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The pharmacogenomics journal [journal]
- Gene-expression differences in peripheral blood between lithium responders and non-responders in the Lithium Treatment-Moderate dose Use Study (LiTMUS). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 May 14.
This study was designed to identify genes whose expression in peripheral blood may serve as early markers for treatment response to lithium (Li) in patients with bipolar disorder. Although changes in peripheral blood gene-expression may not relate directly to mood symptoms, differences in treatment response at the biochemical level may underlie some of the heterogeneity in clinical response to Li. Subjects were randomized to treatment with (n=28) or without (n=32) Li. Peripheral blood gene-expression was measured before and 1month after treatment initiation, and treatment response was assessed after 6 months. In subjects treated with Li, 62 genes were differentially regulated in treatment responders and non-responders. Of these, BCL2L1 showed the greatest difference between Li responders and non-responders. These changes were specific to Li responders (n=9), and were not seen in Li non-responders or patients treated without Li, suggesting that they may have specific roles in treatment response to Li.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 14 May 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.16.
- The role of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in methotrexate-induced liver toxicity: a meta-analysis in patients with cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 May 7.
Methotrexate (MTX), one of the important pillars in the treatment of different forms of cancer, is associated with the development of hepatotoxicity. The 677C>T variant (rs1801133) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene might affect the development of hepatotoxicity. Results in literature are, however, contradictive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by analyzing a Dutch cohort of pediatric patients treated with high doses of MTX and subsequently performing a meta-analysis. Ninety-eight patients receiving 542 courses of high-dose MTX were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T variant. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated retrospectively according to common terminology criteria for adverse events-National Cancer Institute criteria. The influence of MTHFR 677C>T on hepatotoxicity was examined using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. A fixed-effect meta-analysis based on this and previous studies investigating the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and uniformly coded hepatotoxicity was performed. The GEE analysis showed an increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity for T versus C allele (odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.2, P=0.04). This finding was not supported by the meta-analysis including seven studies and 1044 patients; the OR for the 677T versus C allele was 1.1 (95% CI 0.84-1.5, P=0.25). Heterogeneity between studies was observed, possibly related to differences in MTX dose and leucovorin rescue. In conclusion, in patients with cancer, the MTHFR 677T allele has only a minor role in the development of MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Observed heterogeneity between studies warrants further study into (tailored) leucovorin rescue.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 May 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.19.
- Efavirenz-mediated induction of omeprazole metabolism is CYP2C19 genotype dependent. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 30.
Efavirenz increases CYP2C19- and CYP3A-mediated omeprazole metabolism. We hypothesized that CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms influence the extent of induction of omeprazole metabolism by efavirenz. Healthy subjects (n=57) were administered a single 20 mg oral dose of omeprazole on two occasions: with a single 600 mg efavirenz dose; and after a 17-day treatment with efavirenz (600 mg per day). DNA was genotyped for CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 alleles and CYP2B6*6, *4 and *9 alleles using Taqman assays. Omeprazole, its enantiomers and metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that efavirenz increased omeprazole clearances in all CYP2C19 genotypes in non-stereoselective manner, but the magnitude of induction was genotype dependent. Metabolic ratios of 5-hydroxylation of omeprazole were reduced in extensive and intermediate metabolizers of CYP2C19 (P<0.05). No significant associations were observed between CYP2B6 genotypes and induction by efavirenz on omeprazole metabolism. Our data indicate how interplays between drug interactions and CYP2C19 genetic variations may influence systemic exposure of CYP2C19 substrates.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 30 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.17.
- Meta-analysis of the association between dopamine transporter genotype and response to methylphenidate treatment in ADHD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 16.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder. Treatment with methylphenidate, which blocks dopamine and noradrenaline transporters, is clinically efficacious in reducing the symptoms of ADHD. However, a considerable proportion of patients show no or only insufficient response to methylphenidate. Following a pharmacogenetic approach, a number of studies have suggested that heterogeneity in treatment response across subjects might to some extent be due to genetic factors. In particular, a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the SLC6A3 gene, which codes for the dopamine transporter, has been considered as a predictor of treatment success. However, the literature has so far been inconsistent. Here we present results of a meta-analysis of studies investigating the moderating effect of the SLC6A3 VNTR on response to methylphenidate treatment in subjects with ADHD. Outcome measures from 16 studies including data from 1572 subjects were entered into a random-effects model. There was no significant summary effect for the SLC6A3 VNTR on the response to methylphenidate treatment (P>0.5) and no effect on specific symptom dimensions of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention (all P>0.2). However, in a subanalysis of naturalistic trials, we observed a significant effect of d=-0.36 (P=0.03), indicating that 10R homozygotes show less improvement in symptoms following treatment than the non-10/10 carriers. This meta-analysis indicates that SLC6A3 VNTR is not a reliable predictor of methylphenidate treatment success in ADHD. Our study leaves unanswered the question of whether other genetic polymorphisms or nongenetic factors may contribute to the observed heterogeneity in treatment response across ADHD subjects.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 16 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.9.
- Higher frequency of genetic variants conferring increased risk for ADRs for commonly used drugs treating cancer, AIDS and tuberculosis in persons of African descent. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 16.
There is established clinical evidence for differences in drug response, cure rates and survival outcomes between different ethnic populations, but the causes are poorly understood. Differences in frequencies of functional genetic variants in key drug response and metabolism genes may significantly influence drug response differences in different populations. To assess this, we genotyped 1330 individuals of African (n=372) and European (n=958) descent for 4535 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 350 key drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity genes. Important and remarkable differences in the distribution of genetic variants were observed between Africans and Europeans and among the African populations. These could translate into significant differences in drug efficacy and safety profiles, and also in the required dose to achieve the desired therapeutic effect in different populations. Our data points to the need for population-specific genetic variation in personalizing medicine and care.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 16 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.13.
- The cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs9344 G>A polymorphism predicts clinical outcome in colon cancer patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 9.
Recent evidence indicates a potential prognostic and predictive value for germline polymorphisms in genes involved in cell cycle control. We investigated the effect of cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs9344 G>A in stage II/III colon cancer patients and validated the findings in an independent study cohort. For evaluation and validation set, a total of 264 and 234 patients were included. Patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, carrying the CCND1 rs9344 A/A genotype had significantly decreased time-to-tumor recurrence (TTR) in univariate analysis and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR) 2.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-5.29; P=0.019). There was no significant association between CCND1 rs9344 G>A and TTR in patients with curative surgery alone. In the validation set, the A allele of CCND1 rs9344 G>A remained significantly associated with decreased TTR in univariate and multivariate analyses (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.05-3.58; P=0.035). CCND1 rs9344 G>A may be a predictive and/or prognostic biomarker in stage II/III colon cancer patients, however, prospective trials are warranted to confirm our findings.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 9 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.15.
- Pharmacogenomics of insulin-like growth factor-I generation during GH treatment in children with GH deficiency or Turner syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 9.
Individual responses to growth hormone (GH) treatment are variable. Short-term generation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is recognized as a potential marker of sensitivity to GH treatment. This prospective, phase IV study used an integrated genomic analysis to identify markers associated with 1-month change in IGF-I (ΔIGF-I) following initiation of recombinant human (r-h)GH therapy in treatment-naïve children with GH deficiency (GHD) (n=166) or Turner syndrome (TS) (n=147). In both GHD and TS, polymorphisms in the cell-cycle regulator CDK4 were associated with 1-month ΔIGF-I (P<0.05). Baseline gene expression was also correlated with 1-month ΔIGF-I in both GHD and TS (r=0.3; P<0.01). In patients with low IGF-I responses, carriage of specific CDK4 alleles was associated with MAPK and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in GHD, and with p53 and Wnt signaling pathways in TS. Understanding the relationship between genomic markers and early changes in IGF-I may allow development of strategies to rapidly individualize r-hGH dose.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 9 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.14.
- Genetic variants associated with methotrexate efficacy and toxicity in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the treatment of early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 2.
Methotrexate (MTX) has emerged as first-line therapy for early moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but individual variation in treatment response remains unexplained. We tested the associations between 863 known pharmacogenetic variants and MTX response in 471 Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis Trial participants with early RA. Efficacy and toxicity were modeled using multiple regression, adjusted for demographic and clinical covariates. Penalized regression models were used to test joint associations of markers and/or covariates with the outcomes. The strongest genetic associations with efficacy were in CHST11 (five markers with P<0.003), encoding carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11. Top markers associated with MTX toxicity were in the cytochrome p450 genes CYP20A1 and CYP39A1, solute carrier genes SLC22A2 and SLC7A7, and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALDH2. The selected markers explained a consistently higher proportion of variation in toxicity than efficacy. These findings could inform future development of personalized therapeutic approaches.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 2 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.11.
- Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants on antidepressant response in obsessive-compulsive disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr 2.
Numerous studies have reported on pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in depression. In contrast, little is known of response predictors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder with among the lowest proportion of responders to medication (40-60%). Our study is the largest investigation to date (N=184) of treatment response and side effects to antidepressants in OCD based on metabolizer status for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. We observed significantly more failed medication trials in CYP2D6 non-extensive compared with extensive metabolizers (P=0.007). CYP2D6 metabolizer status was associated with side effects to venlafaxine (P=0.022). There were nonsignificant trends for association of CYP2D6 metabolizer status with response to fluoxetine (P=0.056) and of CYP2C19 metabolizer status with response to sertraline (P=0.064). Our study is the first to indicate that CYP genes may have a role in antidepressant response in OCD. More research is required for a future clinical application of genetic testing, which could lead to improved treatment outcomes.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 2 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.12.
- Synapsin II gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brain specimens from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: effect of lifetime intake of antipsychotic drugs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 26.
Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins crucial to regulating the processes required for normal neurotransmitter release. Synapsin II, in particular, has been implied as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. This study investigated synapsin II mRNA expression, using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, in coded dorsolateral prefrontal cortical samples provided by the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. Synapsin IIa was decreased in patients with schizophrenia when compared with both healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder, whereas synapsin IIb was only significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia when compared with healthy subjects but not in patients with bipolar disorder. Furthermore, lifetime antipsychotic drug use was positively associated with synapsin IIa expression in patients with schizophrenia. Results suggest that impairment of synaptic transmission by synapsin II reduction may contribute to dysregulated convergent molecular mechanisms, which result in aberrant neural circuits that characterize schizophrenia, while implicating involvement of synapsin II in therapeutic mechanisms of currently prescribed antipsychotic drugs.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 26 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.6.