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Vet Anaesth Analg [journal]
- Abstracts. [Journal Article]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar; 41(2):A25-39.
- Perianesthetic morbidity and mortality in dogs undergoing cervical and thoracolumbar spinal surgery. [Journal Article]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar; 41(2):137-44.
To evaluate and compare perioperative morbidity and mortality in dogs undergoing cervical and thoracolumbar spinal surgery.Prospective case series.157 dogs undergoing cervical or thoracolumbar spinal surgery.Data were collected sequentially on canine cases presented from the Neurology Section of the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for anesthesia and surgery for cervical spinal cord disease. Simultaneously, data were collected on all thoracolumbar spinal surgery cases during the same time period. Data included signalment, drugs administered, surgical approach, disease process, cardiac arrhythmias during anesthesia, and outcome.Data were collected from 164 surgical events in 157 dogs. There were 52 cervical approaches; four dorsal and 48 ventral. All thoracolumbar surgeries were approached dorsolaterally. Four dogs 4/52 (7.6%) undergoing a cervical approach did not survive to discharge. Two dogs (2/8; 25%) underwent atlanto-axial (AA) stabilization and suffered cardiovascular arrest and two dogs (2/38; 5.2%) undergoing cervical ventral slot procedures were euthanized following anesthesia and surgery due to signs of aspiration pneumonia. All dogs undergoing thoracolumbar surgery survived until discharge (112/112). Mortality in dogs undergoing cervical spinal surgery was greater compared with dogs undergoing thoracolumbar spinal surgery (p = 0.009), however, in dogs undergoing decompressive disc surgery, intraoperative death rates were not different between dogs undergoing a cervical compared with thoracolumbar approaches (p = 0.32) nor was there a significant difference in overall mortality (p = 0.07).Overall, dogs undergoing cervical spinal surgery were less likely to survive until discharge compared with dogs undergoing thoracolumbar spinal surgery. Mortality in dogs undergoing cervical intervertebral disc decompression surgery was no different than for dogs undergoing thoracolumbar intervertebral disc decompression surgery. However, dogs undergoing cervical intervertebral disc decompression surgery should be considered at risk for aspiration pneumonia.
- Prevalence and risk factors for canine post-anesthetic aspiration pneumonia (1999-2009): a multicenter study. [Journal Article]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar; 41(2):127-36.
To determine the incidence of canine post-anesthetic aspiration pneumonia (AP) and to identify anesthetic agents, procedures and management factors associated with the development of AP.Multicenter, randomized, case-controlled retrospective study.Two hundred and forty dogs affected with AP and 488 unaffected control dogs.Electronic medical record databases at six Veterinary colleges were searched for dogs, coded for anesthesia or sedation and pneumonia from January 1999 to December 2009. The resultant 2158 records were hand-searched to determine eligibility for inclusion. Diagnosis of AP was made radiographically. Two unaffected control dogs were randomly selected for each affected dog, from a list of dogs that underwent sedation or anesthesia in the same time period and did not develop aspiration pneumonia. Fifty-seven factors were then evaluated for association with aspiration pneumonia. Data analysis was performed using univariate Chi-square or student t-tests, then multivariate logistic regression.Incidence of post-anesthetic AP was 0.17%, from 140,711 cases anesthetized or sedated over the 10 year period. Two anesthesia-related events were significantly associated with development of AP: regurgitation and administration of hydromorphone at induction. Administration of anticholinergics was not associated with AP. Procedures associated with increased odds of aspiration pneumonia included laparotomy, upper airway surgery, neurosurgery, thoracotomy and endoscopy. Orthopedic surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, dental procedures, MRI, CT, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, tracheoscopy and neutering were not associated with development of AP. Three patient factors were associated with the development of AP: megaesophagus, and a history of pre-existing respiratory or neurologic disease. Sixty-nine% of dogs with two or more of the above independent predictive variables developed AP.Most anesthetic agents and procedures were not associated with the development of AP. We need to devise and evaluate strategies to protect at risk patients.
- The immune response to anesthesia: Part 1. [Journal Article]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar; 41(2):113-26.
To review the immune response to anesthesia including mechanical ventilation, inhaled anesthetic gases, and injectable anesthetics and sedatives.Review.Multiple literature searches were performed using PubMed and Google Scholar from spring 2012 through fall 2013. Relevant anesthetic and immune terms were used to search databases without year published or species constraints. The online database for Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia and the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care were searched by issue starting in 2000 for relevant articles.Recent research data indicate that commonly used volatile anesthetic agents, such as isoflurane and sevoflurane, may have a protective effect on vital organs. With the lung as the target organ, protection using an appropriate anesthetic protocol may be possible during direct pulmonary insults, including mechanical ventilation, and during systemic disease processes, such as endotoxemia, generalized sepsis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
- Pre-emptive or preventive analgesia - lessons from the human literature? [Editorial]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar; 41(2):109-12.
- Characterisation of tramadol, morphine and tapentadol in an acute pain model in Beagle dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Feb 27.
To evaluate the analgesic potential of the centrally acting analgesics tramadol, morphine and the novel analgesic tapentadol in a pre-clinical research model of acute nociceptive pain, the tail-flick model in dogs.Prospective part-randomized pre-clinical research trial.Fifteen male Beagle dogs (HsdCpb:DOBE), aged 12-15 months.On different occasions separated by at least 1 week, dogs received intravenous (IV) administrations of tramadol (6.81, 10.0 mg kg(-1) ), tapentadol (2.15, 4.64, 6.81 mg kg(-1) ) or morphine (0.464, 0.681, 1.0 mg kg(-1) ) with subsequent measurement of tail withdrawal latencies from a thermal stimulus (for each treatment n = 5). Blood samples were collected immediately after the pharmacodynamic measurements of tramadol to determine pharmacokinetics and the active metabolite O-demethyltramadol (M1).Tapentadol and morphine induced dose-dependent antinociception with ED50-values of 4.3 mg kg(-1) and 0.71 mg kg(-1) , respectively. In contrast, tramadol did not induce antinociception at any dose tested. Measurements of the serum levels of tramadol and the M1 metabolite revealed only marginal amounts of the M1 metabolite, which explains the absence of the antinociptive effect of tramadol in this experimental pain model in dogs.Different breeds of dogs might not or only poorly respond to treatment with tramadol due to low metabolism of the drug. Tapentadol and morphine which act directly on μ-opioid receptors without the need for metabolic activation are demonstrated to induce potent antinociception in the experimental model used and should also provide a reliable pain management in the clinical situation. The non-opioid mechanisms of tramadol do not provide antinociception in this experimental setting. This contrasts to many clinical situations described in the literature, where tramadol appears to provide useful analgesia in dogs for post-operative pain relief and in more chronically pain states.
- Hyoscine-N-butylbromide premedication on cardiovascular variables of horses sedated with medetomidine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Feb 27.
To evaluate the effects of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) hyoscine premedication on physiologic variables following IV administration of medetomidine in horses.Randomized, crossover experimental study.Eight healthy crossbred horses weighing 330 ± 39 kg and aged 7 ± 4 years.Baseline measurements of heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), respiratory rate, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), percentage of patients with second degree atrioventricular (2(o) AV) block, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pH, and arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) and oxygen (PaO2 ) were obtained 5 minutes before administration of IV hyoscine (0.14 mg kg(-1) ; group HIV), IM hyoscine (0.3 mg kg(-1) ; group HIM), or an equal volume of physiologic saline IV (group C). Five minutes later, medetomidine (7.5 μg kg(-1) ) was administered IV and measurements were recorded at various time points for 130 minutes.Medetomidine induced bradycardia, 2(o) AV blocks and increased SVR immediately after administration, without significant changes in CI or MAP in C. Hyoscine administration induced tachycardia and hypertension, and decreased the percentage of 2(o) AV blocks induced by medetomidine. Peak HR and MAP were higher in HIV than HIM at 88 ± 18 beats minute(-1) and 241 ± 37 mmHg versus 65 ± 16 beats minute(-1) and 192 ± 38 mmHg, respectively. CI was increased significantly in HIV (p ≤ 0.05). Respiratory rate decreased significantly in all groups during the recording period. pH, PaCO2 and PaO2 were not significantly changed by administration of medetomidine with or without hyoscine.Hyoscine administered IV or IM before medetomidine in horses resulted in tachycardia and hypertension under the conditions of this study. The significance of these changes, and responses to other dose rates, requires further investigation.
- Anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine combination alone or with morphine or tramadol for orchiectomy in cats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Feb 27.
To compare the anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) medetomidine and ketamine administered alone or combined with morphine or tramadol, for orchiectomy in cats.Randomised, blinded, prospective clinical study.Thirty client-owned cats.Cats (n = 10 in each group) received a combination of medetomidine (60 μgkg(-1) ) and ketamine (10 mg kg(-1) ) alone (MedK); combined with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKM), or combined with tramadol (2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKT) IM. Time of induction, surgical and recovery events were recorded, and physiological parameters measured and recorded. Analgesia was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, a composite scoring system and the von Frey mechanical threshold device, every hour from three to eight hours post-drug administration injection. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests (p < 0.05).Median (IQR) induction and recovery times (minutes) were not significantly (p = 0.125) different between groups: 5.6 (2.7-8.0), 7.4 (5.1-9.6) and 8.0 (5.8-14.9) for induction and 128.5 (95.1-142.8), 166.4 (123.1-210.0) and 142.9 (123.4-180.2) for recovery, with MedK, MedKT and MedKM, respectively. Two cats (MedKM) required alfaxalone for endotracheal intubation. In all groups, three or four cats required additional isoflurane for surgery. Arterial oxygen tension overall (mean ± SD: 66 ± 2 mmHg) was low. Surgery resulted in increased systolic arterial blood pressure (p < 0.001), haemoglobin saturation (p < 0.001), respiratory (p = 0.003) and heart rates (p = 0.002). Pain scores did not differ significantly between groups. Von Frey responses decreased over time; changes over time varied by treatment (p < 0.001), MedK returning to baseline values more rapidly than MedKM and MedKT. No cat required rescue analgesics.All three protocols can provide adequate anaesthesia and analgesia for orchiectomy in cats. However, rescue intervention to maintain surgical anaesthesia may be required in some cats. Oxygen supplementation is advised.
- Canine and feline blood transfusions: controversies and recent advances in administration practices. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Feb 27.
To discuss and review blood transfusion practices in dogs and cats including collection and storage of blood and administration of products. To report new developments, controversial practices, less conventional blood product administration techniques and where applicable, describe the relevance to anaesthetists and anaesthesia.PubMed and Google Scholar using dog, cat, blood transfusion, packed red blood cells and whole blood as keywords.Blood transfusions improve oxygen carrying capacity and the clinical signs of anaemia. However there are numerous potential risks and complications possible with transfusions, which may outweigh their benefits. Storage of blood products has improved considerably over time but whilst extended storage times may improve their availability, a phenomenon known as the storage lesion has been identified which affects erythrocyte viability and survival. Leukoreduction involves removing leukocytes and platelets thereby preventing their release of cytokines and bioactive compounds which also contribute to storage lesions and certain transfusion reactions. Newer transfusion techniques are being explored such as cell salvage in surgical patients and subsequent autologous transfusion. Xenotransfusions, using blood and blood products between different species, provide an alternative to conventional blood products.