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Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova [journal]
- [Electrophysiological mechanisms of spinal systems plasticity in people with dysfunctions of the locomotor system]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):487-502.
The reflex motor responses of some bilateral muscles of hip, shin and foot were evoked by percutaneous surface electrical spinal cord stimulation at the lumbosacral levels (T11-L3) in the patients with marked lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by spinal osteochondrosis and in neurologically healthy physically inactive individuals, as well as in healthy qualified athletes and athletes with knee joint injuries. There was used the technique of registration of posterior root-muscle reflexes. In the subjects with neurologic pathology and in the group of athletes with knee joint injuries the data demonstrated similar signs of plasticity of spinal neural circuits, innervating the muscles of the low extremities.
- [The time course of experimentally altered thyroid status manifestations in female C3H-A mice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):473-86.
The female C3H-A mice with agouty fur color were used to model hyper- and hypothyroidism in the long lasting experiment. The study was carried out for 44 weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced by the administration of the L-thyroxine injections on alternate days during the whole period of the investigation. Hypothyroidism was achieved by adding propylthiouracil to the drinking water. The change of thyroid state was characterized by biphasic change in body weight. At the beginning of the experiment the hypothyroid animals were retarding by their weight. Otherwise the hyperthyroid animals were advancing by their weight. But since the 18th-21st week the initial trends changed, i. e. the hypothyroid mice body weight started ahead the hyperthyroid one. In the open field test both hypo- and hyperthyroid animals demonstrated the higher level of the investigating activity in comparison with the euthyroid mice. In the hyperthyroid mice the frequency of side-activity acts (grooming) increased significantly. Thus, the hyperthyroid animals appeared to be more anxious. To the 18th week of the experiment the animals of study groups started to demonstrate the apparent visual difference in their fur color. The hyperthyroid mice fur color became darker than one of the hypothyroid and the euthyroid mice. It is worthy of note that the hyperthyroid mice fur color was getting lighter than one of the euthyroid animals. The results are discussed in the context of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis functioning. The possible mechanisms of hormonal regulation of the fur color in mice are considered to include the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones activities.
- [Testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac after a long-term period of stable social hierarchy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):465-72.
Social dominance can alter testicular testosterone production, although there is pronounced variability in the relationship between social status and pattern of the testosterone response. The study designed to investigate how a long-term period of stable social hierarchy effects on testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac. Paired males of different genotypes were housed together for 32 days beginning 38 day of age. Dyadic interactions of males generated dominance-subordination relationships during the first day after a social group has been produced and the social rank of each opponent was assessed by asymmetry in agonistic behaviour. Serum level of testosterone and its testicular content were evaluated in male mice of both inbred strains at 70 day of age after pair housing. Control animals were age- and genotype-matched single males that were housed in conventional cages. After a long-term period of pair housing, the serum testosterone level and its testicular content in males of both PT and CBA/Lac strains were not significantly different from the control. There were no significant differences in androgenic parameters between social ranks in male mice of both strains. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of testicular testosterone response to social hierarchy determined by a social situation, for example, a stability of social interactions, when the importance of aggressive competition for rank is minimal.
- [The influence of melatonin on the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites and antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver of rats after immobilization]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):458-64.
The modeling of acute immobilization stress caused the increase of the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites and the decrease of the activity of superoxiddismutase and catalase in liver tissue within 4 days after stress. Melatonin in dose 0.2 mg/kg had a weak antioxidant effect and increased superoxiddismutase activity. The injection of melatonin in dose 1.0 mg/kg caused the significant decrease of lipoperoxidation metabolites content in liver tissue 39 hours after stress. On fourth and seventh days of the experiment there were no differences in malonic dyaldehyde content between these animals and naive ones. The concentration of acylhydroperoxides was significantly less than in control and naive groups at these days. The activity of superoxiddismutase and catalase was significantly more than in control rats at the fourth day after stress.
- [Influence exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) on contractile and bioelectric activity of the rat heart]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):445-57.
This study is aimed to the investigation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) effects and mechanisms of action in a heart. NAD+ (mcM) induces multiphase alternation of contractile activity of isolated rat heart: short positive inotropic action is followed by a negative inotropic phase. NAD+ (1-100 mcM) induces decreasing of action potential duration (APD) in rat atrial myocardium (from 45 +/- 0.82 ms in control experiments to 39 +/- 1.05 (n = 8) and 32 +/- 2 (n = 8) during application of 10 and 100 mcM of NAD+, respectively). Significant APD increase (from 45 +/- 0.82 ms to 74 +/- 1.89 (n = 8) ms) was observed during washing out of NAD+ (100 mcM). ATP or adenosine was unable to increase APD both during application or washing out. NAD+ induced APD decrease was not suppressed by P1-antagonist theophylline. P1-purinoreceptor and metabolite independent direct action of NAD+ in rat heart is suggested. Activation of P2X or P2Y receptors, cyclic ADP-ribose accumulation in cardiomyocytes is proposed as a main mechanism of NAD(+)-induced effects in the heart.
- [The special role of inducible NO-synthase in the mechanism of rat coronary vessels tone regulation during immobilization stress, combined with diabetes mellitus]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):433-44.
Persistent hyperglycemia after intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (50 mg/kg) to the rats prevents decrease of coronary vessels myogenic tone and myocardial contractility during subsequent 6-hr immobilization stress. The intensity of these abnormalities in all experimental groups is significantly reduced with the supplement of the perfusate with inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) selective blocker S-methylisothiourea. Similar rise of the NO2-/NO3- concentration in the rats' blood after "stress", "diabetes mellitus" and "diabetes mellitus + stress" combines with an increase of iNOS transcripts in the myocardium to 6, 5.8 and 51 times compared with control. These data testify to a substantial modification of the cells from coronary vessels in the presence of marked and persistent hyperglycemia. Inducible NO-synthase uncoupling caused by excessive formation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the myocardium may be one of number mechanisms responsible for such phenotypic vascular alteration in the "stress + diabetes mellitus" group.
- [Differences of activations in visual and associative zones during figurative and verbal activity]. [Clinical Trial, Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):418-32.
The study considers correlates of figurative and verbal tasks performance during attention paid to visual stimuli. There are 34 subjects (20 female, mean age 21, 2.5 [SD]) took parts in the study. During subjects performance of the task, there was carried out EEG registration from 19 sites according to 10-20%. Performance of the figurative creative task in comparison with control non-creative task of the same modality was accompanied by activation of occipital and parietal zones of the cerebral cortex (decrease of EEG spectral power in alpha 1 (7.5-9.5 Hz) and alpha2 (10-12.5 Hz) frequency bands was observed) whereas performance of a verbal creative task in the similar test-control comparison was accompanied by decrease of activation in occipital zones (revealed through increase of EEG spectral in alphal and alpha2 frequency bands). As visual stimuli were shown during the whole time of the creative and control tasks fulfilment was made an assumption observed distinction can be connected with redistribution of attention focus at various types of creative activity (figurative or verbal).
- [Influence of environmental enrichment on parameters of behavior in open field test in the rats born from females with chronic alcoholization]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):406-17.
The aim of this work was studying of morphology of a brain and the analysis of behavior at posterity of females of rats with a chronic alcoholic intoxication. As object of research were taken 60-day animals received from mothers with chronic alcoholic injury of hepatobiliary systems. During certain time (1.5 months) the part of animals grew in standard conditions, and another--in the "enriched" environment. The behavior analysis was spent in the open field test. Also was carried out research of a thickness of a cortex and a molecular layer of a forebrain. Work included three series of experiments. It is established, that the posterity of mothers with chronic injury of the hepatobiliary systems is characterized by the lowered motorial and research activity, increased by emotional reactivity that is accompanied by changes of structure of a cortex. The long finding of "alcoholic" animals in the "enriched" environment within 1.5 months promoted increasing of motorial and research activity, emotional reactance, change of structure of a cortex.
- [The ability of hamadryas baboons' adolescents to decide the modified Piaget's A-not-B error test]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):394-405.
We investigated the ability to the inhibition of a forced instrumental food-procuring reflex in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). The subjects of the study were immature animals of the two age groups: the eighteen-month-old group (six males and five females) and three-year-old group (seven males and seven females). To determine the capability we used the modified Piaget's A-not-B error test. Four monkeys correctly decided the test only. The inhibition of the forced conditioned reflex occurred in females only and in the equal degree in each age group. The findings also show the big variation in an activity among the individuals of the different sex and age during the decision of the task. Regarding animals have shown the ability to inhibit consolidation of the conditioned reflex, we tend to treat it as a manifestation of conscious choice, but more research is needed.
- [The role of calpains in the regulation of synaptic function]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2014 Apr; 100(4):385-93.
Calpains are calcium-activated neutral cysteine proteases, involved in the regulation of a number of physiological functions. Substrates of calpains include receptors, kinases, phosphatases, cytoskeleton and synaptosomal proteins. Some of them undergo complete degradation, though most of the substrates are subjected to limited proteolysis, which results in proteins having new properties. In the following review, we discuss involvement of calpains in the regulation of synapse structure and function. Namely, calpains participate in the regulation of synthesis, release and reuptake of neurotransmitters, modulation of receptors, stabilization or destabilization of the neuronal cytoskeleton. However, uncontrolled hyperactivation of calpains leads to dysregulation of these processes causing neuronal death.