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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig [journal]
- [Influence of diesel fuel on the number of selected soil microorganisms group]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):367-72.
Among a range of xenobiotics, that are introduced into the environment, especially dangerous are petroleum substances. Microorganisms participating in their decomposition, may be a good effectiveness indicator of biodegradation process.The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soil contamination with diesel oil for changes in number of basic taxonomic groups of microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi.The study was carried out in two soils, loamy sand and sandy clay, which, apart from granulometric composition also differed in organic matter content. Two levels of diesel contamination was used: 5% and 15% w/w of soil d.m. The soil samples, not contaminated with diesel oil, was left as a experience control objects. The number of microorganisms were evaluated by automated method with measuring impedance in media, using the analyzer BacTrac 4100.In the studied soils the largest group of microorganisms were bacteria, significantly less was fungi and actinomycetes. Based on the results of research it was found a significant effect on the quantitative composition of microflora was both contamination dose and type of soil. Diesel fuel at a concentration of 5% stimulated the number of bacteria and fungi in sandy soil. In general, increase in concentration of pollutants adversely affect the microorganisms, especially in loamy soils. Soil contamination with diesel oil resulted in a reduction in the degree of microbial growth rate (55% in loamy sand and 39% in sandy clay), and thus have an impact on their fertility. The reduction of SR index was correlated with increasing dose of pollutants.Diesel oil affect the biological balance of soil and stimulates or reduces the number of different groups of microorganisms, depending on the amount of fuel. The presence of fuel decrease index of soil fertility, proportion to increase in the level of contamination.
- [Evaluation of contamination of some types of honey with selected persistent organic polutants (POPs)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):359-66.
Honey is a synonymous of healthy food. Its quality is associated with the state of the environment. Although persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons are no longer produced nor used, their residues are still detected in the environment. Some of these compounds are carcinogenic to humans. Continuous exposure of bees to various types of chemicals impacts also their products. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of contamination of honey may have important implications for human health.The aim of this study was to assess the degree of honey contamination with POPs.Six species of honey were analyzed, as well as rape inflorescences and soil coming from the villages Peczerzyno and Przybysław in Western Pomerania, Poland. The scope of investigation included organochlorine pesticides: alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxid isomer B, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, dioxin-like non-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 77, PCB 81, PCB 126, PCB 169), dioxin-like mono-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 105, PCB 114, PCB 156, PCB 157) and indicator PCB congeners (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180). Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled with mass spectrometry (HP 5973).Among the analyzed organochlorine pesticides the highest concentration in honeys was noticed for heptachlor (3.89 ng/g mm). The content of indicator PCB congeners in honey ranged from below LOQ values to 0.02 ng/g w.w. The content of non- and mono-ortho PCB congeners in honey were relatively low, reaching a maximum 0.02 ng/g w.w.The content of the analyzed organochlorine compounds in the material depended on the location of sampling sites, and the highest concentrations were found in rape inflorescences. The soil and rape inflorescences from Peczerzyno were the most contaminated with POPs, but it had no clear impact on the content of the compounds in honey. Buckwheat honey was significantly (p<0,05) least contaminated with POPs. The content of the examined POPs in honeys was low and safe for consumers health.
- [Determination of the thyreostats in animal muscle tissue by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):353-7.
The residues ofthyreostats must not be present in the edible animal tissues. The proposed in the EU minimum required performance limit (MPRL) in the animal tissues is 10 microg/kg. This implies the decision limit (CCalpha) and decision capability (CCbeta) of the analytical methods used for the determination of these compounds lower than 10 microg/kg.This study aimed at the development, basing on the literature data and own studies the analytical method allowing for the identification and quantification of five thyreostats: tapazole (TAP), thiouracil (TU), methylotiouracil (MTU), propylothiouracil (PTU) and phenylotiouracil (FTU)) in the bovine muscle tissue, which would meet the criteria set in the Commission Decision No 2002/657/EC.The developed method used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and cleaned using the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method. The LC was equipped with column Luna C18 Phenomenex. Dimetylotiouracyl was used as internal standard. The samples were fortified at levels: 5, 10 and 20 microg/kg. The method was validated according to the criteria laid down in Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC.At the levels, mean relative recoveries was in the range 90 - 109% and repeatability (CV %) was less than 10%. Decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) calculated for all thyreostats were below the recommended minimum required performance limit (MRPL) - 10 microg/kg.The developed and validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method allows for the identification and quantification of five thyreostats in the bovine muscle tissue in the quantities below 10 microg/kg. Analytical procedure meets the criteria of Commission Decision No 2002/657/EC.
- [Assessment of mineral bottled water as a source of selected minerals among students]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):347-52.
Given the range of natural mineral waters, natural spring waters and table waters, and their degree of mineralization (from low to the high), it can be assumed that they will become increasingly important as a source of minerals in everyday diet.The aim of the study was the assessment of the amount of bottled waters consumption as well as contained selected minerals in waters among female students.Study was conducted among 18-26 years old students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) and Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (UKSW) (50 female from each), from May to October 2010 year. The study was performed by using the questionnaire concerned habitual consumption of bottled waters. Intake of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon, chlorine and fluorine, as the major components of water declared on the label packaging, was also estimated.Almost 40% of respondents consumed four glasses of water a day, about 24% - 2 glasses, about 24% - 3 glasses, 11% - 1 glass, but it was mainly low- and medium-mineralized water. The average daily intake of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine and fluorine in the study population was respectively: 64.1, 26.5, 14.3, 1.9, 5.4, and 0.1 mg per person. Intake of silicon was 14, 4 mg/person/day. Among minerals only calcium and magnesium intake with waters was comparatively significant (6% and 8% of reference values, respectively).Bottled waters were not a significant source of minerals, but they can be a valuable addition to daily diet. There is a need to promote the drinking of natural mineral waters, spring waters and table waters, especially highly-mineralized and low-sodium waters as a source of well-absorbed minerals.
- [Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):339-46.
The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals.The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12.Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland.More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users).It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals was consumed more frequently among younger children, specially among those who eat more meals per day and with good and very good health status. Due to the fact that many children consumed both fortified foods and dietary supplements, there is a risk of exceeding levels consider as safe (UL) of some vitamins and/or minerals.
- [Assessment of intake of minerals with daily diets by children aged 10-12 years from Malopolska region]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):329-37.
Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development of the organism. During intense growth and maturation changes taking place in the body, it cost higher demand for energy and nutrients including minerals.The aim of this study was to assess the intake of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese with daily diets by children aged 10-12 years.Assessment of intake of mineral compounds from daily diets was conduced with using 24 hours recall. Data were collected in spring and autumn of 2006 in randomly selected primary schools in Krakow and Skawina. Average intake of minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) with daily diets by respondents and the meeting of requirements was estimated with using the computer softwere Diet 2.In almost all cases intake of minerals with daily diets did not meet requirements. Daily dies of children did not met requirements for major minerals i.e. calcium and magnese, and for trace minerals copper, zinc, iron. Insufficient intake of calcium, while fully covering the demand for phosphorus, resulted in improper ratio these minerals in the diet (0.62 at the recommended, of 1). Intake of manganese and potassium fully covered demand, while the sodium and salt were taken in excess.To low intake of minerals compounds by children may increase the risk of development of diet non-communicable diseases.
- [Food patterns of youth from gymnasium and lyceum]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):319-27.
Children and adolescents are the most vulnerable for the impact of improper nutrition. The mode of nutrition is one of the factor influencing the proper development and growth of young organism and the maintenance of good health until advanced old age.The food pattern of youth from selected Warsaw gymnasium and lyceum was evaluated.Author's questionnaire, 24h interview and Block questionnaire were used.Irregularity of main meals intake, between meals consumption (sweets and salts snacks mainly and fruits also) as well as tea, fruit juices and mineral water drinking were observed in youth of both schools. More than half of them took cola drinks every day and half of youth drank coffee permanently. The daily ratios of both groups were short in fibre and too rich in fats. Fats intake was more proper among gymnasialists. Youth's daily ration in both types of school were poor in vitamin C, D, E as well as calcium, potassium and magnesium. They were too rich in vitamin A in some cases (7%) over UL. Also, vitamin B2, B6 i B12 and sodium, copper, iron (boys) exceeded recommendations.No statistically significant differences in food pattern between gymnasium and lyceum youth were observed however in girls the one was more proper. In order to optimise the mode of nutrition the monitoring established on the constant base and education for parents, teachers and adolescents are needed.
- [Evaluation of the nutrition model in students of university in Rzeszow]. [English Abstract, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):313-7.
Adequate nutrition is an essential factor conditioning physical and mental development of man, and poor nutrition can cause deterioration of health and occurrence of diseases related to diet. The fashion for slim body promoted in the media contributes to the youth's activities aiming to shape their bodies and, in particular, studying persons run the risk of nutritional deficiencies, which is also connected with irregular time of classes.The aim of the study was to evaluate the diet of 200 students (161 women and 39 men) in the second-year of Food Technology and Human Nutrition at the University of Rzeszow and to evaluate the extent to which nutritional standards for energy and essential nutrients in the daily food rations are kept.The tests were carried out in the years 2010-2011. Intake assessment was made by the method of current listing of products and beverages consumed in the successive three days. Portion size was estimated by using the "Album of photographs of products and dishes." Using the "Tables of the nutritional value of food products and dishes," there was calculated the energy value, content of essential nutrients and cholesterol. The obtained results of the energy value were compared with the "Human Nutrition Standards" for women and men aged 19-30 years of moderate physical activity, and the nutritional value of analyzed diets was compared with standards of recommended dietary allowance (RDA).Diets of students (women and men) were significantly different (p = 0.01) in terms of energy content and nutritional value. Food rations for women and men were characterized by low energy value not corresponding to the recommendations of the Human Nutrition Standards. The energy value of diets of tested women students was 1568,56 kcal/day, while of men students 2283,22 kcal/day. Protein supply in daily food rations for women was 56,73 g and corresponded to the recommendations of the standards, while in the group of men it exceeded the standard at the recommended intake level and amounted to 89,32 g. Fat intake was consistent with the recommendations of the standards for both women and men and it was 59,67 g and 89,09 g respectively. The level of carbohydrate intake exceeded the standards at the level of recommended intake in daily food rations of women and men (213,14 g and 286,04 g). Average intake of cholesterol was 239,08 mg and 394,92 mg respectively. These values are close to the limit set by American Heart Association.Daily food rations of students of the University of Rzeszow under the study were characterized by low energy value. In the analyzed daily food rations of women was found the protein content at the level of recommended intake whereas in the group of men these values exceeded the recommendations of standards. In both groups the fat intake was at the level of recommended intake and the carbohydrate content was at a higher level than the recommendations of standards.
- [Assesment of energy and basic components intake in selected group of the breastfeeding women]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):305-11.
Breastfeeding is considered the most beneficial, natural nutrition for babies. Qualitative and quantitative composition of breast milk is ideal for implementing all the nutritional needs of infants up to 6 months of age, assuming that the nursing mother's diet is correct.The aim of the study was to evaluate the intake of energy, proteins, fat, carbohydrates and cholesterol in the group of 100 breastfeeding women, aged 19 to 38 years, from Masovian province.The survey was conducted from September 2010 to March 2011. The results were obtained using a questionnaire survey and the 3-day dietary records method.Energy intake was compatible with the norms in 9% of women. As many as 91% of respondents characterized too high energy intake. Protein intake according to the norm was recorded in 64% of women, fat in 45% of respondents. Recommendations intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in 61% of group, saturated acids in 15% of women, carbohydrate in case of 36% of respondents. Cholesterol intake was too high at 45% of women. There was a statistically significant effect of education on intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fats, sucrose and energy value. Women with higher education consumed 12% to 20% more of these nutrients compared to women with secondary education.There is need for further education of women during lactation on the importance of their properly balanced diet, as assessed food rations of lactating women have shown a lot of irregularities.
- [Assessment of the effect of selected mixture of food additives on the protein metabolism--model studies]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(3):295-304.
Contemporarily, food production without food additives is very rare. Increasingly often, however, scientific works report on adverse effects of specified, single food additives on the body. Data is, in turn, lacking on the synergistic effect of a mixture of different food additives on body functions and its main metabolic pathways.The objective of this study, an animal model, was to evaluate if and in what way the compound of chosen and most frequently used and consumed food additives, along with the change of diet composition to processed, purified, influence the selected markers of protein metabolism.The animals were divided into four groups, which were fed with compound of feed pellets: group I and II with basic compound, group III and IV with modified compound in which part of the full grain was replaced by isocalorie wheat flour type 500 and saccharose. Animals from groups I and III received tap water, which was standing for some time, to drink. Animals from groups II and IV received solution of chosen additives to food and next they were given water to drink. The amount of given food additives was evaluated by taking into consideration their consumption by people recalculated to 1 kg of their body mass. The experiment spanned for 7 weeks.It was ascertained that the applied additives caused significant changes in total protein concentration and its fractions: albumin, alpha1-globulin, alpha2-globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in the blood serum of the animals under research, which can indicate and contribute to disclosure of creation of undesirable food reaction, especially when recommended levels of consumption of those additives are being exceeded. The organism response to the applied additives and accompanying it change of diet was essentially connected to sex of the animals. Undesirable character of changes taking place under the influence of applied additives, was observed both in animals fed with basic feed and modified feed with various intensity according to the parameter under research.The analysis of the results achieved enabled concluding that the applied mixture of food additives caused significant changes in the concentration of total protein and its fractions: albumins, alphal-, alpha2-, beta- and gamma-globulins in blood serum of the investigated animals. These changes may indicate but also may contribute to the development or manifestation of undesirable nutritional responses, especially when recommended dietary allowances are exceeded. The body's response to the applied additives and concomitant modification of diet composition was significantly correlated with sex of the animals. The unfavorable character of changes following the administration of additives was observed in both the animals on the basal diet and these fed the modified feed mixture, yet with a different intensity that was found to depend not on the feeding group but on the parameter examined.