Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
The pharmacogenomics journal [journal]
- Association of UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms with irinotecan-induced toxicities in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis in Caucasians. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 26.
A meta-analysis in Caucasians was conducted to investigate the possible association of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 gene polymorphisms with irinotecan (IRI)-induced neutropenia and diarrhoea in colorectal cancer (CRC). We searched PubMed and Embase until May 2012 to identify eligible studies, extracted data, assessed methodological quality, and performed statistical analysis using REVMAN 5.1 and R software. Subgroups meta-analyses were performed in groups representing different IRI combination regimens and IRI doses. Sixteen trials were included. UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype was associated with more than fourfold (odds ratio (OR)=4.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 3.28-7.01; P<0.00001) and threefold (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 2.45-4.82; P<0.00001) increases in the risk of neutropenia when compared with wild type and with at least one UGT1A1*1 allele, respectively. UGT1A1*1/*28 genotype had an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.44-2.51; P<0.00001) for an increased risk of neutropenia. A twofold increase in risk of diarrhoea was associated with UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.24-2.72; P=0.002). In subgroup meta-analysis, the higher incidence of diarrhoea in UGT1A1*28/*28 patients was limited to studies where when IRI was given at higher doses (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.39-4.04; P=0.002) or combined with 5-fluorouracil (FU or analogue) (OR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.16-2.75; P=0.009). Genotyping of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism before treatment for CRC can tailor IRI therapy and reduce the IRI-related toxicities. IRI-combined 5-FU (or analogue) and a high-dose IRI therapy enhance IRI-induced diarrhoea among patients bearing the UGT1A1*28 allele. Although the toxicity relationships were much stronger with the UGT1A1*28 homozygous variant, associations were also found with the UGT1A1*28 heterozygous variant.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 26 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.10.
- A genome-wide association study of bronchodilator response in asthmatics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 19.
Reversibility of airway obstruction in response to β2-agonists is highly variable among asthmatics, which is partially attributed to genetic factors. In a genome-wide association study of acute bronchodilator response (BDR) to inhaled albuterol, 534 290 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 403 white trios from the Childhood Asthma Management Program using five statistical models to determine the most robust genetic associations. The primary replication phase included 1397 polymorphisms in three asthma trials (pooled n=764). The second replication phase tested 13 SNPs in three additional asthma populations (n=241, n=215 and n=592). An intergenic SNP on chromosome 10, rs11252394, proximal to several excellent biological candidates, significantly replicated (P=1.98 × 10(-7)) in the primary replication trials. An intronic SNP (rs6988229) in the collagen (COL22A1) locus also provided strong replication signals (P=8.51 × 10(-6)). This study applied a robust approach for testing the genetic basis of BDR and identified novel loci associated with this drug response in asthmatics.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 19 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.5.
- A genome-wide association study of survival in small-cell lung cancer patients treated with irinotecan plus cisplatin chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 12.
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing overall survival (OS) of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. We prospectively collected blood samples from 139 SCLC patients who participated in phase II studies of irinotecan and cisplatin (IP) chemotherapy as first-line therapy. Among 334 127 SNPs, which passed quality control, seven showed significant association with OS. The rs16950650CT, rs7186128AG or GG, rs17574269AG, rs8020368CC, rs4655567CC, rs2166219TT or rs2018683TT showed shorter OS compared with control alleles. Among the seven SNPs, rs4655567, rs8020368 and rs2018683 were significantly associated with a resistant relapse (RR). In the multivariate analysis, rs8020368CC was significantly associated with higher risk of RR (odds ratio=16.7, P=0.007). In vitro and in silico analysis showed that SNPs in C14orf49 might be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This exploratory GWAS identified candidate SNPs that may be predictive of the clinical outcome of SCLC patients receiving IP.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 12 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.7.
- Insulin-like growth factor receptor polymorphism defines clinical outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 5.
Compelling evidence points to a key role for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in breast cancer development and progression. In addition, IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) expression has been correlated and functionally linked with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Recent translational studies support a cross talk between IGF1R and ERα at different levels and data suggest enhanced IGF1R signaling as a causative mechanism of tamoxifen (TAM) resistance. We tested whether functional germline variations in the IGF pathway are associated with clinical outcome in ER-positive primary invasive breast cancer patients, who were treated with surgery and adjuvant TAM. Tissue samples of 222 patients with ER+ primary invasive breast cancer, who had undergone surgery at Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK between 1981 and 2003, were analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and six functional IGF1 pathway polymorphisms were analyzed using direct DNA sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In multivariable analysis, patients with primary invasive breast cancer carrying IGF1R_rs2016347 G allele had a significantly increased risk of early tumor progression (hazard ratio (HR) 2.01; adjusted P=0.004) and death (HR 1.84; adjusted P=0.023) compared with patients carrying G/T or T/T, independent of established clinicopathological determinants. This association remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. In addition, we were able to demonstrate that IRS1_rs1801123 and IGFBP3_rs2854744 were significantly associated with lymph node involvement and tumor size, respectively. We provide the first evidence for IGF1R_rs2016347 as an independent prognostic marker for ER+ breast cancer patients treated with TAM and support a rational for combined treatment strategies.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 5 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.8.
- Drug-gene interactions and the search for missing heritability: a cross-sectional pharmacogenomics study of the QT interval. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 5.
Variability in response to drug use is common and heritable, suggesting that genome-wide pharmacogenomics studies may help explain the 'missing heritability' of complex traits. Here, we describe four independent analyses in 33 781 participants of European ancestry from 10 cohorts that were designed to identify genetic variants modifying the effects of drugs on QT interval duration (QT). Each analysis cross-sectionally examined four therapeutic classes: thiazide diuretics (prevalence of use=13.0%), tri/tetracyclic antidepressants (2.6%), sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents (2.9%) and QT-prolonging drugs as classified by the University of Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (4.4%). Drug-gene interactions were estimated using covariable-adjusted linear regression and results were combined with fixed-effects meta-analysis. Although drug-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions were biologically plausible and variables were well-measured, findings from the four cross-sectional meta-analyses were null (Pinteraction>5.0 × 10(-8)). Simulations suggested that additional efforts, including longitudinal modeling to increase statistical power, are likely needed to identify potentially important pharmacogenomic effects.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 5 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.4.
- COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Mar 5.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for nicotine addiction. This study examined the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on subjective, physiological and cognitive effects of intravenous (IV) nicotine use in African Americans (AAs; n=56) and European Americans (EAs; n=68) smokers. Overnight abstinent smokers received saline followed by 0.5 and 1.0 mg per 70 kg doses of nicotine, administered 30 min apart. Smokers with valine (Val)/Val genotype, compared with methionine (Met) carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking. Women with Val/Val genotype reported greater difficulty concentrating and irritability than men with Val/Val or Met carrier genotypes. The Val/Val genotype was associated with better performance on the math task and in AA smokers it was associated with greater systolic blood pressure. These results support the rationale of pharmacologically inhibiting COMT to aid with smoking cessation among Val/Val genotype smokers.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 5 March 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.1.
- Genome-wide association analyses suggest NELL1 influences adverse metabolic response to HCTZ in African Americans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Feb 12.
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is one of the most widely prescribed antihypertensive medications. Although it is well known that HCTZ is associated with hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, the mechanisms underlying these adverse effects are not well understood. We performed a genome-wide association study and meta-analysis of the change in fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides in response to HCTZ from two different clinical trials: the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses and the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensive studies. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs12279250 and rs4319515 (r(2)=0.73)), located at 11p15.1 in the NELL1 gene, achieved genome-wide significance for association with change in fasting plasma triglycerides in African Americans, whereby each variant allele was associated with a 28 mg dl(-1) increase in the change in triglycerides. NELL1 encodes a cytoplasmic protein that contains epidermal growth factor-like repeats and has been shown to represses adipogenic differentiation. These findings may represent a novel mechanism underlying HCTZ-induced adverse metabolic effects.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 12 February 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.3.
- CYP2C9 polymorphism analysis in Han Chinese populations: building the largest allele frequency database. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Feb 12.
Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of some drugs, which might result in adverse drug effects and therapeutic failure. Several studies have been performed on CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms in Han Chinese populations. However, these studies only focused on two commonly investigated alleles, *2 and *3, in relatively small sample sizes. To scale up the gene-scanning region and determine relatively precise data on the genetic distribution pattern in Chinese populations, unrelated healthy Han Chinese volunteers from Zhejiang Province (n=1127) and Hebei (n=1000) Province were recruited as subjects for the direct sequencing of all exons of CYP2C9. As a result, 14 previously reported alleles were detected in this work, and 8 of these alleles (*14, *16, *19, *23, *27, *29, *33 and *34) were described for the first time in Chinese populations. In addition, 37 novel mutations were also detected, of which 22 variants were non-synonymous, and 21 new alleles, *36-*56, were designated by the Human CYP Allele Nomenclature Committee. In vitro functional analysis of these 22 novel CYP2C9 variants revealed that 17 mutations had a significant influence on the protein's catalytic activity. Our study provides the most accurate data on CYP2C9 polymorphisms in Han Chinese populations and detects the largest number of novel allelic variants existing to date. These new alleles will greatly enrich the current knowledge of naturally occurring CYP2C9 variants in Chinese populations.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 12 February 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.2.
- Variation in the α 5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene predicts cigarette smoking intensity as a function of nicotine content. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Jan 29.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene, rs16969968, has been repeatedly associated with both smoking and respiratory health phenotypes. However, there remains considerable debate as to whether associations with lung cancer are mediated through effects on smoking behavior. Preclinical studies suggest that α5 receptor subunit expression and function may have a direct role in nicotine titration during self administration. The present study investigated the association of CHRNA5 polymorphisms and smoking topography in 66 smokers asked to smoke four nicotine-containing (nicotine yield=0.60 mg) and four placebo (nicotine yield <0.05 mg) cigarettes, during separate experimental sessions. Genotype at rs16969968 predicted nicotine titration, with homozygotes for the major allele (G:G) displaying significantly reduced puff volume in response to nicotine, whereas minor allele carriers (A:G or A:A) produced equivalent puff volumes for placebo and nicotine cigarettes. The present results suggest that puff volume may be a more powerful objective phenotype of smoking behavior than self-reported cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence. Further, these results suggest that the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer may be mediated by the quantity of smoke inhaled.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 29 January 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.50.
- Influence of admixture components on CYP2C9*2 allele frequency in eight indigenous populations from Northwest Mexico. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Jan 29.
We previously documented the lowest frequency of CYP2C9*2 in Mexican indigenous Tepehuanos followed by Mestizos and Mexican-Americans populations, suggesting a negative correlation between the CYP2C9*2 frequency and the degree of Asian ancestry in indigenous Americans. We determined the influence of ethnic admixture components on the CYP2C9 allele distribution in 505 Amerindian from eight indigenous populations through genotyping CYP2C9*2, *3 and *6 alleles by real-time PCR and molecular evaluation of ancestry. The frequencies for CYP2C9*2 were 0.026 in Seris and 0.057 in Mayos, being higher than in Asians (P<0.001). CYP2C9*3 was found in Tarahumaras (0.104), Mayos (0.091), Tepehuanos (0.075), Guarijíos (0.067), Huicholes (0.033) and Coras (0.037), with East Asians having lower frequencies than the former three groups (P<0.001). CYP2C9*6 was not found. The frequency of CYP2C9*2 was lower in Amerindians than in European populations, and higher than their Asian ancestors. The presence of this allele in ethnic groups in Mexico can be explained by European admixture.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 29 January 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.52.