of airway inflammation and frequent comorbidities. Patients aged 65years and over have an increased asthma-related morbidity and mortality compared to younger patients, probably due to difficulties in regard to diagnosis, assessment of the disease severity and treatment. Research is urgently needed to determine the optimal treatment of the aged patient. In this document we will review the state of knowledge on this topic and discuss the challenges of multidisciplinary asthma management in the elderly.
- [Features of asthma in women: What is the relationship with hormonal status?] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):469-477.
The prevalence and control of asthma are modulated by hormonal changes in women, suggesting an influence of sex hormones on the airways.The blood levels of both oestrogens and progesterone can modulate airway tone and inflammation. Asthma prevalence changes at puberty and the menopause, events also associated with modifications of adipose tissue and behaviour. Changes in lung function and asthma control are well documented during the menstrual cycle. However, an effect of hormone therapy on asthma control has not been demonstrated.The effect of a targeted hormonal therapeutic intervention in menopausal asthma, a phenotype, which is frequently particularly severe, or in premenstrual asthma, should be evaluated by randomized trials.Involvement of sex hormones and their cyclical variations in the characteristics of asthma in women is probable, despite lack of convincing data. However, no definitive protective or deleterious effect can be assigned. Complex interactions with adipose tissue, airways anatomy and the domestic or working environment must be taken into account to explain these differences.
- [The increasing burden of chronic respiratory diseases in women. An expanding area of research]. [Editorial]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jun; 31(6):463-7.
- [Evaluation of a manual CPAP home telemonitoring device to an automatic one.] [LETTER]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 May; 31(5):454-456.