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The Journal of neuroscience [journal]
- BDNF-Dependent Recycling Facilitates TrkB Translocation to Postsynaptic Density during LTP via a Rab11-Dependent Pathway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9214-9230.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the activity-dependent regulation of synaptic structure and function via tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation. However, whether BDNF could regulate TrkB levels at synapse during long-term potentiation (LTP) is still unknown. We show in cultured rat hippocampal neurons that chemical LTP (cLTP) stimuli selectively promote endocytic recycling of BDNF-dependent full-length TrkB (TrkB-FL) receptors, but not isoform T1 (TrkB.T1) receptors, via a Rab11-dependent pathway. Moreover, neuronal-activity-enhanced TrkB-FL recycling could facilitate receptor translocation to postsynaptic density and enhance BDNF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and rat hippocampal neuron survival. Finally, we found that cLTP could stimulate the switch of Rab11 from an inactive to an active form and that GTP-bound Rab11 could enhance the interaction between TrkB-FL and PSD-95. Therefore, the recycling endosome could serve as a reserve pool to supply TrkB-FL receptors for LTP maintenance. These findings provide a mechanistic link between Rab11-dependent endocytic recycling and TrkB modulation of synaptic plasticity.
- Progranulin Does Not Bind Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors and Is Not a Direct Regulator of TNF-Dependent Signaling or Bioactivity in Immune or Neuronal Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9202-9213.
Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in neurons and glia that is implicated in neuronal survival on the basis that mutations in the GRN gene causing haploinsufficiency result in a familial form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recently, a direct interaction between PGRN and tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR I/II) was reported and proposed to be a mechanism by which PGRN exerts anti-inflammatory activity, raising the possibility that aberrant PGRN-TNFR interactions underlie the molecular basis for neuroinflammation in frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathogenesis. Here, we report that we find no evidence for a direct physical or functional interaction between PGRN and TNFRs. Using coimmunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) we replicated the interaction between PGRN and sortilin and that between TNF and TNFRI/II, but not the interaction between PGRN and TNFRs. Recombinant PGRN or transfection of a cDNA encoding PGRN did not antagonize TNF-dependent NFκB, Akt, and Erk1/2 pathway activation; inflammatory gene expression; or secretion of inflammatory factors in BV2 microglia and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Moreover, PGRN did not antagonize TNF-induced cytotoxicity on dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells. Last, co-addition or pre-incubation with various N- or C-terminal-tagged recombinant PGRNs did not alter lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression or cytokine secretion in any cell type examined, including BMDMs from Grn+/- or Grn-/- mice. Therefore, the neuroinflammatory phenotype associated with PGRN deficiency in the CNS is not a direct consequence of the loss of TNF antagonism by PGRN, but may be a secondary response by glia to disrupted interactions between PGRN and Sortilin and/or other binding partners yet to be identified.
- Salient Sounds Activate Human Visual Cortex Automatically. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9194-9201.
Sudden changes in the acoustic environment enhance perceptual processing of subsequent visual stimuli that appear in close spatial proximity. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms by which salient sounds affect visual processing. In particular, it is unclear whether such sounds automatically activate visual cortex. To shed light on this issue, this study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that were triggered either by peripheral sounds that preceded task-relevant visual targets (Experiment 1) or were presented during purely auditory tasks (Experiments 2-4). In all experiments the sounds elicited a contralateral ERP over the occipital scalp that was localized to neural generators in extrastriate visual cortex of the ventral occipital lobe. The amplitude of this cross-modal ERP was predictive of perceptual judgments about the contrast of colocalized visual targets. These findings demonstrate that sudden, intrusive sounds reflexively activate human visual cortex in a spatially specific manner, even during purely auditory tasks when the sounds are not relevant to the ongoing task.
- Mapping the Binding Site of TRPV1 on AKAP79: Implications for Inflammatory Hyperalgesia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9184-9193.
Inflammation causes hyperalgesia, an enhanced sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a thermo-TRP ion channel activated by painful levels of heat, is an important contributor because hyperalgesia is reduced when TRPV1 is either genetically deleted or pharmacologically blocked. Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin-E2 or bradykinin cause hyperalgesia by activating cellular kinases that phosphorylate TRPV1, a process that has recently been shown to rely on a scaffolding protein, AKAP79, to target the kinases to TRPV1. Here we use Förster resonance energy transfer, immunoprecipitation, and TRPV1 membrane trafficking experiments to identify a key region on AKAP79, between amino acids 326-336, which is responsible for its interaction with TRPV1. A peptide identical to this domain inhibited sensitization of TRPV1 in vitro, and when covalently linked to a TAT peptide to promote uptake across the cell membrane the peptide inhibited in vivo inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice. Critically, it did so without affecting pain thresholds in the absence of inflammation. These results suggest that antagonizing the TRPV1-AKAP79 interaction will be a useful strategy for inhibiting inflammatory hyperalgesia.
- Differential Effects of Dual and Unihemispheric Motor Cortex Stimulation in Older Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9176-9183.
Bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to upregulate excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) using anodal stimulation while concurrently downregulating contralateral M1 using cathodal stimulation. This "dual" tDCS method enhances motor learning in healthy subjects and facilitates motor recovery after stroke. However, its impact on motor system activity and connectivity remains unknown. Therefore, we assessed neural correlates of dual and unihemispheric anodal tDCS effects in 20 healthy older subjects in a randomized, sham-controlled study using a cross-over design. Participants underwent tDCS and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging during a choice reaction time task and at rest. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allowed us to relate potential functional changes to structural parameters. The resting-state analysis demonstrated that, compared with sham, both dual and anodal tDCS decreased connectivity of right hippocampus and M1 (contralateral to the anode position) while increasing connectivity in the left prefrontal cortex. Notably, dual but not anodal tDCS enhanced connectivity of the left dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, dual tDCS yielded stronger activations in bilateral M1 compared with anodal tDCS when participants used either their left or right hand during the motor task. The corresponding tDCS-induced changes in laterality of activations were related to the microstructural status of transcallosal motor fibers. In conclusion, our results suggest that the impact of bihemispheric tDCS cannot be explained by mere add-on effects of anodal and concurrent cathodal stimulation, but rather by complex network modulations involving interhemispheric interactions and areas associated with motor control in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex.
- The SNARE Proteins SNAP25 and Synaptobrevin Are Involved in Endocytosis at Hippocampal Synapses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9169-9175.
SNAP25, an essential component of the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex that mediates exocytosis, is not considered to play a role in endocytosis, which couples to exocytosis by retrieving a similar amount of exocytosed vesicles. By knocking down SNAP25 and imaging slow endocytosis at a conventional synapse, the rat cultured hippocampal synapse, we found that SNAP25 is involved in slow, clathrin-dependent endocytosis. With similar techniques, we found that not only SNAP25, but also synaptobrevin is involved in slow endocytosis. These results provide the first evidence showing the dual role of SNAP25 and synaptobrevin in both exocytosis and slow endocytosis at conventional synapses. Such a dual role may contribute to mediate the coupling between exocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at conventional synapses, a mechanism critical for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and the normal structure of nerve terminals.
- The Role of Harmonic Resolvability in Pitch Perception in a Vocal Nonhuman Primate, the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9161-9168.
Pitch is one of the most fundamental percepts in the auditory system and can be extracted using either spectral or temporal information in an acoustic signal. Although pitch perception has been extensively studied in human subjects, it is far less clear how nonhuman primates perceive pitch. We have addressed this question in a series of behavioral studies in which marmosets, a vocal nonhuman primate species, were trained to discriminate complex harmonic tones differing in either spectral (fundamental frequency [f0]) or temporal envelope (repetition rate) cues. We found that marmosets used temporal envelope information to discriminate pitch for acoustic stimuli with higher-order harmonics and lower f0 values and spectral information for acoustic stimuli with lower-order harmonics and higher f0 values. We further measured frequency resolution in marmosets using a psychophysical task in which pure tone thresholds were measured as a function of notched noise masker bandwidth. Results show that only the first four harmonics are resolved at low f0 values and up to 16 harmonics are resolved at higher f0 values. Resolvability in marmosets is different from that in humans, where the first five to nine harmonics are consistently resolved across most f0 values, and is likely the result of a smaller marmoset cochlea. In sum, these results show that marmosets use two mechanisms to extract pitch (harmonic templates [spectral] for resolved harmonics, and envelope extraction [temporal] for unresolved harmonics) and that species differences in stimulus resolvability need to be taken into account when investigating and comparing mechanisms of pitch perception across animals.
- Triheteromeric NMDA Receptors at Hippocampal Synapses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9150-9160.
NMDA receptors are composed of two GluN1 (N1) and two GluN2 (N2) subunits. Constituent N2 subunits control the pharmacological and kinetic characteristics of the receptor. NMDA receptors in hippocampal or cortical neurons are often thought of as diheteromeric, meaning that they contain only one type of N2 subunit. However, triheteromeric receptors with more than one type of N2 subunit also have been reported, and the relative contribution of diheteromeric and triheteromeric NMDA receptors at synapses has been difficult to assess. Because wild-type hippocampal principal neurons express N1, N2A, and N2B, we used cultured hippocampal principal neurons from N2A and N2B knock-out mice as templates for diheteromeric synaptic receptors. However, summation of N1/N2B and N1/N2A EPSCs could not account for the deactivation kinetics of wild-type EPSCs. To make a quantitative estimate of NMDA receptor subtypes at wild-type synapses, we used the deactivation kinetics and the effects of the competitive antagonist NVP-AAM077. Our results indicate that three types of NMDA receptors contribute to wild-type EPSCs, with at least two-thirds being triheteromeric receptors. Functional isolation of synaptic triheteromeric receptors revealed deactivation kinetics and pharmacology that were distinct from either diheteromeric receptor subtype. Because of differences in open probability, synaptic triheteromeric receptors outnumbered N1/N2A receptors by 5.8 to 1 and N1/N2B receptors by 3.2 to 1. Our results suggest that triheteromeric NMDA receptors must either be preferentially assembled or preferentially localized at synapses.
- μ-Opioid Receptors within Subregions of the Striatum Mediate Pair Bond Formation through Parallel Yet Distinct Reward Mechanisms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9140-9149.
The prairie vole is a socially monogamous rodent that is an excellent animal model for studies of the neurobiology of social attachment. Such studies have demonstrated that activation of reward circuitry during social interactions facilitates pair bond formation. Within this circuitry, μ-opioid receptors (MORs) modulate naturally rewarding behavior in an anatomically segregated manner; MORs located throughout the striatum (dorsal striatum, NAc core, and the entire NAc shell) are implicated in general motivational processes, whereas those located specifically within the dorsomedial NAc shell mediate positive hedonics (and are referred to as a "hedonic hotspot"). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether MORs within these distinct subregions differentially mediate pair bond formation. We first used receptor autoradiography to compare MOR binding densities between these regions. MOR binding was significantly higher in the NAc core and dorsomedial NAc shell compared with the ventral NAc shell. We next used partner preference testing to determine whether MORs within these subregions differentially mediate pair bonding. Blockade of MORs using 1 or 3 μg of H-d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 within the dorsal striatum decreased mating during the cohabitation period and inhibited partner preference formation. In contrast, blockade of MORs within dorsomedial NAc shell inhibited partner preference formation without effecting mating behavior, whereas other regions were not involved. Thus, MORs within the dorsal striatum mediate partner preference formation via impairment of mating, whereas those in the dorsomedial NAc shell appear to mediate pair bond formation through the positive hedonics associated with mating.
- Dynamic Interactions between Intermediate Neurogenic Progenitors and Radial Glia in Embryonic Mouse Neocortex: Potential Role in Dll1-Notch Signaling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 22; 33(21):9122-9139.
The mammalian neocortical progenitor cell niche is composed of a diverse repertoire of neuroepithelial cells, radial glia (RG), and intermediate neurogenic progenitors (INPs). Previously, live-cell imaging experiments have proved crucial in identifying these distinct progenitor populations, especially INPs, which amplify neural output by undergoing additional rounds of proliferation before differentiating into new neurons. INPs also provide feedback to the RG pool by serving as a source of Delta-like 1 (Dll1), a key ligand for activating Notch signaling in neighboring cells, a well-known mechanism for maintaining RG identity. While much is known about Dll1-Notch signaling at the molecular level, little is known about how this cell-cell contact dependent feedback is transmitted at the cellular level. To investigate how RG and INPs might interact to convey Notch signals, we used high-resolution live-cell multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to directly observe cellular interactions and dynamics, in conjunction with Notch-pathway specific reporters in the neocortical neural stem cell niche in organotypic brain slices from embryonic mice. We found that INPs and RG interact via dynamic and transient elongate processes, some apparently long-range (extending from the subventricular zone to the ventricular zone), and some short-range (filopodia-like). Gene expression profiling of RG and INPs revealed further progenitor cell diversification, including different subpopulations of Hes1+ and/or Hes5+ RG, and Dll1+ and/or Dll3+ INPs. Thus, the embryonic progenitor niche includes a network of dynamic cell-cell interactions, using different combinations of Notch signaling molecules to maintain and likely diversify progenitor pools.