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Vutr Boles [journal]
- [Comparative analysis of blood and urinary electrolytes in normotensive and hypertensive normal, overweight and obese subjects aged 50-54 in the Bulgarian army]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):9-13.
Objective of the study is to investigate the hypotheses regarding the correlation of serum levels and urinary excretion of electrolytes with arterial hypertension. 211 subjects aged 50-54 from Bulgarian Army were studied. Evaluated were following parameters: SBP, DBP, BMI, Na+, K+ in blood serum; Na+, K+, NaCl, KCL, Na/K ratio, Ca++, Mg++ in 24-h urine excretion. Statistical analysis of variance, dispersion and correlation analysis (using 6D program from statistical pack BMDP) were applied. In the blood, no correlation was found between Na+ and both SBP and DBP. A significant positive correlation between SBP and K+ was found only in non-obese hypertensive females (R = 0.59, p < 0.05). Correlation between K+ and DBP was negative in separate groups with normal BMI (R = -0.84, R = -0.65, p < 0.05). In the 24-h urine excretion, no correlation was found between K+, NaCl, KCL and SBP, as well as between Na+ and SBP and DBP. Significant positive correlation was found between K+ and DBP in obese hypertensive subjects (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) and between NaCl and DBP (R = 0.47 up to R = 0.66 in separate groups, p < 0.05). Significant positive correlation between Ca++ and DBR (R = 0.47) was found in obese hypertensives. Mg++ correlates positively with DBP (R = 0.62 in some groups). Urine levels of Ca++ and Mg++ were significantly higher in normatensives. Electrolytes in blood and urine were closely related to DPB rather than to SBP. K+ levels in blood affect only DBP. Our data do not confirm the hypothesis for the positive correlation between urinary Na(+)-excretion and BP (except in obese subjects). The hypothesis about the inverse relation of K(+)-intake to BP, especially to DBP is confirmed by our data. The data regarding the Ca++ and Mg++ urinary excretion and their correlation with DBP and SBP are very discordant and do not give an opportunity to make definite conclusions. Our data confirmed the hypothesis about the natriuretic effect of Mg++, which possibly is of a protective value for development of AH in some obese persons.
- [Studies on restraint ulcers in rats in conditions of acute copper deficiency]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):54-9.
In the present experiment, we have investigated the impact of the acute copper deficiency on the pathogenesis of stress ulcers' formation in rats during cold-restraint stress. A powdered milk diet, lasting for 5 days, causes a significantly decrease of stomach copper content in rat, comparing to content in rats receiving standard laboratory diet. The severity of mucosal disturbances, expressed as total number and area of stress ulcers, is most prominent in animals receiving hypocupric diet. Their treatment with Ranitidine extends the morphological disturbances in the stomach mucosa and produces highest level of lipid peroxidation and lowest activity of superoxide dismutase in the stomach compared to the other groups. In conclusion, the appropriate copper balance plays an essential role for the natural resistance of the stomach mucosa and Ranitidine, in conditions of acute copper deficiency, makes deeper the disturbances produced by stress.
- [Congestive heart failure--some current problems]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):5-8.
The congestive heart failure (CHF) has become one of the most common syndromes afflicting the population. The long-term prognosis of these patients is bad. The CHF shows a tendency toward fast progressive development. The aim of our study was a retrospective investigation on CHF patients, a determination of CHF functional class by NYHA and its type, a determination of the most important diseases leading to heart decompensation and of the reasons for dead in these patients. For a 6-year period we investigated 6428 patients. 1095 (17.03%) of them were with a different degree of CFH. More of them were with II and III functional class of CHF by NYHA. In the age decade from 61 to 70 years the frequency of CHF increased significantly. The most important diseases leading to CHF syndrome were chronic ischemic disease, arterial hypertension, COPD with chronic cor pulmonale and valve diseases. The average age of deceased CHF patients was 67.8 +/- 7.4 years. After the manifestation of the first group of symptoms the mean life duration of CHF patients was 13.2 +/- 4.1 years.
- [Antioxidant parameters in metabolic syndrome -- a dynamic evaluation during oral glucose tolerance test]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):48-53.
Patients with metabolic syndrome show augmented cardio-vascular risk, at least in part mediated through disequilibrium between mechanisms generating free radicals, and antioxidant defense. Carbohydrate and lipid disturbances in metabolic syndrome induce oxidative stress via several non fully understood mechanisms. Glucose overload in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can also induce oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as total antioxidant status in OGTT in patients with metabolic syndrome and in healthy subjects. OGTT was performed in 36 healthy volunteers and in patients with metabolic syndrome. Glucose, Insulin, and triglycerides were evaluated at 0th, 30th, 60th, 120th, and 180th min. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured at 0th, 60th, and 120th min. Total antioxidant status was measured at 0th, and 120th min. At 0th min total, HDL and LDL cholesterol were evaluated. A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase activity at 120th as compared with 60th min were observed. Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly (p < 0.05) even though at 60th as compared with 0th min and remained decreased at 120th min. Total antioxidant status was found to be increased (p < 0.05) at 120th as compared with 0th min. The observed dynamic in patients did not differed (p > 0.05) from control group. The study shows a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity and a compensatory increase in total antioxidant status, indicating a surcharge of antioxidant homeostasis. In context of carbohydrate and lipid disturbances in metabolic syndrome, this is to suggest an existing of complementary pathogenic mechanisms, able to aggravate cardiovascular risk in these patients. Correction of metabolic disturbances may be an efficacious tool for influencing on prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis too.
- [Interleukins and endocrine function]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):41-7.
Views and experimental data on the role of interleukins in the regulation of the endocrine functions of hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, suprarenal gland and pancreas are presented. The role of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in the regulation of normal and pathological processes is examined. Data on cellular and molecular operation mechanisms of some interleukins on functions of the endocrine glands are included in the survey. The clarification of these mechanisms leads to new pharmacotherapeutical approaches to endocrine diseases treatment.
- [Longitudinal study of parameters of respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis in patients with progressive systemic scleroderma]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):37-40.
The longitudinal study encloses 53 patients with PSS followed up for a period of 6 years. The most frequent changes in the parameters of pulmonary function are: diffusing capacity impairment--reduction in DICO (86.8% of the patients), restrictive lung disease pattern (50.9% of the patients) and arterial hypoxemia (43.4% of the patients). The duration of PSS and the follow up period do not cause significant changes in the pulmonary function parameters and the arterial blood-gas analysis in the group of patients studied.
- [Dyspnea. II. Clinical and treatment problems]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):33-6.
In a previous paper (Balanova, Surcheva and Ichev, 2001) we have proposed a scheme about pathophysiological mechanisms involved in dyspnea. Some of the clinical problems in dyspnea were discussed in this paper on the base of that scheme, as well as clinical observations on the patients with dyspnea. Two groups of symptoms were considered--subjective and objective, and their significance for the diagnosis of the dyspnea and of the disease that provokes dyspnea were evaluated. A critical analysis of the different forms of dyspnea has been made, and suggestions about the treatment of the subjective symptoms in dyspnea were proposed.
- [Dyspnea. I. Definition and pathophysiological problems]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):28-32.
An analytical review was made on the pathophysiological mechanisms suspected to be involved in dyspnea, accepting that the sensation of shortness of breathing, and the subjective signs (exertion, anxiety and fear) are essential for the diagnosis of this condition. Bearing in mind the anatomical relations in the central nervous system between the structures involved in the control and regulation of the respiration, and these involved in the emotions, a scheme was presented of the pathophysiological mechanisms, which determine the essential signs of the dyspnea. Three neuronal circuits were assumed for the explanation of the manifestations in dyspnea: subjective signs, symptoms of the thoraco-pulmonary and cardio-vascular systems, and these of the voluntary muscular system that accompanied dyspnea.
- [Adult respiratory distress syndrome--etiology and pathogenesis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(2-3):14-27.
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not a specific lung disease. It represents an acute respiratory insufficiency syndrome in patients with non-injured lung as a result of severe multiple lung lesions of different etiology and pathogenesis. ARDS is provoked by a great number of etiologic factors of two main groups: 1) etiologic factors directly injuring the alveolo-capillary wall and 2) etiologic factors indirectly injuring the alveolo-capillary wall. ARDS develops in three phases: phase of exudation, phase of injury of the alveolocapillary wall and phase of proliferation (chronic phase).
- [Pulmonary surfactant system]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Vutr Boles 2001; 33(1):5-32.
The lung surfactant system (LSS) has a complex morphological and biochemical structure. LSS contains two components: cellular and non-cellular. The cellular component comprises three types of alveolar epithelium cells (type I, II, and II pneumocytes), alveolar macrophages (AM) and Clara bronchiolar cells. The non-cellular component consists of alveolar surfactant (AS), hypo(epi)phase and alveolar epithelium cell glycocalix. AS represents phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates mono-molecular layer. AM lamellar bodies (LB) and tubular myelin (TM) are disposed in the hypophase. LB and TM represent the depot-forms of lung surfactant (LS). Lung surfactant (LS) has a complex biochemical structure and comprise the following components: phospholipids, neutral lipids, glycolipids, surfactant-specific proteins, plasmaproteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and aminoacids. LS is synthesized in type II pneumocytes and Clara cells. LS catabolism is mainly effected by AM. The LSS has a fundamental role in the physiological functions of lungs. Through its antiatelectatic and antioedematic functions, LSS sustains the basic physiological functions of lungs--alveolar ventilation and gas diffusion through the alveolar-capillary wall. Besides this, LSS performs several protecting functions--antioxidant defense, non-specific defense mechanisms, immunodulatory action, cytotoxicity agents metabolism and others. The injury of the structure and functions of LSS is an important pathogenic mechanism in the pathogenesis of different lung diseases. Practically, a pathological process in lungs, which is not related to changes in LSS structure and functions, does not exist. Recently developed surfactant replacement therapy with natural and synthetic surfactants has an important place in the therapy of several lung diseases.