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The Journal of parasitology [journal]
- TWO NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOLEPIS (CESTODA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE) FROM MURID RODENTS (RODENTIA: MURIDAE) IN THE PHILIPPINES. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 16.
Abstract Two previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens obtained from murid rodents Bullimus luzonicus, Apomys microdon and Rattus everetti collected on Luzon Island, Philippines. Hymenolepis bicauda n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis species in relative position of the poral dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals, gravid uterus occupying less than half the length of proglottid, relatively few eggs and the highly characteristic longitudinal split of proglottids at the end of the gravid strobila. Hymenolepis haukisalmii n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis species in the relative position of both poral and aporal dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals and uterus lacking dorsal and ventral diverticula. The shift in the relative position of the dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals was not known in Hymenolepis from rodents in other regions of the world and is reminiscent of the situation in Hymenolepis erinacei parasitic in hedgehogs and members of the genus Talpolepis parasitic in moles. The cosmopolitan species Hymenolepis diminuta was the only member of the genus previously reported from the Philippines.
- PROTOMAGALHAENSIA RICHARDSONI N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: EUGREGARINIDA: BLABERICOLIDAE), A NEW GREGARINE PARASITIZING THE GIANT LOBSTER COCKROACH, HENSCHOUTEDENIA FLEXIVITTA (DICTYOPTERA: BLABERIDAE). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 9.
Abstract Protomagalhaensia richardsoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) is described from the giant lobster cockroach, Henschoutedenia flexivitta (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blaberidae: Oxyhaloinae: Nauphoetini). Oocysts within the genus are dolioform with polar plates. Those of Protomagalhaensia granulosae, Protomagalhaensia wolfi, and Protomagalhaensia blaberae possess distinct apical spines and a sagittal depression that are absent or reduced in P. richardsoni and Protomagalhaensia cerastes. Oocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly longer with larger sporozoite-bearing cavities than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (external oocyst length 8.07 µm vs 7.42 µm, 7.50 µm, 6.87 µm, 7.56 µm, respectively; internal oocyst length 6.94 µm vs 6.44 µm, 6.77 µm, 6.09 µm, 6.72 µm, respectively). All 5 species are also distinguished by unique oocyst length/width ratios. No unique morphological structure distinguishes among the gametocysts of Protomagalhaensia species, but gametocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly shorter than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (gametocyst length 184.3 µm vs 325.15 µm, 253.27 µm, 273.63 µm, 218.3 µm, respectively). No structurally unique morphological gamont feature distinguishes among species of Protomagalhaensia. Rather, species distinctions are morphometric in nature. In general, gamonts of P. richardsoni are readily distinguished from those of P. cerastes and P. wolfi based on size alone: the latter species being roughly half the size of P. richardsoni. Gamonts of P. richardsoni are most similar to those of P. granulosae and P. blaberae but with relatively smaller primites and more slender satellites.
- THE EYES HAVE IT: LONG DISTANCE DISPERSAL BY AN INTRAORBITAL LEECH PARASITE OF BIRDS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 8.
Abstract A leech was found parasitizing the ocular orbit of a common redstart captured during a faunistic survey of Antikythira in the Aegean Sea during the spring migration of 2012. Morphological and molecular characterizations placed the leech in the mucous-membrane specific leech family Praobdellidae and definitively as the species Parapraobdella lineata. This is the first record of any leech parasitizing a passerine bird, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, and the first of a praobdellid leech on any avian host.
- On the Morphology and Taxonomy of Griphobilharzia amoena Platt and Blair, 1991 (Schistosomatoidea), a Dioecious Digenetic Trematode Parasite of the Freshwater Crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni, in Australia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 8.
Abstract Griphobilharzia amoena Platt and Blair, 1991 was originally described as a dioecious trematode parasitic in the circulatory system of the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni, with the female completely enclosed in a gynecophoric chamber of the male, and the 2 worms oriented anti-parallel to each other. A recent publication questions the original description arguing that G. amoena is monoecious and as a consequence, the species was transferred to Vasotrema Stunkard, 1928 (Spirorchiidae) as V. amoena n. comb. We provide photomicrographic evidence that the original description of G. amoena is correct and that Griphobilharzia Platt and Blair, 1991, is a valid monotypic genus containing G. amoena. An accurate understanding of the anatomy of G. amoena is not trivial and has implications for revealing the complex origins and evolution of the dioecious condition within the Schistosomatoidea.
- NEW AFRICAN SPECIES OF ECHINOBOTHRIUM (CESTODA: DIPHYLLIDEA) AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE IDENTITIES OF THEIR SKATE HOSTS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 8.
Abstract Two new species of diphyllidean cestodes of the genus Echinobothrium, each hosted by a different skate species in the Raja miraletus complex, are described. Echinobothrium mercedesae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 2 in Senegal. Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 1 in South Africa. Both species are small worms that differ from all 29 of their described congeners in the combination of number of cephalic peduncle spines per column, hook formula, number and arrangement of testes, and arrangement of vitelline follicles. They are easily distinguished from one another in that whereas the vitelline follicles of E. yiae n. sp. are circumcortical, they are lateral in E. mercedesae n. sp., and in number of cephalic peduncle spines per column (14-17 vs. 10-12). Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is also unusual in that the cephalic peduncle spines stop short of the anterior margin of the peduncle. In addition, although the paucity of available material precluded their formal description, evidence of 2 additional new species parasitizing R. miraletus also from Senegal is presented. In combination these worms provide support for that interpretation that what is currently recognized as Raja miraletus actually consists of a complex of geographically restricted species, rather than as a polymorphic species of multiple parapatric or allopatrically distributed populations. This interpretation is not only supported by previously published molecular data, but also by newly collected morphological data involving differences in the color patterns of disc ocelli among host specimens of the 3 forms available as a result of digital efforts to ensure the accuracy of host identifications, which are presented here.
- Baylisascaris procyonis infection in white-footed mice: predicting patterns of infection from landscape habitat attributes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 8.
Abstract There is a growing body of evidence that habitat fragmentation resulting from anthropogenic land use can alter the transmission dynamics of infectious disease. Baylisascaris procyonis, a parasitic roundworm with the ability to cause fatal central nervous system disease in many mammals, including humans, is a zoonotic threat and research suggests infection rates in intermediate hosts are highly variable among forest patches in fragmented landscapes. During 2008, we sampled 353 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) from 22 forest patches distributed throughout a fragmented agricultural ecosystem to determine the influence of landscape-level habitat attributes on infection rates of B. procyonis in mice. We characterized each mouse in terms of infection status and intensity of infection, and calculated (on a patch-wide basis) prevalence, mean abundance of B. procyonis, and mean intensity of infection. We used an information-theoretic approach to develop a suite of candidate models characterizing the influence of landscape attributes on each of our measured characteristics of B. procyonis infection in white-footed mice, based on previous knowledge of raccoon (Procyon lotor) ecology and B. procyonis distribution in agricultural ecosystems. We observed evidence of B. procyonis infection in mice across all 22 habitat patches sampled in this study. However, infection rates and intensity were highly variable among patches, and the results of our analyses suggest spatial variability in B. procyonis infections was primarily driven by emergent properties of fragmented ecosystems. In particular, prevalence, abundance, and intensity of B. procyonis infections in mice were negatively associated with the size and connectivity of forest patches. These results support previous studies indicating habitat fragmentation can alter the transmission dynamics of infectious disease, and suggest factors below the scale of landscape, such as fine-scale habitat structure or demographic and behavioral attributes of intermediate and/or definitive hosts, also may be important for predicting patterns of B. procyonis infection in intermediate hosts.
- AN ENTOMOPARASITIC ADULT FORM IN BURSAPHELENCHUS DOUI (NEMATODA: TYLENCHOMORPHA) ASSOCIATED WITH ACALOLEPTA FRAUDATRIX. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 8.
Abstract A nematode family Aphelenchoididae (Rhabditida: Tylenchomorpha) consists of the species with various feeding habitats. The genus Bursaphelenchus, a member of the family has long time been considered as a home for plant parasitic and/or mycophagous species. However, recent intensive biological studies on the family revealed that the genus contains several insect parasitic species. Dauer juvenile of B. doui were isolated from Acalolepta fraudatrix during a field study of longhorn beetle-Bursaphelenchus nematode associations. Two different insect-associated forms, an "entomoparasitic adult form" and a regular dauer juvenile, were isolated from a single individual beetle in a subsequent laboratory investigation of the B. doui-A. fraudatrix relationship. Thus, these 2 distinct insect-associated forms were confirmed to occur simultaneously. The entomoparasitic form is morphologically similar to B. luxuriosae, with a dome-shaped head with vacuole-like spots assumed to be an internal structure of sensory organ, a degenerated lip, stylet, a metacorpus (median bulb), and a well-developed and seemingly fully functional reproductive system. It is distinguishable from B. luxuriosae based on male spicule morphology and female tail morphology. A degenerate ingestion system distinguishes the entomoparasitic form from the propagative form and, unlike dauer juveniles, it has a well-developed reproductive system. The presence of this characteristic parasitic adult form is known only in these 2 Bursaphelenchus species. However, these 2 species did not form clear monophyletic clade within the B. xylophilus group, and thus, this characteristic parasitic form may have occurred independently in each species.
- Evaluation of a Restriction Fragment Length Enzyme Assay for Differentiation of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium Across a Standard Region of the Mitochondrial Genome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 3.
Abstract Avian haemosporidian parasites are a genetically diverse group of parasites with a near cosmopolitan distribution. Over the past 2 decades, several PCR protocols have been designed to detect these parasites. The majority of these protocols amplify part of, or the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. However, many of these protocols co-amplify 2 genera (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) making it impossible to determine which genus is amplified without post-PCR analysis. A uniform database (MalAvi), containing sequences amplified with the primers HAEMF and HAEMR2, has been developed to increase comparability across studies. We analyzed sequences from the MalAvi database and new sequences and found that digestion with EcoRV could be used to distinguish Haemoproteus from the majority of Plasmodium sequences. In addition, we tested 220 wild birds from Costa Rica and the United States for avian haemosporidians and assessed the ability of EcoRV to distinguish these 2 genera. Thirty-six positive samples were sequenced to confirm the restriction profiles, and we also analyzed 63 new haemosporidian sequences from ongoing studies in the United States for the restriction site. Among these new samples, all of the 85 Haemoproteus (subgenus Parahaemoproteus) and 14 Plasmodium were distinguishable. Overall, 887 of 898 (98.8%) sequences from our studies and the MalAvi database were assigned to the correct genus. Of these samples, all Haemoproteus samples were correctly identified, and all but 11 Plasmodium samples were correctly identified by the EcoRV assay. Overall, this restriction enzyme protocol is able to quickly and efficiently classify these 2 genera of avian malarial parasites and would be useful for researchers interested in identifying parasites to genus-level, studies focused on sequence analysis of only a single genus, or for detecting co-infections that would need cloning prior to sequence analysis.
- Acanthoparyphium sp. and other metazoan symbionts of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica from South Texas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 3.
Abstract In this study, we investigated oysters, Crassostrea virginica from Laguna Madre in South Texas where a 45-yr old study recorded metacercarial infections of the echinostomatid trematode, Acanthoparyphium spinulosum, which relative in Asia A. tyosenense has been associated with human infections via the ingestion of raw mollusks. In an effort to examine the base-line infection parameters of Acanthoparyphium sp. in oysters we examined the effect of distance from the shoreline, which is the habitat of the first intermediate host snail, Cerithidea pliculosa as well as temporal changes in oyster infection levels by conducting quarterly collections of oysters during a year. We found that almost all oysters (prevalence = 97.8 - 100%) were infected regardless of distance to the shoreline and season. However, the abundance of metacercariae was significantly higher close to the shoreline while no significant temporal changes could be detected. In addition to the echinostomatid, we found a high abundance of the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and the presence of 4 other metazoan parasites. None of the infections seemed to incur significant tissue damage to the oysters. Our study shows that at least locally, recreational harvesters of oysters may be exposed to Acanthoparyphium sp. Future studies should examine oysters from snail host habitats in the Gulf of Mexico, and the potential zoonotic risk of Acanthoparyphium sp. should be evaluated using experimental infections of animal models.
- HEXABOTHRIIDS OF DEVIL RAYS (MOBULIDAE): NEW GENUS AND SPECIES FROM GILL OF MOBULA HYPOSTOMA IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO AND REDESCRIPTION OF A CONGENER FROM MOBULA ROCHEBRUNEI IN THE EASTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parasitol 2013 May 3.