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Rev Mal Respir [journal]
- [Insomnia and sleep apnea.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):181-188.
The presence of insomnia in patients with sleep apnea seems paradoxical as excessive sleepiness is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea. However, recent research has shown that about half of patients with sleep disorder breathing experience insomnia. Moreover, patients complaining of insomnia or non-restorative sleep may also present with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndromes. Thus, in recent years, clinicians have become more aware of the possible association between insomnia and sleep apnea. This article reviews data published on different aspects of this co-occurrence.
- [Management of the cardiovascular complications of treatment in thoracic oncology.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):173-180.
The management of patients suffering from bronchial and lung tumors depends on conventional chemotherapy and/or targeted molecular therapies. The prescription of these chemotherapies may be accompanied by cardiovascular complications, principally congestive heart failure, arterial hypertension and arterial or venous thrombo-embolism, the frequency of which varies with the molecule administered. The management of these complications is currently poorly standardized and should take account of the patient's oncological prognosis.
- [Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):162-172.
Anemia is fairly common in lung neoplasms and adequate management can influence both the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. Anemia can stem from diverse mechanisms, and its management must include the search for correctable causes (iron deficiency, inflammation, disease- or treatment-related), and their subsequent treatment. Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, namely recombinant erythropoietin, results in hemoglobin increase, fewer blood transfusions, and better quality of life. However, there is also a significant increase in thromboembolic risk associated with this treatment, and their effect on overall survival is still debated. Thus, their use must be restricted to patients treated with palliative intent, receiving chemotherapy but no radiotherapy, with a baseline hemoglobin level under 100 g/L, and target hemoglobin level must not exceed 120 g/L.
- [Birch pollen allergy.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):150-161.
In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.
- [Health impact of exposure to pollens: A review of epidemiological studies.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):142-149.
The aim of this review is to describe the health impact of exposure to pollen based on recently published epidemiological studies. The methodology chapter, describes a review of the literature and outlines important elements of these studies: measurement of exposure to pollens, study types used, study populations and the health indicators related to pollen exposure. In this review, two types of studies have been used to assess the epidemiological evidence of short-term links between pollen exposure and hay fever or asthma. Ecological time-series studies use daily indicators of asthma exacerbations (emergency room admissions or hospitalizations), consultations for rhinitis or conjunctivitis, or anti-allergic drug consumption within general population. Panel studies relate measurements of pollen grain concentrations to nasal, ocular and bronchial symptom severity in a group of subjects sensitized to a specific pollen, monitored during the pollen season. In both cases, the studies show a relationship on a day-to-day basis between health indicators and daily rates of atmospheric pollen collected by a pollen trap. These studies take into account confounding factors, such as air pollution, weather factors and sometimes exposure to outdoor molds. Unlike earlier studies, more and more studies focus on the shape of the dose-response relationship and the lag between pollen exposure and symptoms. Only rarely, individual susceptibility factors, the clinical phenomenon of priming and polysensitization are reported. Thus, ecological time-series studies and panel studies assess respectively the impact of pollen exposure in the general population and in groups of sensitized patients. Using appropriate statistical tools, these studies provide insight into the shape of the dose-response relationship, with a potential threshold below which symptoms are absent, then a linear relationship for nasal, ocular and bronchial symptoms and a plateau where the symptoms do not increase despite the continued increase in pollen.
- [Lung cancer and HIV infection.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):133-141.
AIDS was the cause of the majority of deaths from HIV infection before 1996 but since the introduction of antiretroviral therapies the causes of mortality have changed considerably. In 2010, 75 % of deaths were due to diseases other than AIDS, the majority being cancers. Lung cancer is the most common in terms of both incidence and mortality. It shows specific features when compared to the general population: there is an excess risk due to heavy smoking but also probably due to immunosuppression. The age of onset is younger and the prognosis worse than in the general population. Management is difficult, partly due to the aggressive nature of the tumor and partly to co-morbidities and potential interactions between anticancer and antiretroviral therapies. A phase II therapeutic trial (IFCT-CHIVA 1001) is under way nationally.
- [HIV in the lung from 1982 to 2013.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):119-132.
During the last 30years pulmonary involvement has played a major role in the history of HIV infection. Initially, the unexplained occurrence of pneumocystis revealed the emergence of AIDS and the suspicion of its African origin. Before the era of triple therapy the natural history of AIDS was dominated by the occurrence of repeated lung infections and respiratory physicians were at the forefront of their diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis. With the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the natural history of AIDS has been transformed in those patients who benefit from it. In addition to paradoxical reactions observed following the introduction of ART, the pulmonologist is also facing a chronic stage of controlled HIV infection, and unexpected events, the incidence of which increases with time: pulmonary arterial hypertension and lung cancer certainly, COPD and fibrosis perhaps… but this story remains to be written.
- [Nocturnal monitoring of home non-invasive ventilation: Contribution of simple tools such as pulse-oximetry, capnography, built-in ventilator software and autonomic markers of sleep fragmentation.] [REVIEW]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Feb; 31(2):107-118.
Complex respiratory events, which may have a detrimental effect on both quality of sleep and control of nocturnal hypoventilation, occur during sleep in patients treated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Among these events are patient-ventilator asynchrony, increases in upper airway resistance with or without increased respiratory drive, and leaks. Detection of these events is important in order to select the most appropriate ventilator settings and interface. Simple tools can provide important information when monitoring NIV. Pulse-oximetry is important to ensure that an adequate SpO2 is provided, and to detect either prolonged or short and recurrent desaturations. However, the specificity of pulse-oximetry tracings under NIV is low. Transcutaneous capnography discriminates between hypoxemia related to V/Q mismatch and hypoventilation, documents correction of nocturnal hypoventilation, and may detect ventilator-induced hyperventilation, a possible cause for central apnea/hypopnea and glottic closure. Data provided by ventilator software helps the clinician by estimating ventilation, tidal volume, leaks, rate of inspiratory or expiratory triggering by the patient, although further validation of these signals by independent studies is indicated. Finally, autonomic markers of sympathetic tone using signals such as pulse wave amplitude of the pulse-oximetry signal can provide reliable information of sleep fragmentation.
- [Individual lung cancer screening in practice. Perspectives on the propositions from the multidisciplinary group of the Intergroupe francophone de cancérologie thoracique, the Société d'imagerie thoracique and the Groupe d'oncologie de langue française]. [Journal Article]
- Rev Mal Respir 2014 Jan; 31(1):91-103.