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Theor Biol Med Model [journal]
- Application of genetic algorithms and constructive neural networks for the analysis of microarray cancer data. [Journal Article]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 May 7.:S7.
Extracting relevant information from microarray data is a very complex task due to the characteristics of the data sets, as they comprise a large number of features while few samples are generally available. In this sense, feature selection is a very important aspect of the analysis helping in the tasks of identifying relevant genes and also for maximizing predictive information.Due to its simplicity and speed, Stepwise Forward Selection (SFS) is a widely used feature selection technique. In this work, we carry a comparative study of SFS and Genetic Algorithms (GA) as general frameworks for the analysis of microarray data with the aim of identifying group of genes with high predictive capability and biological relevance. Six standard and machine learning-based techniques (Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), C-MANTEC Constructive Neural Network, K-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) and Multilayer perceptron (MLP)) are used within both frameworks using six free-public datasets for the task of predicting cancer outcome.Better cancer outcome prediction results were obtained using the GA framework noting that this approach, in comparison to the SFS one, leads to a larger selection set, uses a large number of comparison between genetic profiles and thus it is computationally more intensive. Also the GA framework permitted to obtain a set of genes that can be considered to be more biologically relevant. Regarding the different classifiers used standard feedforward neural networks (MLP), LDA and SVM lead to similar and best results, while C-MANTEC and k-NN followed closely but with a lower accuracy. Further, C-MANTEC, MLP and LDA permitted to obtain a more limited set of genes in comparison to SVM, NB and kNN, and in particular C-MANTEC resulted in the most robust classifier in terms of changes in the parameter settings.This study shows that if prediction accuracy is the objective, the GA-based approach lead to better results respect to the SFS approach, independently of the classifier used. Regarding classifiers, even if C-MANTEC did not achieve the best overall results, the performance was competitive with a very robust behaviour in terms of the parameters of the algorithm, and thus it can be considered as a candidate technique for future studies.
- Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction. [Journal Article]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 May 7.:S6.
Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal.Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72.Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results.
- Optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume in humans using the indocyanine green dilution method. [Journal Article]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014; 11(1):33.
The indocyanine green dilution method is one of the methods available to estimate plasma volume, although some researchers have questioned the accuracy of this method.We developed a new, physiologically based mathematical model of indocyanine green kinetics that more accurately represents indocyanine green kinetics during the first few minutes postinjection than what is assumed when using the traditional mono-exponential back-extrapolation method. The mathematical model is used to develop an optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume based on simulated indocyanine green kinetics obtained from the physiological model.Results from a clinical study using the indocyanine green dilution method in 36 subjects with type 2 diabetes indicate that the estimated plasma volumes are considerably lower when using the traditional back-extrapolation method than when using the proposed back-extrapolation method (mean (standard deviation) plasma volume = 26.8 (5.4) mL/kg for the traditional method vs 35.1 (7.0) mL/kg for the proposed method). The results obtained using the proposed method are more consistent with previously reported plasma volume values.Based on the more physiological representation of indocyanine green kinetics and greater consistency with previously reported plasma volume values, the new back-extrapolation method is proposed for use when estimating plasma volume using the indocyanine green dilution method.
- An integrated physiology model to study regional lung damage effects and the physiologic response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 Jul 21; 11(1):32.
This work expands upon a previously developed exercise dynamic physiology model (DPM) with the addition of an anatomic pulmonary system in order to quantify the impact of lung damage on oxygen transport and physical performance decrement.A pulmonary model is derived with an anatomic structure based on morphometric measurements, accounting for heterogeneous ventilation and perfusion observed experimentally. The model is incorporated into an existing exercise physiology model; the combined system is validated using human exercise data. Pulmonary damage from blast, blunt trauma, and chemical injury is quantified in the model based on lung fluid infiltration (edema) which reduces oxygen delivery to the blood. The pulmonary damage component is derived and calibrated based on published animal experiments; scaling laws are used to predict the human response to lung injury in terms of physical performance decrement.The augmented dynamic physiology model (DPM) accurately predicted the human response to hypoxia, altitude, and exercise observed experimentally. The pulmonary damage parameters (shunt and diffusing capacity reduction) were fit to experimental animal data obtained in blast, blunt trauma, and chemical damage studies which link lung damage to lung weight change; the model is able to predict the reduced oxygen delivery in damage conditions. The model accurately estimates physical performance reduction with pulmonary damage.We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model to predict performance decrement endpoints in the presence of thoracic damage; simulations can be extended to estimate human performance and escape in extreme situations.
- Quantitative indices of autophagy activity from minimal models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 Jul 6; 11(1):31.
A number of cellular- and molecular-level studies of autophagy assessment have been carried out with the help of various biochemical and morphological indices. Still there exists ambiguity for the assessment of the autophagy status and of the causal relationship between autophagy and related cellular changes. To circumvent such difficulties, we probe new quantitative indices of autophagy which are important for defining autophagy activation and further assessing its roles associated with different physiopathological states.Our approach is based on the minimal autophagy model that allows us to understand underlying dynamics of autophagy from biological experiments. Specifically, based on the model, we reconstruct the experimental context-specific autophagy profiles from the target autophagy system, and two quantitative indices are defined from the model-driven profiles. The indices are then applied to the simulation-based analysis, for the specific and quantitative interpretation of the system.Two quantitative indices measuring autophagy activities in the induction of sequestration fluxes and in the selective degradation are proposed, based on the model-driven autophagy profiles such as the time evolution of autophagy fluxes, levels of autophagosomes/autolysosomes, and corresponding cellular changes. Further, with the help of the indices, those biological experiments of the target autophagy system have been successfully analyzed, implying that the indices are useful not only for defining autophagy activation but also for assessing its role in a specific and quantitative manner.Such quantitative autophagy indices in conjunction with the computer-aided analysis should provide new opportunities to characterize the causal relationship between autophagy activity and the corresponding cellular change, based on the system-level understanding of the autophagic process at good time resolution, complementing the current in vivo and in vitro assays.
- Comparative analysis of human and mouse immunoglobulin variable heavy regions from IMGT/LIGM-DB with IMGT/HighV-QUEST. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014.:30.
Immunoglobulin (IG) complementarity determining region (CDR) includes VH CDR1, VH CDR2, VH CDR3, VL CDR1, VL CDR2 and VL CDR3. Of these, VH CDR3 plays a dominant role in recognizing and binding antigens. Three major mechanisms are involved in the formation of the VH repertoire: germline gene rearrangement, junctional diversity and somatic hypermutation. Features of the generation mechanisms of VH repertoire in humans and mice share similarities while VH CDR3 amino acid (AA) composition differs. Previous studies have mainly focused on germline gene rearrangement and the composition and structure of the CDR3 AA in humans and mice. However the number of AA changes due to somatic hypermutation and analysis of the junctional mechanism have been ignored.Here we analyzed 9,340 human and 6,657 murine unique productive sequences of immunoglobulin (IG) variable heavy (VH) domains derived from IMGT/LIGM-DB database to understand how VH CDR3 AA compositions significantly differed between human and mouse. These sequences were identified and analyzed by IMGT/HighV-QUEST (http://www.imgt.org), including gene usage, number of AA changes due to somatic hypermutation, AA length distribution of VH CDR3, AA composition, and junctional diversity.Analyses of human and murine IG repertoires showed significant differences. A higher number of AA changes due to somatic hypermutation and more abundant N-region addition were found in human compared to mouse, which might be an important factor leading to differences in VH CDR3 amino acid composition.These findings are a benchmark for understanding VH repertoires and can be used to characterize the VH repertoire during immune responses. The study will allow standardized comparison for high throughput results obtained by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the reference portal for NGS repertoire.
- A model of immunohistochemical differences between invasive breast cancers and DCIS lesions tested on a consecutive case series of 1248 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 Jun 11; 11(1):29.
A previous theoretic model (Tumour Biol 2013;34:1-7.) that breast tumor types differ in the relative rate of tissue invasion was elaborated and developed on a consecutive case series.Histologic data of 68 ductal breast cancer in situ (DCIS) and 1180 invasive ductal cancer (IDC) patients were collected and analyzed.ER+PgR- phenotype was more common in Luminal B2 than among the pooled Luminal A&B1 (p = 0.0002), and more frequent in Luminal B1 than in Luminal A (p = 0.0167). The same phenotype was associated with the age older than 54 years in Luminal B1 and in B2 patients. HER2 type cancers were more frequent in older patients (p = 0.0038).Tumor progression from DCIS to IDC was found 39% faster than the average in Luminal B1 tumors, supporting the clinical importance of this tumor type. A rare combination of low Ki-67 in HER2 type cancers (only 14% of HER2 type cancers) showed very slow transition to IDC (occurring at only 53.55% of average progression rate), while triple-negative cancers progressed faster than the average, despite Ki-67 value (104.63% for low and 114.27% for high Ki-67 tumors).In three tumor types with positive steroid receptors the ER+PgR- phenotype showed slower IDC transition than the ER+PgR+ phenotype of the same tumor type (difference in progression rate was 38% for Luminal A, 46% for Luminal B1 and 67% for Luminal B2 with Ki67 > 14%).Triple-negative tumors in younger patients exceeded the expected average progression rate by 24%, while in HER2 type tumors, the rate of tissue invasion was in younger patients 20% lower than the expected value.The relative rate of tissue invasion differed substantialy among our patients. Differences depended on tumor types, steroid expression phenotypes and age. The dysfunctional ERs in the ER+PgR- phenotype showed slower rates of tissue invasion, suggesting that ligand binding to functional breast tumor ERs, beside promoting the PgR expression, possibly also promotes tumor transition to the invasive phase.In triple-negative tumors, an age dependent premenopausal mechanism possibly acted as an accelerator of tissue invasion, while faster tissue invasion by HER2-overexpressed tumors in older patients possibly depended on an unidentified mechanism that takes more time to be acquired, so it was less present in premenopausal patients.
- A new flexible plug and play scheme for modeling, simulating, and predicting gastric emptying. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 Jun 10; 11(1):28.
In-silico models that attempt to capture and describe the physiological behavior of biological organisms, including humans, are intrinsically complex and time consuming to build and simulate in a computing environment. The level of detail of description incorporated in the model depends on the knowledge of the system's behavior at that level. This knowledge is gathered from the literature and/or improved by knowledge obtained from new experiments. Thus model development is an iterative developmental procedure. The objective of this paper is to describe a new plug and play scheme that offers increased flexibility and ease-of-use for modeling and simulating physiological behavior of biological organisms.This scheme requires the modeler (user) first to supply the structure of the interacting components and experimental data in a tabular format. The behavior of the components described in a mathematical form, also provided by the modeler, is externally linked during simulation. The advantage of the plug and play scheme for modeling is that it requires less programming effort and can be quickly adapted to newer modeling requirements while also paving the way for dynamic model building.As an illustration, the paper models the dynamics of gastric emptying behavior experienced by humans. The flexibility to adapt the model to predict the gastric emptying behavior under varying types of nutrient infusion in the intestine (ileum) is demonstrated. The predictions were verified with a human intervention study. The error in predicting the half emptying time was found to be less than 6%.A new plug-and-play scheme for biological systems modeling was developed that allows changes to the modeled structure and behavior with reduced programming effort, by abstracting the biological system into a network of smaller sub-systems with independent behavior. In the new scheme, the modeling and simulation becomes an automatic machine readable and executable task.
- Herpes B virus gD interaction with its human receptor - an in silico analysis approach. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 Jun 6; 11(1):27.
The glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for Herpes B virus (BV) entry into mammalian cells. Nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, is found to be the receptor which mediated BV induced cell-cell fusion, while HVEM does not mediate fusion by BV glycoprotein. However, the specific sequence and structural requirements of the BV gD for the recognition of and binding to Nectin-1 are unknown. Moreover, the 3D structures of BV gD and the BV gD-receptor complex have not been determined. In this study, we propose a reliable model of the interaction of the BV gD with receptor using bioinformatics tools.The three-dimensional structures of two BV gD-receptor complexes were constructed using homology modelling and docking strategy. Based on the models of these complexes, the BV gD receptor interaction patterns were calculated. The results showed that the interface between the BV gD and nectin-1 molecule is not geometrically complementary. The computed molecular interactions indicated that two terminal extensions were the main region of BV gD that binds to nectin-1 and that hydrophobic contacts between the two molecules play key roles in their recognition and binding. The constructed BV gD-HVEM complex model showed that this complex had a lower shape complementarity value and a smaller interface area compared with the HSV-1 gD-HVEM complex, and the number of intermolecular interactions between BV gD-HVEM were fewer than that of HSV-1 gD-HVEM complex. These results could explain why HVEM does not function as a receptor for BV gD.In this study, we present structural model for the BV gD in a complex with its receptor. Some features predicted by this model can explain previously reported experimental data. This complex model may lead to a better understanding of the function of BV gD and its interaction with receptor and will improve our understanding of the activation of the BV fusion and entry process.
- On the origins of the mitotic shift in proliferating cell layers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theor Biol Med Model 2014 May 27; 11(1):26.
During plant and animal development, monolayer cell sheets display a stereotyped distribution of polygonal cell shapes. In interphase cells these shapes range from quadrilaterals to decagons, with a robust average of six sides per cell. In contrast, the subset of cells in mitosis exhibits a distinct distribution with an average of seven sides. It remains unclear whether this 'mitotic shift' reflects a causal relationship between increased polygonal sidedness and increased division likelihood, or alternatively, a passive effect of local proliferation on cell shape.We use a combination of probabilistic analysis and mathematical modeling to predict the geometry of mitotic polygonal cells in a proliferating cell layer. To test these predictions experimentally, we use Flp-Out stochastic labeling in the Drosophila wing disc to induce single cell clones, and confocal imaging to quantify the polygonal topologies of these clones as a function of cellular age. For a more generic test in an idealized cell layer, we model epithelial sheet proliferation in a finite element framework, which yields a computationally robust, emergent prediction of the mitotic cell shape distribution.Using both mathematical and experimental approaches, we show that the mitotic shift derives primarily from passive, non-autonomous effects of mitoses in neighboring cells on each cell's geometry over the course of the cell cycle. Computationally, we predict that interphase cells should passively gain sides over time, such that cells at more advanced stages of the cell cycle will tend to have a larger number of neighbors than those at earlier stages. Validating this prediction, experimental analysis of randomly labeled epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing disc demonstrates that labeled cells exhibit an age-dependent increase in polygonal sidedness. Reinforcing these data, finite element simulations of epithelial sheet proliferation demonstrate in a generic framework that passive side-gaining is sufficient to generate a mitotic shift.Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the mitotic shift reflects a time-dependent accumulation of shared cellular interfaces over the course of the cell cycle. These results uncover fundamental constraints on the relationship between cell shape and cell division that should be general in adherent, polarized cell layers.