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Vet Anaesth Analg [journal]
- A preliminary trial of the sedation induced by intranasal administration of midazolam alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine and reversal by atipamezole for a short-term immobilization in pigeons. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 24.
To assess the sedative and immobilization effect of intranasal administration (INS) of midazolam (MID) without or with INS dexmedetomidine (DXM), and some physiological changes induced by the drugs. The ability of INS atipamezole to reverse the DXM component was also assessed.Prospective 'blinded' experimental study.In total, 15 pigeons.Pigeons were sedated by INS MID alone at a dose of 5 mg kg(-1) (group MID, n = 6) or in combination with INS DXM at a dose 80 μg kg(-1) (group MID-DXM, n = 6). Measurements were made of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR ) and cloacal temperature (CT). The degree of sedation was assessed at 15 minutes prior to, immediately after, and at intervals until 100 minutes after drug administrations. Following MID-DXM, INS atipamezole (250 μg kg(-1) ) was administered and the same indices measured 5 and 10 minutes later.MID had no effect on HR and fR , and although CT decreased, it remained within physiological range. MID-DXM caused significant falls in HR, fR and CT that persisted until the end of sedation. Atipamezole antagonized sedation and cardiorespiratory side effects of MID-DXM within 10 minutes of application. In addition, for MID compared to MID-DXM, the lowest sedation scores [10 (7-14) and 10.5 (5-14) versus 2 (1-4) and 2 (1-5)] were achieved in the 10th and 20th minute versus the 20th and 30th minute of the sedation, respectively.MID alone, given INS had minimal side effects on vital functions but caused inadequate immobilization of pigeons for restraint in dorsal recumbency. MID-DXM caused an effective degree of immobilization from 20 to 30 minutes after administration, at which time birds tolerated postural changes without resistance. Atipamezole antagonized both side effects and sedation, but complete recovery had not occurred within 10 minutes after its application.
- Agreement of high definition oscillometry with direct arterial blood pressure measurement at different blood pressure ranges in horses under general anaesthesia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 23.
To determine the agreement of high definition oscillometry (HDO) with direct arterial blood pressure measurements in normotensive, hypotensive and hypertensive horses during general anaesthesia.Experimental study.Seven healthy warmblood horses, aged 3-11 years, weighing 470-565 kg.Measurements from a HDO device with the cuff placed around the base of the tail were compared with pressures measured invasively from the facial artery. High blood pressures were induced by intravenous (IV) administration of dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1) minute(-1) ) over ten minutes followed by norepinephrine (0.1 mg kg(-1) IV) and low pressures by increasing the inspired fraction of isoflurane and administration of nitroglycerine (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV). For analysis three pressure levels were determined: high (MAP>110 mmHg), normal (60 mmHg<MAP<110 mmHg) and low (MAP< 60 mmHg). Bland-Altman analysis was used for comparison between non-invasive and invasive measurements.A total of 245 paired measurements of systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) pressures were obtained. The HDO device underestimated blood pressure at hypertensive and normotensive levels and overestimated blood pressure at hypotensive levels. Best agreement was obtained for SAP and MAP within normotensive limits. At normotension, bias ± standard deviation for SAP, MAP and DAP were 0.1 ± 19.4 mmHg, 0.5 ± 14.0, 4.7 ± 15.6, respectively. At high pressure levels bias and SD were 26.1 ± 37.3 (SAP), 4.2 ± 19.4 (MAP), 1.5 ± 16.8 (DAP) and at low pressures -20.0 ± 20.9 (SAP), -11.4 ± 19.6 (MAP), -4.7 ± 20.1 (DAP), with HDO measurements at a MAP <50 mmHg often failing.Good agreement with invasive arterial blood pressures was obtained with HDO at normotensive levels in horses. At high and low pressure ranges HDO was unreliable. Therefore, if haemodynamic instability is expected, invasive measurement remains preferable.
- Intravenous sufentanil-midazolam versus sevoflurane anaesthesia in medetomidine pre-medicated Himalayan rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 21.
To compare physiological effects of sufentanil-midazolam with sevoflurane for surgical anaesthesia in medetomidine premedicated rabbits.Prospective, randomized controlled experimental study.Eighteen female Himalayan rabbits, weight 2.1 ± 0.1 kg.Premedication with 0.1 mg kg(-1) medetomidine and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen subcutaneously, was followed by intravenous anaesthetic induction with sufentanil (2.3 μg mL(-1) ) and midazolam (0.45 mg mL(-1) ). After endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with sufentanil-midazolam (n = 9) or sevoflurane (n = 9). Ovariohysterectomy was performed. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was performed as required. Physiological variables were studied perioperatively. Group means of physiologic data were generated for different anaesthetic periods. Data were compared for changes from sedation, and between groups by anova. Post-operatively, 0.05 mg kg(-1) buprenorphine was administered once and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen once daily for 2-3 days. Rabbits were examined and weighed daily until one week after surgery.Smooth induction of anaesthesia was achieved within 5 minutes. Sufentanil and midazolam doses were 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) , during induction and 3.9 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) and 0.8 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) during surgery, respectively. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration was 2.1% during surgery. Assisted ventilation was required in nine rabbits receiving sufentanil-midazolam and four receiving sevoflurane. There were no differences between groups in physiologic data other than arterial carbon dioxide. In rabbits receiving sevoflurane, mean arterial pressure decreased pre-surgical intervention, heart rate increased 25% during and after surgery and body weight decreased 4% post-operatively. Post-operative problems sometimes resulted from catheterization of the ear artery.Sevoflurane and sufentanil-midazolam provided surgical anaesthesia of similar quality. Arterial blood pressure was sustained during sufentanil-midazolam anaesthesia and rabbits receiving sevoflurane lost body weight following ovariohysterectomy. Mechanical ventilation was required with both anaesthetic regimens.Anaesthesia with sufentanil-midazolam in medetomidine premedicated healthy rabbits is useful in the clinical and the research setting, as an alternative to sevoflurane.
- Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists - the beginnings. [EDITORIAL]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 9.
- Antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine and evaluation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in foals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 21.
To elicit and evaluate the NWR (nociceptive withdrawal reflex) in 2 and 11 day old foals, to investigate if buprenorphine causes antinociception and determine if the NWR response changes with increasing age. The effect of buprenorphine on behaviour was also evaluated.Prospective, experimental cross-over trial.Nine Norwegian Fjord research foals.Buprenorphine, 10 μg kg(-1) was administered intramuscularly (IM) to the same foal at 2 days and at 11 days of age. The NWR and the effect of buprenorphine were evaluated by electromyograms recorded from the left deltoid muscle following electrical stimulation of the left lateral palmar nerve at the level of the pastern. Mentation, locomotor activity and respiratory rate were recorded before and after buprenorphine administration.We were able to evoke the NWR and temporal summation in foals using this model. Buprenorphine decreased the root mean square amplitude following single electrical stimulation (p < 0.001) in both age groups, and increased the NWR threshold following single electrical stimulation in 2 day old foals (p = 0.0012). Repeated electrical stimulation at 2 Hz was more effective to elicit temporal summation compared to 5 Hz (p < 0.001). No effect of age upon the NWR threshold was found (p = 0.34). Sedation when left undisturbed (11 occasions), increased locomotor activity when handled (9 occasions) and tachypnea (13 occasions) were common side-effects of buprenorphine.These findings indicate that buprenorphine has antinociceptive effect in foals. Opioid side effects often recognized in adult horses also occur in foals.
- Nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 9.
To describe the nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis.Prospective clinical trial.Five captive raptors (Falco peregrinus) aged 6.7 ± 1.3 years.Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was performed with 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL kg(-1) per nerve) as the sole intra-operative analgesic treatment. Intraoperative physiological variables were recorded every 10 minutes from endotracheal intubation until the end of anaesthesia. Assessment of intraoperative nociception was based on changes in physiological variables above baseline values, while evaluation of postoperative pain relied on species-specific behavioural indicators.The sciatic-femoral nerve block was feasible in raptors and the motor responses following electrical stimulation of both nerves were consistent with those reported in mammalian species. During surgery no rescue analgesia was required. The anaesthesia plane was stable and cardiorespiratory variables did not increase significantly in response to surgical stimulation. Iatrogenic complications, namely nerve damage and local anaesthetic toxicity, did not occur. Recovery was smooth and uneventful. The duration (mean ± SD) of the analgesic effect provided by the nerve block was 130 ± 20 minutes.The sciatic-femoral nerve block as described in dogs and rabbits can be performed in raptors as well. Further clinical trials with a control groups are required to better investigate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of this technique in raptors.
- S-ketamine versus racemic ketamine in dogs: their relative potency as induction agents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 9.
To determine the potency ratio between S-ketamine and racemic ketamine as inductive agents for achieving tracheal intubation in dogs.Prospective, randomized, 'blinded', clinical trial conducted in two consecutive phases.112 client-owned dogs (ASA I or II).All animals were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.02 mg kg(-1) ) and methadone (0.2 mg kg(-1) ). In phase 1, midazolam (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) with either 3 mg kg(-1) of racemic ketamine (group K) or 1.5 mg kg(-1) of S-ketamine (group S) was administered IV, for induction of anaesthesia and intubation. Up to two additional doses of racemic (1.5 mg kg(-1) ) or S-ketamine (0.75 mg kg(-1) ) were administered if required. In phase 2, midazolam (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) with 1 mg kg(-1) of either racemic ketamine (group K) or S-ketamine (group S) was injected and followed by a continuous infusion (1 mg kg minute(-1) ) of each respective drug. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed via t-test, Fisher exact test and ANOVA for repeated measures.Demographics and quality and duration of premedication, induction and intubation were comparable among groups. During phase 1 it was possible to achieve tracheal intubation after a single dose in more dogs in group K (n = 25) than in group S (n = 16) (p = 0.046). A dose of 3 mg kg(-1) S-ketamine allowed tracheal intubation in the same number of dogs as 4.5 mg kg(-1) of racemic ketamine. The estimated potency ratio was 1.5:1. During phase 2, the total dose (mean ± SD) of S-ketamine (4.02 ±1.56 mg kg(-1) ) and racemic ketamine (4.01 ± 1.42) required for tracheal intubation was similar.Racemic and S-ketamine provide a similar quality of anaesthetic induction and intubation. S-ketamine is not twice as potent as racemic ketamine and, if infused, the potency ratio is 1:1.
- Electrocardiographic indicators of excitability in horses for predicting recovery quality after general anaesthesia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 21.
To determine whether preoperative electrocardiographic measurements linked to sympathetic nervous activity could be used to predict recovery quality after general anaesthesia in horses.Prospective, clinical study.Eighteen adult client-owned horses.The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded presurgery in horses under three standard conditions: stabled unattended; with a groom whilst being led along a standard course; alone in the induction box. After surgery, each animal's recovery quality was scored by eight experienced anaesthetists or technicians using Donaldson's scoring system (2000). The digitized ECG recordings were analyzed for T-wave morphology, mean heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and HRV derivatives including mean R-R interval, standard deviation of normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive intervals (RMSSD), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) activity and the LF/HF ratio in both fast Fourier transformed and autoregressive spectra. Correlations between ECG variables and recovery score were examined using Spearman's rank correlation.There was no significant correlation between preanaesthetic ECG measurements and recovery quality.Predictions of recovery quality after general anaesthesia in horses cannot be based on preanaesthetic ECG variables.Measures other than those based on the ECG should be investigated as predictors of recovery quality.
- The use of a nerve stimulator for intraoperative stimulation of individual nerves of the brachial plexus. [LETTER]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 12.
- A comparison of cardiopulmonary function, recovery quality, and total dosages required for induction and total intravenous anesthesia with propofol versus a propofol-ketamine combination in healthy Beagle dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 21.
To compare cardiopulmonary function, recovery quality, and total dosages required for induction and 60 minutes of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol (P) or a 1:1 mg mL(-1) combination of propofol and ketamine (KP).Randomized crossover study.Ten female Beagles weighing 9.4 ± 1.8 kg.Dogs were randomized for administration of P or KP in a 1:1 mg mL(-1) ratio for induction and maintenance of TIVA. Baseline temperature, pulse, respiratory rate (fR ), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MAP), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) were recorded. Dogs were intubated and spontaneously breathed room air. Heart rate (HR), fR , MAP, SpO2 , end tidal carbon dioxide tension (Pe'CO2 ), temperature, and salivation score were recorded every 5 minutes. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at 10, 30, and 60 minutes, and after recovery. At 60 minutes the infusion was discontinued and total drug administered, time to extubation, and recovery score were recorded. The other treatment was performed 1 week later.KP required significantly less propofol for induction (4.0 ± 1.0 mg kg(-1) KP versus 5.3 ±1.1 mg kg(-1) P, p = 0.0285) and maintenance (0.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1) minute(-1) KP versus 0.6 ±0.1 mg kg(-1) minute(-1) P, p = 0.0018). Significantly higher HR occurred with KP. Both P and KP caused significantly lower MAP compared to baseline. MAP was significantly higher with KP at several time points. P had minimal effects on respiratory variables, while KP resulted in significant respiratory depression. There were no significant differences in salivation scores, time to extubation, or recovery scores.Total intravenous anesthesia in healthy dogs with ketamine and propofol in a 1:1 mg mL(-1) combination resulted in significant propofol dose reduction, higher HR, improved MAP, no difference in recovery quality, but more significant respiratory depression compared to propofol alone.