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Rheum Dis Clin North Am [journal]
- Preface. [Editorial]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):xiii-xiv.
- Foreword. [Editorial]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):xi.
- Challenging Mimickers of Primary Systemic Vasculitis. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):141-160.
The need to distinguish true primary systemic vasculitis from its multiple potential mimickers is one of the most challenging diagnostic conundrums in clinical medicine. This article reviews 9 challenging vasculitis mimickers: fibromuscular dysplasia, calciphylaxis, segmental arterial mediolysis, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndrome, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, malignant atrophic papulosis, livedoid vasculopathy, and immunoglobulin G4-related disease.
- Advances in the Diagnosis of Large Vessel Vasculitis. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):125-140.
The diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis has experienced substantial improvement in recent years. While Takayasu arteritis diagnosis relies on imaging, the involvement of epicranial arteries by giant-cell arteritis facilitates histopathological confirmation. When appropriately performed temporal artery biopsy has high sensitivity and specificity. However, an optimal biopsy is not always achievable and, occasionally, the superficial temporal artery may not be involved. Imaging in its various modalities including colour-duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and positron emission tomography, are emerging as important procedures for the diagnosis and assessment of disease extent in large-vessel vasculitis. Recent contributions to the better performance and interpretation of temporal artery biopsies as well as advances in imaging are the focus of the present review.
- Vasculitis in Antiphospholipid Syndrome. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):109-123.
The major manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are caused by thrombosis within the venous or arterial vasculature, whereas the vascular lesions in systemic vasculitis result from an inflammatory infiltrate in the vessel wall. There is an association between vascular thrombosis and inflammation, however, as vasculitis can occur in APS and thromboembolic complications are seen in systemic vasculitis. Although differentiating between vasculitis and antiphospholipid-associated thrombosis can be difficult, it may be crucial to do so given the different therapeutic implications for immunosuppression or anticoagulation. This article explores the relationship between thrombosis and inflammation as it relates to APS and systemic vasculitis.
- Cold Hard Facts of Cryoglobulinemia: Updates on Clinical Features and Treatment Advances. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):93-108.
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate at temperatures less than 37°C. They occur secondary to infectious, autoimmune, and malignant processes. In the Brouet classification, type I cryoglobulinemia is caused by hyperviscosity, whereas type II and III manifestations are caused by vasculitis in target organs (primarily skin, peripheral nerves, and kidney). New classification criteria were recently proposed that may help with study and treatment of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CryoVas). Hepatitis C virus is the most common cause of CryoVas and treatment with antivirals can be curative in mild cases, whereas rituximab is highly effective in treating active vasculitis in more severe cases.
- Cogan and Behcet Syndromes. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):75-91.
Cogan and Behcet syndromes are considered large vessel vasculitides. Both are rare diseases, with varied clinical manifestations affecting multiple organ systems. Although both have hallmark symptoms (ocular and vestibuloauditory inflammation in Cogan syndrome and aphthous ulcers in Behcet syndrome), neither has confirmatory diagnostic testing. Delayed diagnosis can result in poor outcomes. In both syndromes, large vessel arterial inflammation may result in severe morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies in both syndromes vary based on organ system involvement and severity of manifestations. In this article, the epidemiology, proposed pathogenesis, manifestations, and the most current treatment paradigms for these syndromes are reviewed.
- Kawasaki Disease. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):63-73.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the archetypal pediatric vasculitis, exemplifying the unique aspects and challenges of vascular inflammation in children. The condition is almost unheard of in adults, is closely associated with infections, and is self-limited, with fever resolving after an average of 12 days even without treatment. Yet KD is also a potentially fatal disease and the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the developed world. Unraveling of the developmental, immunologic, and genetic secrets of Kawasaki disease promises to improve our understanding of vasculitis in particular, and perhaps also to provide a window on the fundamental mysteries of inflammatory diseases in general.
- Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System in Adults and Children. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):47-62.
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disease, although it is increasingly recognized both in adults and children. Little is known about pathogenesis, but efforts at classification into subtypes are being made, and the distinction of PACNS from reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has been a major advance. The prognosis for improvement, or at least stabilization, of neurologic function is good with prompt and aggressive treatment, but the diagnosis continues to be challenging. Refinement of treatment strategies is needed. Multicenter collaboration may be crucial to make additional progress via randomized trials.
- Polyarteritis Nodosa. [REVIEW]
- Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2015; 41(1):33-46.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic disease, but variants are cutaneous PAN and single-organ disease. Histologic confirmation of vasculitis in medium-sized arteries is desirable, and biopsies should be obtained from the symptomatic and least invasive sites. Angiography can show multiple microaneurysms in the viscera. Treatment includes high-dose corticosteroids, which are combined with immunosuppressive agents when internal organs are involved and with life-threatening disease. Once remission is achieved, maintenance agents are initiated. PAN is becoming a rare disease. International collaborative efforts are under way to establish better diagnostic and classification for all vasculitides, including PAN.