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- Morals and markets. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):707-11.
The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small.
- Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):701-6.
Our prevailing view of vertebrate host defense is strongly shaped by the notion of a specialized set of immune cells as sole guardians of antimicrobial resistance. Yet this view greatly underestimates a capacity for most cell lineages-the majority of which fall outside the traditional province of the immune system-to defend themselves against infection. This ancient and ubiquitous form of host protection is termed cell-autonomous immunity and operates across all three domains of life. Here, we discuss the organizing principles that govern cellular self-defense and how intracellular compartmentalization has shaped its activities to provide effective protection against a wide variety of microbial pathogens.
- Bacterial subversion of host innate immune pathways. [Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):697-701.
The pathogenesis of infection is a continuously evolving battle between the human host and the infecting microbe. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens. In parallel, multiple specific mechanisms by which microorganisms subvert these host responses have been uncovered. This Review highlights recently characterized mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens avoid killing by innate host responses, including autophagy pathways and a proinflammatory cytokine transcriptional response, and by the manipulation of vesicular trafficking to avoid the toxicity of lysosomal enzymes.
- Neuroscience. Why adults need new brain cells. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):695-6.
- Physics. Controlling atomic line shapes. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):694-5.
- Applied physics. A fresh start for foam physics. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):693-4.
- Immunology. Crowdsourcing immunity. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):692-3.
- Paleontology. Feathers before flight. [Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):690-2.
- Genetics. Simple genetics for a complex disease. [Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):689-90.
- Research priorities. The NIH BRAIN Initiative. [Journal Article]
- Science 2013 May 10; 340(6133):687-8.