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World journal of emergency surgery [journal]
- Acute cholecystitis: WSES position statement. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):58.
The management of acute calculous cholecystitis still offers room for debate in terms of diagnosis, severity scores, treatment options and timing for surgery.A systematic review about the treatment of acute cholecystitis has been completed. The recommendations of recent guidelines have also been examined taking into account the results of the review.The evidence available in the literature supports the recommendation about laparoscopic cholecystectomy as treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. Surgery should be performed as soon as possible after the diagnosis because early treatment reduces total hospital stay and does not increase complication or conversion rates. The antibiotics can play different roles and attention should be posed to the risk of emerging resistance. A surgical or percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder is advocated by some authors in the advanced forms of inflammation or patients with severe co-morbidities; however, the available evidence does not support it, and further studies are necessary to clarify its role.
- World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of skin and soft tissue infections. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):57.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of pathological conditions ranging from simple superficial infections to severe necrotizing soft tissue infections. Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are potentially life-threatening infections of any layer of the soft tissue compartment associated with widespread necrosis and systemic toxicity. Successful management of NSTIs involves prompt recognition, timely surgical debridement or drainage, resuscitation and appropriate antibiotic therapy. A worldwide international panel of experts developed evidence-based guidelines for management of soft tissue infections. The multifaceted nature of these infections has led to a collaboration among surgeons, intensive care and infectious diseases specialists, who have shared these guidelines, implementing clinical practice recommendations.
- Patient delay is the main cause of treatment delay in acute limb ischemia: an investigation of pre- and in-hospital time delay. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):56.
The prognosis of acute limb ischemia is severe, with amputation rates of up to 25% and in-hospital mortality of 9-15%. Delay in treatment increases the risk of major amputation and may be present at different stages, including patient delay, doctors´ delay and waiting time in the emergency department. It is important to identify existing problems in order to reduce time delay. The aim of this study was to collect data for patients with acute limb ischemia and to evaluate the time delay between the different events from onset of symptoms to specialist evaluation and further treatment with focus on pre-hospital and in-hospital time delays.We conducted a prospective cross-sectional cohort study including all patients suspected with acute limb ischemia who were admitted to the emergency department of a community hospital in a six months period. Temporal delay in the different phases between the time of occurrence of symptoms and completion of treatment was recorded prospectively. All patients who underwent intervention had a 30 days follow-up with regard to major amputation of the leg and survival.A total of 42 patients (21 men and 21 women) age 73 (20-95) years (median (range)) was identified. From onset of symptoms to first contact with a doctor the time for all patients were 24 (0-1200) hours. Thirty patients needed immediate intervention. In the group of fourteen patients who had immediate operation, the median time from vascular evaluation to revascularization was 324.5 (122-873) minutes and in the group of eight patients that went through an imaging procedure before an operation the median delay was 822 (494-1185) minutes from specialist assessment to revascularization. The median time for revascularization among four patients, who were treated with arterial thrombolysis was 5621 (1686-8376) minutes. At 30 days follow up, six patients had had the ischemic limb amputated above the ankle and four patients had died.We found that the largest time delay was between onset of symptoms and first contact to a medical doctor. A greater public awareness is needed, so as to facilitate urgent revascularisation and improve outcomes.
- The HAC trial (harmonic for acute cholecystitis): a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing the use of harmonic scalpel to monopolar diathermy for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cases of acute cholecystitis. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):53.
The HARMONIC SCALPEL (H) is an advanced ultrasonic cutting and coagulating surgical device with important clinical advantages, such as: reduced ligature demand; greater precision due to minimal lateral thermal tissue damage; minimal smoke production; absence of electric corrents running through the patient. However, there are no prospective RCTs demonstrating the advantages of H compared to the conventional monopolar diathermy (MD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in cases of acute cholecystitis (AC).This study was a prospective, single-center, randomized trial (Trial Registration Number: NCT00746850) designed to investigate whether the use of H can reduce the incidence of intra-operative conversion during LC in cases of AC, compared to the use of MD. Patients were divided into two groups: both groups underwent early LC, within 72 hours of diagnosis, using H and MD respectively (H = experimental/study group, MD = control group). The study was designed and conducted in accordance with the regulations of Good Clinical Practice.42 patients were randomly assigned the use of H (21 patients) or MD (21 patients) during LC. The two groups were comparable in terms of basic patient characteristics. Mean operating time in the H group was 101.3 minutes compared to 106.4 minutes in the control group (p=ns); overall blood loss was significantly lower in the H group. Conversion rate was 4.7% for the H group, which was significantly lower than the 33% conversion rate for the control group (p<0.05). Post-operative morbidity rates differed slightly: 19% and 23% in the H and control groups, respectively (p=ns). Average post-operative hospitalization lasted 5.2 days in the H group compared to 5.4 days in the control group (p=ns).The use of H appears to correlate with reduced rates of laparoscopic-open conversion. Given this evidence, H may be more suitable than MD for technically demanding cases of AC.
- Impact of high prevalence of pseudomonas and polymicrobial gram-negative infections in major sub-/total traumatic amputations on empiric antimicrobial therapy: a retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):55.
Emergency treatment of major sub-/total traumatic amputations continue to represent a clinical challenge due to high infection rates and serious handicaps. Effective treatment is based on two columns: surgery and antimicrobial therapy. Detailed identification of pathogen spectrum and epidemiology associated with these injuries is of tremendous importance as it guides the initial empiric antibiotic regimen and prevents adverse septic effents.In this retrospective study 51 patients with major traumatic amputations (n = 16) and subtotal amputations (n = 35) treated from 2001 to 2010 in our trauma center were investigated. All patients received emergency surgery, debridement with microbiological testing within 6 h after admission and empircic antimicrobial therapy. Additionally to baseline patient characteristics, the incidence of positive standardized microbiologic testing combined with clinical signs of infection, pathogen spectrum, administered antimicrobial agents and clinical complications were analyzed.70.6% of the patients (n = 36) acquired wound infection. In 39% wounds were contaminated on day 1, whereas the mean length of duration until first pathogen detection was 9.1 ± 13.4 days after injury. In 37% polymicrobial colonization and 28% Pseudomonas were responsible for wound infections during hospitalization. In 45% the empirc antimicrobial therapy focussed on Gram positive strains did not cover the detected bacteria, according antimicrobial resistogram. It was significantly more often found in infections associated with Pseudomonas (p 0.02) or polymicrobial wound infections.This epidemiologic study reveals a pathogen shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative strains with high incidence of Pseudomonas and polymicrobial infections in sub-/total major traumatic amputations. Therefore, empiric antimicrobial treatment historically focussing on Gram-positive strains must be adjusted. We recommend the use of Piperacillin/Tazobactam for these injuries. As soon as possible antimicrobial treatment should be changed from empiric to goal directed therapy according to the microbiological tests and resistogram results.
- Resuscitative thoracotomies and open chest cardiac compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):54.
Since the popularisation of closed chest cardiac compressions in the 1960s, open chest compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest have become a largely forgotten art. Today, open chest compressions are only rarely performed outside operating theatres. Early defibrillation and high quality closed chest compressions is the dominating gold standard for the layman on the street as well as for the resuscitation specialist. In this paper we argue that the concept of open chest direct cardiac compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest should be revisited and that it might be due for a revival. Numerous studies demonstrate how open chest cardiac compressions are superior to closed chest compressions in regards to physiological parameters and outcomes. Thus, by incorporating resuscitative thoracotomies and open chest compressions in our algorithms for non-traumatic cardiac arrest we may improve outcomes.
- Hartmann's procedure vs loop colostomy in the treatment of obstructive rectosigmoid cancer. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):52.
Colorectal carcinoma is the most common malignant gastrointestinal tumour. There is still a considerable controversy when it comes to urgent surgical treatment of obstructive carcinoma of the left colon and rectum.Seventy-five patients from the randomized trial were followed up. This study was designed as a stratified randomized trial with four stratums according to age and ASA score (older/younger than 60 years and ASA score <>3). Each of the four groups is then divided into two sub-groups according to the operating technique: loop colostomy or Hartmann's procedure.There were no difference found in hospitalization among the groups (loop colostomy vs. Hartmann's procedure) in the same stratus (P = 0.3192, P = 0.5760, P = 0.9023 respectively), except in the case of doing reconstructive procedure after loop colostomy (P = 0.0049) in the fourth stratum (patients younger than 60 years with ASA score lower than 3). Type of operation had no influence over the blood test values observed on admittance and during hospitalization (P = 0.319, P = 0.871, P = 0.7, P = 0.843, P = 0.52 respectively for the blood values). In terms of surgical and non-surgical complications it has been shown that there is no statistically significant difference between patients treated by two methods. Age, gender, ASA score, type of operation and surgical complications were not singled out as a risk factor for fatal outcome (P = 0.199, P = 0.155, P = 0.764, P = 0.452 and P = 0.724 respectively). The only factors that are singled out as a risk factor for death are the emergence of non-surgical complications and angina pectoris (P = 0.006, P = 0.001).There is no difference in surgical treatment of large bowel obstruction caused by rectosigmoid carcinoma. Neither of those two methods showed significant advantage in treatment of large bowel obstruction caused by rectosigmoid cancer.
- Non-operative management attempted for selective high grade blunt hepatosplenic trauma is a feasible strategy. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):51.
There is growing evidence of clinical data recently for successful outcomes of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt hepatic and spleen injuries (BHSI). However, the effectiveness of NOM for high-grade BHSI remains undefined. The aim of the present study was to review our experience with NOM in high-grade BHSI and compare results with the existing related data worldwide.In this retrospectively protocol-driven study, 150 patients with grade 3-5 BHSI were enrolled during a 3-year period. Patients were divided into immediate laparotomy (immediate OP) and initial non-operative (initial NOM) groups according to hemodynamic status judged by duty trauma surgeon. Patients who received initial NOM were divided into successful NOM (s-NOM) and failed NOM (f-NOM) subgroups according to conservative treatment failure. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and the outcomes of patients.Twenty-eight (18.7%) patients underwent immediate operations, and the remaining 122 (81.3%) were initially treated with NOM. Compared with the initial NOM group, the immediate OP group had significantly lower hemoglobin levels, a higher incidence of tube thoracostomy, contrast extravasation and large hemoperitoneum on computed tomography, a higher injury severity score, increased need for transfusions, and longer length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization. Further analysis of the initial NOM group indicated that NOM had failed in 6 (4.9%) cases. Compared with the s-NOM subgroup, f-NOM patients had significantly lower hemoglobin levels, more hospitalized transfusions, and longer ICU LOS.NOM of high-grade BHSI in selected patients is a feasible strategy. Notwithstanding, patients with initial low hemoglobin level and a high number of blood transfusions in the ICU are associated with a high risk for NOM failure.
- Catastrophic hemorrhage of adrenal pheochromocytoma following thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: case report and literature review. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):50.
We describe here the case of a 62-year-old man with acute abdominal syndrome and severe hemorrhagic shock following successful thrombolysis for acute cardiac infarction. Emergency surgical exploration revealed extensive intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of a large adrenal tumor. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed by histological findings. The patient died a few hours after surgery from multiorgan failure despite resuscitation attempts. This report discusses the diagnosis difficulties, treatment approach, and relevant literature.
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of delayed primary wound closure in contaminated abdominal wounds. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):49.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare surgical site infection (SSI) between delayed primary (DPC) and primary wound closure (PC) in complicated appendicitis and other contaminated abdominal wounds. Medline and Scopus were searched from their beginning to November 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SSI and length of stay between DPC and PC. Studies' selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were done by two independent authors. The risk ratio and unstandardised mean difference were pooled for SSI and length of stay, respectively. Among 8 eligible studies, 5 studies were done in complicated appendicitis, 2 with mixed complicated appendicitis and other types of abdominal operation and 1 with ileostomy closure. Most studies (75%) had high risk of bias in sequence generation and allocation concealment. Among 6 RCTs of complicated appendicitis underwent open appendectomy, the SSI between PC and DPC were not significantly different with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.73). DPC had a significantly 1.6 days (95% CI: 1.41, 1.79) longer length of stay than PC. Our evidence suggested there might be no advantage of DPC over PC in reducing SSI in complicated appendicitis. However, this was based on a small number of studies with low quality. A large scale RCT is further required.