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The Journal of applied psychology [journal]
- Linking subordinate political skill to supervisor dependence and reward recommendations: a moderated mediation model. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Mar; 98(2):374-84.
In this study, we examined the relations of subordinate political skill with supervisor's dependence on the subordinate and supervisor reward recommendation, as well as mediating (interaction frequency with supervisor) and moderating (supervisor political behavior) variables of these relations. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees in a company that specialized in construction management. Analyses of multisource and lagged data from 53 construction management team supervisors and 296 subordinates indicated that subordinate political skill was positively related to supervisor reward recommendation via subordinate's interaction frequency with supervisor. Although interaction frequency with a supervisor was also positively related to the supervisor's dependence on the subordinate, the indirect effect of subordinate political skill on dependence was not significant. Further, both the relationship between subordinate political skill and interaction frequency with a supervisor and the indirect relationships between subordinate political skill and supervisor reward recommendation were stronger when supervisors exhibited more political behavior.
- Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Mar; 98(2):364-73.
We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation.
- Clarifying the contribution of assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects to reliable and unreliable variance in assessment center ratings. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Jan; 98(1):114-33.
Though considerable research has evaluated the functioning of assessment center (AC) ratings, surprisingly little research has articulated and uniquely estimated the components of reliable and unreliable variance that underlie such ratings. The current study highlights limitations of existing research for estimating components of reliable and unreliable variance in AC ratings. It provides a comprehensive empirical decomposition of variance in AC ratings that: (a) explicitly accounts for assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects, (b) does so with 3 large sets of operational data from a multiyear AC program, and (c) avoids many analytic limitations and confounds that have plagued the AC literature to date. In doing so, results show that (a) the extant AC literature has masked the contribution of sizable, substantively meaningful sources of variance in AC ratings, (b) various forms of assessor bias largely appear trivial, and (c) there is far more systematic, nuanced variance present in AC ratings than previous research indicates. Furthermore, this study also illustrates how the composition of reliable and unreliable variance heavily depends on the level to which assessor ratings are aggregated (e.g., overall AC-level, dimension-level, exercise-level) and the generalizations one desires to make based on those ratings. The implications of this study for future AC research and practice are discussed.
- State-level goal orientations as mediators of the relationship between time pressure and performance: a longitudinal study. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Mar; 98(2):354-63.
Goal orientations-the degree to which individuals are concerned with developing new skills, demonstrating already developed skills, and avoiding appearing foolish or incompetent-have been repeatedly shown to be important individual difference variables for performance across a range of contexts. In the current study, we identified perceptions of time pressure as a predictor of state goal orientations. Specifically, we posited that developing new skills may be conceived of as somewhat of a luxury-that is, mastery-oriented behaviors-are more likely to emerge when one is not under time pressure. On the other hand, when perceptions of time pressure increase, we expected individuals to be less willing to invest in development and instead to adopt more avoidant goals. Support for these predictions was found in a sample of undergraduate statistics students who were followed over the course of a 15-week academic semester. Specifically, perceptions of time pressure were negatively related to state mastery goal orientation and positively related to state performance-avoid goal orientation. Also, state goal orientations mediated the relationship between time pressure and performance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for motivational theory as well as how organizations can use the current results to mitigate the potentially detrimental effects of time pressure on performance.
- Turnover rates and organizational performance: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Mar; 98(2):268-309.
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between turnover rates and organizational performance to (a) determine the magnitude of the relationship; (b) test organization-, context-, and methods-related moderators of the relationship; and (c) suggest future directions for the turnover literature on the basis of the findings. The results from 300 total correlations (N = 309,245) and 110 independent correlations (N = 120,066) show that the relationship between total turnover rates and organizational performance is significant and negative (ρ = -.15). In addition, the relationship is more negative for voluntary (ρ = -.15) and reduction-in-force turnover (ρ = -.17) than for involuntary turnover (ρ = -.01). Moreover, the meta-analytic correlation differs significantly across several organization- and context-related factors (e.g., types of employment system, dimensions of organizational performance, region, and entity size). Finally, in sample-level regressions, the strength of the turnover rates-organizational performance relationship significantly varies across different average levels of total and voluntary turnover rates, which suggests a potential curvilinear relationship. The authors outline the practical magnitude of the findings and discuss implications for future organizational-level turnover research.
- Situation assessment as an ignored factor in the behavioral consistency paradigm underlying the validity of personnel selection procedures. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Mar; 98(2):326-41.
This study contributes to the literature on why selection procedures that are based on the behavioral consistency logic (e.g., structured interviews and assessment centers) are valid predictors of job performance. We rely on interactionist theories to propose that individual differences in assessing situational demands explain true variance in performance in selection procedures and on the job. Results from 124 individuals in a simulated selection process showed that the assessment of situational demands was related to both selection and job performance. Individual differences in assessing situational demands also contributed to the criterion-related validity of assessment center and structured interview ratings, offering a complementary explanation as to why selection procedures based on the notion of behavioral consistency predict job performance.
- Blaming the organization for abusive supervision: the roles of perceived organizational support and supervisor's organizational embodiment. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Jan; 98(1):158-68.
Why do employees who experience abusive supervision retaliate against the organization? We apply organizational support theory to propose that employees hold the organization partly responsible for abusive supervision. Depending on the extent to which employees identify the supervisor with the organization (i.e., supervisor's organizational embodiment), we expected abusive supervision to be associated with low perceived organizational support (POS) and consequently with retribution against the organization. Across 3 samples, we found that abusive supervision was associated with decreased POS as moderated by supervisor's organizational embodiment. In turn, reduced POS was related to heightened counterproductive work behavior directed against the organization and lowered in-role and extra-role performance. These findings suggest that employees partly attribute abusive supervision to negative valuation by the organization and, consequently, behave negatively toward and withhold positive contributions to it.
- On being peripheral and paying attention: prototypicality and information processing in intergroup conflict. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Jan; 98(1):63-79.
Intergroup conflicts are ubiquitous-they occur, for instance, between (work)groups, departments, organizations, political parties, or nations. Such conflicts are commonly addressed through negotiations, in which representatives negotiate on behalf of their constituency. Intergroup negotiations are complex, as representatives need to navigate between the interests of their own constituency and the other party. This implies that negotiation success requires careful processing of information about both parties' interests. Here, we examine how representative negotiators' motivation to engage in such thorough information processing is influenced by their position in the group. Whereas prototypical representatives feel secure about their membership, peripheral representatives have a less certain position. We propose that peripheral representatives are therefore more attentive and responsive to information that may be relevant to the negotiation than prototypical representatives, but only when they are accountable to their constituents. Data from 4 experiments showed that peripheral representatives reported higher information-processing motivation (Experiment 1), bought and recalled more information (Experiment 2), exhibited greater sensitivity to emotional expressions of the outgroup representative (Experiment 3), and attained more integrative ("win-win") agreements (Experiment 4) than prototypical representatives, but only when they were accountable. The findings are discussed in relation to theorizing on group dynamics, motivated information processing, emotion, and intergroup conflict, and practical implications are considered.
- Leading Virtual Teams: Hierarchical Leadership, Structural Supports, and Shared Team Leadership. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Appl Psychol 2012 Dec 3.
Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on team performance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to team performance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and team performance but strengthened relations for structural supports and team performance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to team performance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
- Even the best laid plans sometimes go askew: career self-management processes, career shocks, and the decision to pursue graduate education. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Appl Psychol 2013 Jan; 98(1):169-82.
Drawing on career self-management frameworks as well as image theory and the unfolding model of turnover, we developed a model predicting early career employees' decisions to pursue graduate education. Using a sample of 337 alumni from 2 universities, we found that early career individuals with intrinsic career goals, who engaged in career planning, who were less satisfied with their career, or who experienced impactful positive career shocks were more likely to intend to go to graduate school. In contrast, individuals with extrinsic career goals who were highly satisfied with their careers were less likely to intend to go to graduate school. Graduate education intentions, career planning, and the impact of having one's mentor leave the organization positively related to actual applications to graduate school. However, having extrinsic career goals, an impactful sooner than expected raise or promotion (a positive career shock), and a negative organizational change (a negative career shock) negatively related to the likelihood of applying. The career shocks' direct relationship to applications to graduate school, regardless of one's intentions, suggests that "the best laid plans" can sometimes be altered by unplanned events. This study contributes to the literatures on career self-management and graduate education and extends the application of the shock construct from the unfolding model of turnover to other career-related decisions.