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World J Gastroenterol [journal]
- Two case reports of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2835-40.
Two cases of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) bacteremia were discovered at the study hospital. The first case was a 66-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde papillotomy, and then A. baumannii bacteremia occurred. The second case was a 70-year-old female who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage due to obstruction of intra-hepatic ducts, and bacteremia occurred due to polymicrobes (Escherichia coli, viridans streptococcus, and A. baumannii). After a literature review, we suggest that correct gastroendoscopy technique and skill in drainage procedures, as well as antibiotic prophylaxis, are of paramount importance in minimizing the risk of gastroendoscopy-associated bacteremia.
- Polyarteritis nodosa diagnosed by surgically resected jejunal necrosis following acute abdomen. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2830-4.
The differential diagnosis of acute abdomen is typically extremely broad in range, with vasculitis posing a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of acute abdomen. Here, we report a case of acute abdomen with bowel wall thickening limited to jejunum, accompanied by unexplained renal dysfunction. Later, the patient was diagnosed as having polyarteritis nodosa based on surgically resected jejunal necrosis. Despite aggressive treatment, including the use of steroid pulse therapy and continuous hemodiafiltration, the patient died. Although polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare in patients with acute abdomen, acute abdomen is relatively common manifestation of that. And it is reported that involvement of small intestine suggests poorer prognosis. Our case highlights the importance of vasculitis as a differential diagnosis of patients with atypical acute abdomen. In this report, we not only review possible clues that might have led to an earlier diagnosis in this case, but also attempt to draw some lessons for treating similar cases in the future.
- Massive hepatic necrosis with toxic liver syndrome following portal vein ligation. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2826-9.
Right portal vein ligation (PVL) is a safe and widespread procedure to induce controlateral liver hypertrophy for the treatment of bilobar colorectal liver metastases. We report a case of a 60-year-old man treated by both right PVL and ligation of the glissonian branches of segment 4 for colorectal liver metastases surrounding the right and median hepatic veins. After surgery, the patient developed massive hepatic necrosis with secondary pulmonary and renal insufficiency requiring transfer to the intensive care unit. This so-called toxic liver syndrome finally regressed after hemofiltration and positive oxygen therapy. Diagnosis of acute congestion of the ligated lobe was suspected. The mechanism suspected was an increase in arterial inflow secondary to portal vein ligation concomitant with a decrease in venous outflow due to liver metastases encircling the right and median hepatic vein. This is the first documented case of toxic liver syndrome in a non-cirrhotic patient with favorable issue, and a rare complication of PVL.
- Increased CD163 expression is associated with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2818-25.
To assess CD163 expression in plasma and peripheral blood and analyze its association with disease in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) patients.A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2012. Forty patients with ACHBLF (mean age 44.48 ± 12.28 years, range 18-69 years), 40 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (mean age 39.45 ± 12.22 years, range 21-57 years) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age 38.35 ± 11.97 years, range 28-60 years) were included in this study. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of CD163+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and surface protein expression of CD163. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess relative CD163 mRNA levels in PBMCs. Plasma soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical variables were also recorded. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 software and a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Flow cytometry showed that the population of CD163+ PBMCs was significantly greater in ACHBLF patients than in CHB patients and healthy controls (47.9645% ± 17.1542%, 32.0975% ± 11.0215% vs 17.9460% ± 6.3618%, P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in mean fluorescence intensity of CD163+ PBMCs within the three groups (27.4975 ± 11.3731, 25.8140 ± 10.0649 vs 20.5050 ± 6.2437, P = 0.0514). CD163 mRNA expression in ACHBLF patients was significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (1.41 × 10(-2) ± 2.18 × 10(-2), 5.10 × 10(-3) ± 3.61 × 10(-3) vs 37.0 × 10(-4) ± 3.55 × 10(-4), P = 0.02). Plasma sCD163 levels in patients with ACHBLF were significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (4706.2175 ± 1681.1096 ng/mL, 1089.7160 ± 736.8395 ng/mL vs 435.9562 ± 440.8329 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). In ACHBLF patients, plasma sCD163 levels were significantly positively associated with model for end-stage liver disease scores (r = 0.5075, P = 0.008), hepatitis B virus-DNA (r = 0.6827, P < 0.0001), and negatively associated with prothrombin activity (r = -0.3348, P = 0.0347), but had no correlation with total bilirubin (r = 0.2551, P = 0.1122). Furthermore, sCD163 was obviously elevated in non-surviving patients compared with surviving patients with ACHBLF (5344.9080 ± 1589.5199 ng/mL vs 3641.7333 ± 1264.5228 ng/mL, P = 0.0321).CD163 and sCD163 may be related to disease severity and prognosis in ACHBLF patients.
- Prognostic value of preoperative mean corpuscular volume in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2811-7.
To evaluate whether preoperative mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a prognostic indicator in patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).A total of 298 consecutive, prospectively enrolled patients with histologically diagnosed ESCC who underwent surgery with curative intent from 2001 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were excluded if they had previous malignant disease, distant metastasis at the time of primary treatment, a history of neoadjuvant treatment, had undergone non-radical resection, or had died of a non-tumor-associated cause. Survival status was verified in September 2011. Pathological staging was performed based on the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria. Preoperative MCV was obtained from blood counts performed routinely within 7 d prior to surgery. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine a cutoff for preoperative MCV.The 298 patients consisted of 230 males and 68 females, with a median follow-up of 30.1 mo. ROC analysis showed an optimal cutoff for preoperative MCV of 95.6 fl. Fifty-nine patients (19.8%) had high (> 95.6 fl) and 239 (80.2%) had low (≤ 95.6 fl) preoperative MCV. Preoperative MCV was significantly associated with gender (P = 0.003), body mass index (P = 0.017), and preoperative red blood cell count (P < 0.001). The predicted 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 72%, 60% and 52%, respectively. Median OS was significantly longer in patients with low than with high preoperative MCV (27.5 mo vs 19.4 mo, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that advanced pT (P = 0.018) and pN (P < 0.001) stages, upper thoracic location (P = 0.010), lower preoperative albumin concentration (P = 0.002), and high preoperative MCV (P = 0.001) were negative prognostic factors in patients with ESCC. Preoperative MCV also stratified OS in patients with T3, N1-N3, G2-G3 and stage III tumors.Preoperative MCV is a prognostic factor in patients with ESCC.
- Extremely high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bhutan. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2806-10.
To revealed the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the Bhutanese population.We recruited a total of 372 volunteers (214 females and 158 males; mean age of 39.6 ± 14.9 years) from three Bhutanese cities (Thimphu, Punaka, and Wangdue). The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on five different tests: the rapid urease test (CLO test), culture, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and serum anti H. pylori-antibody.The serological test showed a significantly higher positive rate compared with the CLO test, culture, histology and IHC (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.01, and P = 0.01, respectively). When the subjects were considered to be H. pylori positive in the case of at least one test showing a positive result, the overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in Bhutan was 73.4%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection significantly decreased with age (P < 0.01). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was lower in Thimphu than in Punakha and Wangdue (P = 0.001 and 0.06, respectively). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with peptic ulcers than in those with gastritis (91.4% vs 71.3%, P = 0.003).The high incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan may be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection.
- Long-term efficacy of endoscopic coagulation for different types of gastric vascular ectasia. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2799-805.
To examine the long-term therapeutic efficacies of endoscopic cauterization for gastric vascular ectasia, according to the type of lesion.Thirty-eight patients with hemorrhagic gastric vascular ectasia (VE) were treated by endoscopic cauterization: 13 by heater probe coagulationand 25 by argon plasma coagulation. Depending on the number of lesions, 14 and 24 patients were classified into localized VE (≤ 10; LVE) and extensive VE (> 10; EVE), respectively. The patients were followed-up by repeated endoscopic examinations after the therapy, and the incidences of VE recurrence and re-bleeding from the lesions were evaluated.Although the VE lesions disappeared initially in all the patients after the therapy, the recurrence of VE developed in 25 patients (66%) over a mid-term observation period of 32 mo, and re-bleeding occurred in 15 patients (39%). The recurrence of VE was found in all patients with EVE, with re-bleeding occurring in 14 patients (58%). In contrast, only 1 patient (7%) with LVE showed recurrence of the lesions and complicating hemorrhage. Both the cumulative recurrence-free rates and cumulative re-bleeding-free rates were significantly lower in the EVE group than in the LVE group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, the cumulative re-bleeding-free rate in the EVE group was 47.6% at 1 year and 25.4% at 2 years in patients with chronic renal failure, which were significantly lower than the rates in the patients without chronic renal failure (83.3% and 74.1%, respectively) (P < 0.05).The recurrence of VE and re-bleeding from the lesions was more frequent in the patients with EVE, especially in those with complicating renal failure.
- Sustained virological response: A milestone in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2793-8.
To evaluate the long-term eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and liver-related complications in chronically infected patients that have achieved sustained virological response.One hundred and fifty subjects with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) or cirrhosis and sustained virological response (SVR) between the years of 1989 and 2008 were enrolled in a long-term clinical follow-up study at the Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit of the University Hospital of Naples "Federico II". At the beginning of the study, the diagnosis of HCV infection was made on the basis of serum positivity for antibodies to HCV and detection of HCV RNA transcripts, while a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis was formulated using imaging techniques and/or a liver biopsy. SVR was achieved by interferon-based therapy, both conventional and pegylated, with and without ribavirin treatment. The patients were evaluated for follow-up at a median length of 8.6 years, but ranged from 2-19.9 years. Among them, 137 patients had pre-treatment CHC and 13 had cirrhosis. The patients were followed with clinical, biochemical, virological, and ultrasound assessments on a given schedule. Finally, a group of 27 patients underwent a liver biopsy at the beginning of the study and transient elastography at their final visit to evaluate changes in liver fibrosis.The median follow-up was 8.6 years (range 2-19.9 years). HCV RNA remained undetectable in all patients, even in patients who eventually developed liver-related complications, indicating no risk of HCV recurrence. Three liver-related complications were observed: two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and one case of bleeding from esophageal varices resulting in an incidence rate of 0.23%/person per year. Further, all three complications took place in patients diagnosed with cirrhosis before treatment began. Only one death due to liver-related causes occurred, resulting in a mortality rate of 0.077% person per year. This amounts to a 99.33% survival rate in our cohort of patients after therapy for HCV infection. Finally, of the 27 patients who underwent a liver biopsy at the beginning of the study, a reduction in liver fibrosis was observed in 70.3% of the cases; only three cases registering values of liver stiffness indicative of significant fibrosis.Patients with CHC and SVR show an excellent prognosis with no risk of recurrence and a very low rate of mortality. Our data indicate that virus-eradication following interferon treatment can last up to 20 years.
- MAWBP and MAWD inhibit proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2781-92.
To investigate role of putative mitogen-activated protein kinase activator with WD40 repeats (MAWD)/MAWD binding protein (MAWBP) in gastric cancer (GC).MAWBP and MAWD mRNA expression level was examined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in six GC cell lines. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression levels. We developed GC cells that stably overexpressed MAWBP and MAWD, and downregulated expression by RNA interference assay. Proliferation and migration of these GC cells were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), soft agar, tumorigenicity, migration and transwell assays. The effect of expression of MAWBP and MAWD on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was examined by transfection of MAWBP and MAWD into GC cells. We detected the levels of EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Snail in GC cells overexpressing MAWBP and MAWD by Western blotting. The effect of MAWBP and MAWD on TGF-β signal was detected by analysis of phosphorylation level and nuclear translocation of Smad3 using Western blotting and immunofluorescence.Among the GC cell lines, expression of endogenous MAWBP and MAWD was lowest in SGC7901 cells and highest in BGC823 cells. MAWBP and MAWD were stably overexpressed in SGC7901 cells and knocked down in BGC823 cells. MAWBP and MAWD inhibited GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay showed that overexpression of MAWBP and MAWD suppressed growth of SGC7901 cells (P < 0.001), while knockdown of these genes promoted growth of BGC823 cells (P < 0.001). Soft agar colony formation experiments showed that overexpression of MAWBP and MAWD alone or together reduced colony formation compared with vector group in SGC7901 (86.25 ± 8.43, 12.75 ± 4.49, 30 ± 6.41 vs 336.75 ± 22.55, P < 0.001), and knocked-down MAWBP and MAWD demonstrated opposite effects (131.25 ± 16.54, 88.75 ± 11.12, 341.75 ± 22.23 vs 30.25 ± 8.07, P < 0.001). Tumorigenicity experiments revealed that overexpressed MAWBP and MAWD inhibited GC cell proliferation in vivo (P < 0.001). MAWBP and MAWD also inhibited GC cell invasion. Transwell assay showed that the number of traverse cells of MAWBP, MAWD and coexpression group were more than that in vector group (84 ± 16.57, 98.33 ± 9.8, 29 ± 16.39 vs 298 ± 11.86, P < 0.001). Coexpression of MAWBP and MAWD significantly decreased the cells traversing the matrix membrane. Conversely, knocked-down MAWBP and MAWD correspondingly promoted invasion of GC cells (100.67 ± 14.57, 72.66 ± 8.51, 330.67 ± 20.55 vs 27 ± 11.53, P < 0.001). More importantly, coexpression of MAWBP and MAWD promoted EMT. Cells that coexpressed MAWBP and MAWD displayed a pebble-like shape and tight cell-cell adhesion, while vector cells showed a classical mesenchymal phenotype. Western blotting showed that expression of E-cadherin was increased, and expression of N-cadherin and Snail was decreased when cells coexpressed MAWBP and MAWD and were treated with TGF-β1. Nuclear translocation of p-Smad3 was reduced by attenuating its phosphorylation.Coexpression of MAWBP and MAWD inhibited EMT, and EMT-aided malignant cell progression was suppressed.
- Oncogene GAEC1 regulates CAPN10 expression which predicts survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2772-80.
To identify the downstream regulated genes of GAEC1 oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinicopathological significance.The anti-proliferative effect of knocking down the expression of GAEC1 oncogene was studied by using the RNA interference (RNAi) approach through transfecting the GAEC1-overexpressed esophageal carcinoma cell line KYSE150 with the pSilencer vector cloned with a GAEC1-targeted sequence, followed by MTS cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry. RNA was then extracted from the parental, pSilencer-GAEC1-targeted sequence transfected and pSilencer negative control vector transfected KYSE150 cells for further analysis of different patterns in gene expression. Genes differentially expressed with suppressed GAEC1 expression were then determined using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 cDNA microarray analysis by comparing with the parental cells and normalized with the pSilencer negative control vector transfected cells. The most prominently regulated genes were then studied by immunohistochemical staining using tissue microarrays to determine their clinicopathological correlations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by statistical analyses.The RNAi approach of knocking down gene expression showed the effective suppression of GAEC1 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line KYSE150 that resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation and increase of apoptotic population. cDNA microarray analysis for identifying differentially expressed genes detected the greatest levels of downregulation of calpain 10 (CAPN10) and upregulation of trinucleotide repeat containing 6C (TNRC6C) transcripts when GAEC1 expression was suppressed. At the tissue level, the high level expression of calpain 10 protein was significantly associated with longer patient survival (month) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma compared to the patients with low level of calpain 10 expression (37.73 ± 16.33 vs 12.62 ± 12.44, P = 0.032). No significant correction was observed among the TNRC6C protein expression level and the clinocopathologcial features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.GAEC1 regulates the expression of CAPN10 and TNRC6C downstream. Calpain 10 expression is a potential prognostic marker in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.