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- Daily physical activity in subjects with newly diagnosed COPD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 20.
RATIONALE:Information about daily physical activity levels (PAL) in subjects with undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. This study aims to assess PA and to investigate the associations between PA and clinical characteristics in subjects with newly diagnosed COPD.
METHODS:Fifty-nine subjects with a new spirometry-based diagnosis of mild (n=38) and moderate (n=21) COPD (63±6 years, 68% male) were matched with 65 smoking controls (62±7 years, 75% male). PA (daily steps, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activities (MVPA) and PAL) was measured by accelerometry. Dyspnoea, complete pulmonary function tests, peripheral muscle strength and exercise capacity served as clinical characteristics.
RESULTS:PA was significantly lower in COPD versus smoking controls (7986±2648 vs 9765±3078 steps, 64 (27-120) vs 110 (55-164) min of MVPA, 1.49±0.21 vs 1.62±0.24 PAL respectively, all p<0.05). Subjects with COPD with either mild symptoms of dyspnoea (mMRC 1), those with lower diffusion capacity (TL,co), low 6 min walking distance (6MWD) or low maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) had significantly lower PA. Multiple regression analysis identified 6 MWD and TL,co as independent predictors of PA in COPD.
CONCLUSIONS:The reduction in PA starts early in the disease, even when subjects are not yet diagnosed with COPD. Inactivity is more pronounced in subjects with mild symptoms of dyspnoea, lower levels of diffusion capacity and exercise capacity.
- Provision of home mechanical ventilation and sleep services for England survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 20.
The Department of Health is promoting the generation of specialist networks to manage long term ventilatory weaning and domiciliary non-invasive ventilation patients. Currently the availability of these services in England is not known. We performed a short survey to establish the prevalence of sleep and ventilation diagnostic and treatment services. The survey focussed on diagnostic services and Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) provision, and was divided into (a) availability of diagnostics, (b) funding, and (c) patient groups. This survey has confirmed that the majority of Home Mechanical Ventilation set-ups are currently for Obesity Related Respiratory Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We have found that there is variable provision of diagnostic services, with the majority of units offering overnight oximetry (95%) but only 55% of responders providing a home mechanical ventilation service. Even more interestingly, less than two thirds of units charged their primary care trust for this service. These data may assist in the development of regional networks and specialist home mechanical ventilation centres.
- Effect of preterm birth on later FEV1: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 20.
BACKGROUND:Increasing evidence suggests that preterm birth affects later lung function. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1) is lower in later life in preterm-born subjects, with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), compared with term-born controls.
METHODS:Studies reporting %FEV1, with or without a term-born control group, in later life for preterm-born subjects (<37 weeks gestation) were extracted from eight databases. Data were analysed using Review Manager and STATA. The quality of the studies was assessed.
RESULTS:From 8839 titles, 1124 full articles were screened and 59 were included: 28 studied preterm-born children without BPD, 24 with BPD28 (supplemental oxygen dependency at 28 days), 15 with BPD36 (supplemental oxygen dependency 36 weeks postmenstrual age) and 34 born preterm. For the preterm-born group without BPD and for the BPD28 and BPD36 groups the mean differences (and 95% CIs) for %FEV1 compared with term-born controls were -7.2% (-8.7% to -5.6%), -16.2% (-19.9% to -12.4%) and -18.9% (-21.1% to -16.7%), respectively. Pooling all data on preterm-born subjects whether or not there was a control group gave a pooled %FEV1 estimate of 91.0% (88.8% to 93.1%) for the preterm-born cohort without BPD, 83.7% (80.2% to 87.2%) for BPD28 and 79.1% (76.9% to 81.3%) for BPD36. Interestingly, %FEV1 for BPD28 has improved over the years.
CONCLUSIONS:%FEV1 is decreased in preterm-born survivors, even those who do not develop BPD. %FEV1 of survivors of BPD28 has improved over recent years. Long-term respiratory follow-up of preterm-born survivors is required as they may be at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- On the role of abnormal DLCO in ex-smokers without airflow limitation: symptoms, exercise capacity and hyperpolarised helium-3 MRI. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 19.
BACKGROUND:The functional effects of abnormal diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in ex-smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not well understood.
OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate and compare well established clinical, physiological and emerging imaging measurements in ex-smokers with normal spirometry and abnormal DLCO with a group of ex-smokers with normal spirometry and DLCO and ex-smokers with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I COPD.
METHODS:We enrolled 38 ex-smokers and 15 subjects with stage I COPD who underwent spirometry, plethysmography, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 6 min Walk Test (6MWT), x-ray CT and hyperpolarised helium-3 ((3)He) MRI. The 6MWT distance (6MWD), SGRQ scores, (3)He MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT attenuation values below -950 HU (RA950) were evaluated.
RESULTS:Of 38 ex-smokers without COPD, 19 subjects had abnormal DLCO with significantly worse ADC (p=0.01), 6MWD (p=0.008) and SGRQ (p=0.01) but not RA950 (p=0.53) compared with 19 ex-smokers with normal DLCO. Stage I COPD subjects showed significantly worse ADC (p=0.02), RA950 (p=0.0008) and 6MWD (p=0.005), but not SGRQ (p=0.59) compared with subjects with abnormal DLCO. There was a significant correlation for (3)He ADC with SGRQ (r=0.34, p=0.02) and 6MWD (r=-0.51, p=0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS:In ex-smokers with normal spirometry and CT but abnormal DLCO, there were significantly worse symptoms, 6MWD and (3)He ADC compared with ex-smokers with normal DLCO, providing evidence of the impact of mild or early stage emphysema and a better understanding of abnormal DLCO and hyperpolarised (3)He MRI in ex-smokers without COPD.
- IL-17 in lung disease: friend or foe? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 19.
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a key proinflammatory cytokine in the T helper 17 pathway. While it is important in the clearance of certain pathogens, IL-17 has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. In the lung, it has been postulated to be involved in the neutrophilic inflammation and airway remodelling of chronic respiratory conditions but the situation is increasingly complex. This review summarises the evidence for its role in several chronic inflammatory lung diseases: asthma, obliterative bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis and cystic fibrosis.
- Tuberculosis during TNF-α inhibitor therapy, despite screening. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 18.
As part of a prospective study on the safety of TNF-α inhibitor therapy after screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), we report two patients who developed active tuberculosis (TB) infection during TNF-α inhibitor therapy, despite negative screening for LTBI. The clinical history is suggestive of a primary infection acquired during travelling to TB-endemic countries. In this lesson of the month we would like to highlight the risk of travelling to TB-endemic areas in patients treated with TNF-α inhibitor therapy.Screening for latent tuberculosis infection is not enough to prevent tuberculosis in patients treated with TNF-α inhibitor therapy.
- Short-term impact of the smokefree legislation in England on emergency hospital admissions for asthma among adults: a population-based study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2013 Apr 15.
BACKGROUND:Comprehensive smokefree laws have now been introduced in several jurisdictions. Few studies have examined the association between smokefree laws and asthma in adults and these have limitations, such as lacking appropriate adjustment for long-term trends or having limited statistical power due to small study populations. This study addresses these limitations and evaluates the short-term impact of smokefree legislation in England. It aims to investigate whether the introduction of smokefree legislation on 1 July 2007 was associated with an immediate reduction in emergency hospital admissions for asthma in the adult population, and whether any association differs across regions.
METHODS:We identified monthly numbers of emergency admissions for asthma (primary diagnosis, 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases code J45 and J46) in the nine Government Office Regions from April 1997 to December 2010 in the population aged 16 and over. A generalised additive model was fitted that adjusted for seasonality, variation in population size and region-specific, non-linear, long-term trends.
RESULTS:Smokefree legislation was associated with an immediate 4.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 9.0%) reduction in emergency admissions for asthma in the adult population. This implies that approximately 1900 emergency admissions for asthma were prevented in each of the first 3 years after legislation was introduced. The reduction in admissions did not vary significantly across regions.
CONCLUSIONS:Our findings add to the expanding body of evidence that smokefree policies are associated with positive health outcomes. Further research evaluating the impact of legislation in other jurisdictions is needed to support these findings.
- President elect kidnapped. Tsar very much. [Journal Article]
- Thorax 2013 May; 68(5):409.
- High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and acute respiratory distress syndrome: at the crossroads? [Journal Article]
- Thorax 2013 May; 68(5):406-8.