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Toxicol In Vitro [journal]
- Human T47D breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ERβ expression reflect ERα/ERβ ratios in rat and human breast tissue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 13.
T47D-ERβ breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ERβ expression and constant ERα expression can be used to investigate effects of varying ERα/ERβ ratios on estrogen-induced cellular responses. This study defines conditions at which ERα/ERβ ratios in T47D-ERβ cells best mimic ERα/ERβ ratios in breast and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in vivo in rat as well as in human. Protein and mRNA levels of ERα and ERβ were analyzed in T47D-ERβ cells exposed to a range of tetracycline concentrations and compared to ERα and ERβ levels found in breast, prostate, and uterus from rat and human origin. The ERα/ERβ ratio in T47D-ERβ cells exposed to >150 ng/ml tetracycline is comparable to the ratio found in rat mammary gland and in human breast tissue. The ERα/ERβ ratio of other estrogen-sensitive rat and human tissue can also be mimicked in T47D-ERβ cells. ERα/ERβ ratio found in MCF-7 and native T47D breast cancer cell lines did not reflect ratios in analyzed rat and human tissues, which further supports the use of T47D- ERβ cells as model for estrogen-responsive tissues. Using 17β-estradiol and the T47D-ERβ cells under the conditions defined to mimic various tissues it could be demonstrated how these different tissues vary in their proliferative response.
- The role of SIRT1/AKT/ERK pathway in ultraviolet B induced damage on human retinal pigment epithelial cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 11.
Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage plays a major role in ocular diseases, such as cataracts and retinal degeneration. UVB may also cause retinal phototoxicity and photic retinopathy. In this study, we explored the effects of UVB on the cell cycle and the role of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) in the UVB-induced damage. UVB dose-dependently suppressed the growth of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and triggering cell cycle arrest at the S phase. SIRT1, an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, is involved in multiple biological processes, such as the stress response and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, its role in the effects of UVB on RPE cells is unclear. We showed that UVB down-regulates SIRT1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol, an SIRT1 activator, prevented the UVB-induced damage by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation. A specific PI3K inhibitor attenuated the UVB-induced ERK1/2 and p53 phosphorylation. Finally, UVB activated the PI3K/AKT/ERK pathway by reducing the expression of SIRT1 in ARPE-19 cells. Our study, therefore, illustrated the molecular mechanisms of UVB-induced phototoxicity and damage of RPE cells. SIRT1 and resveratrol may be significant regulators, protecting against UVB-induced injury.
- Effect of honokiol on erythrocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 11.
Honokiol ((3,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-2,2-diol), a component of Magnolia officinalis, stimulates apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignacy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and by breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered following increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). The present study explored, whether honokiol elicits eryptosis. Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. As a result, a 48 h exposure to honokiol was followed by a slight but significant increase of [Ca(2+)]i (15 μM), significant decrease of forward scatter (5 μM), significant increase of annexin-V-binding (5 μM) and significant increase of ceramide formation (15 μM). Honokiol further induced slight, but significant hemolysis. Honokiol (15 μM) induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, honokiol triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation.
- Metabolic characterization of cell systems used in in vitro toxicology testing: Lung cell system BEAS-2B as a working example. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 10.
The bioactivation of pro-toxicants is the biological process through which some chemicals are metabolized into reactive metabolites. Therefore, in vitro toxicological evaluation should ideally be conducted in cell systems retaining adequate metabolic competency and relevant to the route of exposure. The respiratory tract is the primary route of exposure to inhaled pro-toxicants and lung-derived BEAS-2B cell line has been considered as a potentially suitable model for in vitro toxicology testing. However, its metabolic activity has not been characterized. We performed a gene expression analysis for 41 metabolism-related genes and compared the profile with liver- and lung-derived cell lines (HepaRG, HepG2 and A549). To confirm that mRNA expression was associated with the corresponding enzyme activity, we used a series of metabolic substrates of CYPs (CYP1A1/1B1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6/2A13 and CYP2E1) known to bioactivate inhaled pro-toxicants. CYP activities were compared between BEAS-2B, HepaRG, HepG2, and A549 cells and published literature on primary bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC). We found that in contrast to HBEC, BEAS-2B and A549 have limited CYP activity which was in agreement with their CYP gene expression profile. Control cell lines such as HepG2 and HepaRG were metabolically active for the tested CYPs. We recommend that similar strategies can be used to select suitable cell systems in the context of pro-toxicant assessment.
- Alterations in acetylcholine, PGE2 and IL6 release from urothelial cells following treatment with pyocyanin and lipopolysaccharide. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 8.
The effects of pseudomonal virulence factor pyocyanin, and LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on urothelial mediator release and cytokine production were examined. RT4 urothelial cells were treated with pyocyanin (1-100μM) or LPS (1-100ng/mL) for 24-hours. Effects were measured in terms of changes in cell viability, basal and stretch-induced acetylcholine (Ach) and PGE2 release, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12) production. Twenty-four hour pyocyanin (100μM) treatment significantly decreased urothelial cell viability, while stretch-induced Ach release response was inhibited. E.coli LPS (100ng/mL) produced a similar response with an additional significant increase in basal Ach release. All three virulence factors significantly increased urothelial PGE2 release; under basal release for pyocyanin (100μM), stretch-induced release for pseudomonal LPS (⩾ 10ng/mL) and both basal and stimulated release for E. coli LPS (⩾ 10ng/mL). IL-6 and IL-12 were not detected in control samples, however 24 hour treatment with pyocyanin (100 μM) or LPS (100ng/mL) resulted in IL-6 release from urothelial cells. The changes in urothelial Ach and PGE2, and release of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 induced by exposure to the bacterial virulence factors may play a role in the symptoms of pain and urinary urgency experienced with urinary tract infections.
- Hydrogen peroxide-induced necrotic cell death in cardiomyocytes is independent of matrix metalloproteinase-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 7.
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is well known to proteolyse both extracellular and intracellular proteins. Reactive oxygen species activate MMP-2 at both transcriptional and post-translational levels, thus MMP-2 activation is considered an early event in oxidative stress injury. Although hydrogen peroxide is widely used to trigger oxidative stress-induced cell death, the type of cell death (apoptosis vs. necrosis) in cardiomyocytes is still controversial depending on the concentration used and the exposure time. Here, we carefully investigated the mode of cell death in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced by different concentrations (50-500μM) of hydrogen peroxide at various time intervals after the exposure and determined whether MMP-2 is implicated in hydrogen peroxide-induced cardiomyocyte death. Treating cardiomyocytes with hydrogen peroxide led to elevated MMP-2 level/activity with maximal effects seen when using 200μM. Hydrogen peroxide caused necrotic cell death by disrupting the plasmalemma as evidenced by the release of lactate dehydrogenase in a concentration- and time-dependant manner as well as the necrotic cleavage of PARP-1. The absence of both caspase-3 cleavage/activation and apoptotic cleavage of PARP-1 illustrated the weak contribution of apoptosis. Pre-treatment with selective MMP inhibitors did not protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced necrosis. In conclusion hydrogen peroxide increases MMP-2 level/activity in cardiomyocytes and induces necrotic cell death, however, the later effect is MMP-2 independent.
- Culture medium type affects endocytosis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B cells and subsequent biological response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 May 3.
We examined the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the resulting cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in two types of culture media (Ham's F12 containing 10% FBS [Ham's F12] and serum-free growth medium [SFGM]). Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed by fluorescent microscopy and analyzed using flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated whether MWCNT uptake was suppressed by 2 types of endocytosis inhibitors. We found that BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM showed similar biological responses, but BEAS-2B cells cultured in SFGM did not internalize MWCNTs, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value, i.e., the cytotoxicity, was increased by more than 10-fold. MWCNT uptake was suppressed by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor and a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor in BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM. In conclusion, we suggest that BEAS-2B cells cultured in a medium containing serum should be used for the safety evaluation of nanomaterials as a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, the culture medium composition may affect the proteins that are expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane, which may influence the biological response to MWCNTs.
- Melamine activates NFκB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway and increases NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages and human embryonic kidney cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 Apr 30.
Melamine is a wildly used compound in manufactures of plastics and resins. A variety of toxic effects from melamine, including nephrolithiasis, chronic kidney inflammation, and bladder carcinoma, have been mentioned. Oxidative stress is considered to be an important pathogenic mechanism of kidney disease which may develop from an increasing free radical production through inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate melamine-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 and human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. Results indicated melamine activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB through increasing IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65/p50 DNA-binding activity. In addition, melamine significantly increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Moreover, melamine activated NADPH oxidase (NOX), including NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, accompanied with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, melamine-induced ROS production could be attenuated by apocynin, a NOX inhibitor. In conclusion, our findings suggest melamine increased inflammation and oxidative stress via activation of NF-κB/COX-2 and NOX/ROS pathway, and first revealed the critical role of NOX in melamine-induced ROS production, suggesting the potential of NOX inhibitor against melamine toxicity.
- Cytotoxic effects of amphetamine mixtures in primary hepatocytes are severely aggravated under hyperthermic conditions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 Apr 28.
Amphetamine consumers are often, deliberately or not, polydrug abusers. Predicting combination effects based on concentration-response analysis of individual components is a valid strategy for accurate toxicological assessment of mixtures. We previously reported that joint effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and three other often co-ingested amphetamines (methamphetamine, 4-methylthyoamphetamine and D-amphetamine) could be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model in HepG2 cells. We sought to further evaluate the relevance of these findings by extending these studies to a cell model that more closely mimics the in vivo situation. Detailed cytotoxic information of the four individual amphetamines on primary rat hepatocytes was recorded by the MTT assay, at 37°C and 40.5°C, simulating the rise in body temperature that could be induced following amphetamine intake. Mixture expectations were calculated using CA and independent action (IA) models. At 37°C, concentration-dependent cytotoxicity occurred for the drugs individually and combined. Mixture effects were accurately predicted by the CA model, while the IA model underestimated cytotoxicity. At 40.5°C these cytotoxic effects were aggravated. Our findings provide evidence of the increased risks associated with the abuse of amphetamine mixtures, especially during hyperthermia, emphasising the need to increase awareness of misinformed users who believe these drugs are safe.
- In vitro assessment of cobalt oxide particle toxicity: Identifying and circumventing interference. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol In Vitro 2013 Apr 26.
The continuing development of nanotechnology necessitates the reliable assessment of potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposures. The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials can be responsible for unexpected interactions with components of classical toxicity assays, which may generate erroneous interpretations. In this paper, we describe how particle interference can be observed in in vitro toxicity tests (CellTiter Blue, CyQUANT, WST-1 and CellTiter-Glo assay) and in cell biology tests using flow cytometry (cell cycle analysis). We used cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles as an example, but these assays can be performed, in principle, regardless of the nanoparticle considered. We have shown that cobalt particles interfere with most of these tests. We adapted the protocol of the CellTiter-Glo assay to circumvent this interference and demonstrated that, using this protocol, the toxicity level is consistent with results obtained using the clonogenic assay, which is considered to be the reference test. Before assessing particle toxicity using in vitro toxicity tests, interference testing should be performed to avoid false interpretations. Furthermore, in some cases of interference, protocol adaptation can be considered to allow the reliable use of these quick and convenient in vitro tests.