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World journal of emergency surgery [journal]
- Predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:43.
With the increasing aging population demographics and life expectancies the number of very elderly patients (age ≥ 80) undergoing emergency surgery is expected to rise. This investigation examines the outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery, including predictors of in-hospital mortality and morbidity.A retrospective study of patients aged 80 and above undergoing emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a tertiary care facility in Canada was conducted. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical indications, and perioperative risk assessment data were collected. Outcomes included length of hospitalization, discharge destination, and in-hospital mortality and morbidity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications.Of the 170 patient admissions, the mean age was 84 years and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.7%. Comorbidities were present in 91% of this older patient population. Over 60% of the patients required further services or alternate level of care on discharge. American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status (ASA) Classification (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.774-15.817, p = 0.003) and the development of an in-hospital complications (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.210-5.187, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. Chronological age or number of comorbidities was not predictive of surgical outcome.Mortality, complication rates and post-discharge care requirements were high in very elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery. Advanced age and medical comorbidities alone should not be the limiting factors for surgical referral or treatment. This study illustrates the importance of preventing an in-hospital complication in this very vulnerable population. ASA class is a robust tool which is predictive of mortality in the very elderly population and can be used to guide patient and family counseling in the emergency setting.
- Cost of care and antibiotic prescribing attitudes for community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in Italy: a retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:39.
Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are a common cause of morbidity worldwide, and in spite of improvements in patient care, therapeutic failure still occurs, impacting in-hospital resource consumption. This study aimed to assess the costs associated with the treatment of community-acquired cIAIs, from the Italian National Health Service perspective.This retrospective study analyzed the charts of patients who were discharged from four Italian university hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2009 with a primary diagnosis of community-acquired cIAIs. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, surgical procedure, antibiotic therapy, and length of hospital stay were all recorded and the cost of total hospital care was estimated. Costs were calculated in Euros at 2009 values.The records of 260 patients (mean age 48.9 years; 57% males) were analyzed. The average cost of care for a patient hospitalized due to cIAI was €4385 (95% CI 3650-5120), with an average daily cost of €419 (95% CI 378-440). Antibiotic therapy represented just under half (44.3%) of hospitalization costs. The strongest predictor of the increase in hospital costs was clinical failure: patients who clinically failed received an average of 8.2 additional days of antibiotic therapy and spent 11 more days in hospital compared with patients who responded to first-line therapy (both p < 0.05 vs. patients who were successfully treated). Furthermore, they incurred €5592 in additional hospitalization costs (2.88 times the cost associated with clinical success) with 53% (€2973) of the additional costs attributable to antibiotic therapy. Overall, antibiotic appropriateness rate was 78.8% (n = 205), and was significantly higher in patients receiving combination therapy compared with those treated with monotherapy (97.3% vs. 64.6%).The results of this study suggest that hospitals need to be aware of the clinical and economic consequences of antibiotic therapy of cIAIs and to reduce overall resource use and costs by improving the rate of success with appropriate initial empiric therapy.
- Analysis and injury paterns of walnut tree falls in central anatolia of turkey. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:42.
Falls are the second most common cause of injury-associated mortality worldwide. This study aimed to analysis the injuries caused by falls from walnut tree and assess their mortality and morbidity risk.This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients presenting to emergency department (ED) of Ahi Evran Univercity between September and October 2012. For each casualty, we computed the ISS (defined as the sum of the squares of the highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score in each of the three most severely injured body regions). Severe injury was defined as ISS ≥ 16. The duration of hospital stay and final outcome were recorded. Statistical comparisons were carried out with Chi-Square test for categorical data and non-parametric spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Fifty-four patients admitted to our emergency department with fall from walnut tree. Fifty (92.6%) patients were male. The mean age was 48 ± 14 years. Spinal region (44.4%) and particularly lumbar area (25.9%) sustained the most of the injuries among all body parts. Wedge compression fractures ranked first among all spinal injuries. Extremities injuries were the second most common injury. None of the patients died. Morbidity rate was 9.25%.Falls from walnut trees are a significant health problem. Preventive measures including education of farmers and agricultural workers and using mechanized methods for harvesting walnut will lead to a dramatic decrease in mortality and morbidity caused by falls from walnut trees.
- Establishment and implementation of an effective rule for the interpretation of computed tomography scans by emergency physicians in blunt trauma. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:40.
Computed tomography (CT) can detect subtle organ injury and is applicable to many body regions. However, its interpretation requires significant skill. In our hospital, emergency physicians (EPs) must interpret emergency CT scans and formulate a plan for managing most trauma cases. CT misinterpretation should be avoided, but we were initially unable to completely accomplish this. In this study, we proposed and implemented a precautionary rule for our EPs to prevent misinterpretation of CT scans in blunt trauma cases.WE ESTABLISHED A SIMPLE PRECAUTIONARY RULE, WHICH ADVISES EPS TO INTERPRET CT SCANS WITH PARTICULAR CARE WHEN A COMPLICATED INJURY IS SUSPECTED PER THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: 1) unstable physiological condition; 2) suspicion of injuries in multiple regions of the body (e.g., brain injury plus abdominal injury); 3) high energy injury mechanism; and 4) requirement for rapid movement to other rooms for invasive treatment. If a patient meets at least one of these criteria, the EP should exercise the precautions laid out in our newly established rule when interpreting the CT scan. Additionally, our rule specifies that the EP should request real-time interpretation by a radiologist in difficult cases. We compared the accuracy of EPs' interpretations and resulting patient outcomes in blunt trauma cases before (January 2011, June 2012) and after (July 2012, January 2013) introduction of the rule to evaluate its efficacy.Before the rule's introduction, emergency CT was performed 1606 times for 365 patients. We identified 44 cases (2.7%) of minor misinterpretation and 40 (2.5%) of major misinterpretation. After introduction, CT was performed 820 times for 177 patients. We identified 10 cases (1.2%) of minor misinterpretation and two (0.2%) of major misinterpretation. Real-time support by a radiologist was requested 104 times (12.7% of all cases) and was effective in preventing misinterpretation in every case. Our rule decreased both minor and major misinterpretations in a statistically significant manner. In particular, it conspicuously decreased major misinterpretations.Our rule was easy to practice and effective in preventing EPs from missing major organ injuries. We would like to propose further large-scale multi-center trials to corroborate these results.
- Lemierre's disease: a case with bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a literature review. [REVIEW]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:38.
Lemierre's disease is characterized by sepsis, often with an oropharyngeal source, secondary septic emboli and internal jugular vein thrombosis (Lancet 1:701-3, 1936. Clin Microbiol Rev 20(4):622-59, 2007). Septic emboli affecting many bodily sites have been reported, including the lungs, joints, bones, and brain. The case report describes an unusual case of Lemierre's disease in a 64 year old gentleman causing profound sepsis, acute kidney injury, bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a right hand abscess. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lemierre's disease in the context of bilateral psoas abscesses, and highlights the ambiguity surrounding the definition of Lemierre's disease. The clinical literature review highlights the difficulty in definitively diagnosing the condition and offers some suggestions for recognising and refining the diagnostic criterion of Lemierre's.
- Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:37.
The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). 1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients. 827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses. The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898). According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001).
- Blunt cerebrovascular injury in rugby and other contact sports: case report and review of the literature. [REVIEW]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:36.
Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI.
- Right diaphragmatic injury and lacerated liver during a penetrating abdominal trauma: case report and brief literature review. [REVIEW]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:33.
Diaphragmatic injuries are rare consequences of thoracoabdominal trauma and they often occur in association with multiorgan injuries. The diaphragm is a difficult anatomical structure to study with common imaging instruments due to its physiological movement. Thus, diaphragmatic injuries can often be misunderstood and diagnosed only during surgical procedures. Diagnostic delay results in a high rate of mortality.We report the management of a clinical case of a 45-old man who came to our observation with a stab wound in the right upper abdomen. The type or length of the knife used as it was extracted from the victim after the fight. CT imaging demonstrated a right hemothorax without pulmonary lesions and parenchymal laceration of the liver with active bleeding. It is observed hemoperitoneum and subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen, as a bowel perforation. A complete blood count check revealed a decrease in hemoglobin (7 mg/dl), and therefore it was decided to perform surgery in midline laparotomy.In countries with a low incidence of inter-personal violence, stab wound diaphragmatic injury is particularly rare, in particular involving the right hemidiaphragm. Diaphragmatic injury may be underestimated due to the presence of concomitant lesions of other organs, to a state of shock and respiratory failure, and to the difficulty of identifying diaphragmatic injuries in the absence of high sensitivity and specific diagnostic instruments. Diagnostic delay causes high mortality with these traumas with insidious symptoms. A diaphragmatic injury should be suspected in the presence of a clinical picture which includes hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, anemia and the presence of subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen.
- Repair of diaphragmatic hernia following spinal surgery by laparoscopic mesh application: a case report and review of the literature. [REVIEW]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:34.
We describe the laparoscopic management of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) caused by vertebral pedicle screw displacement. A 58-year-old woman underwent surgery for scoliosis and underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation. In the first postoperative (PO)day, she developed mild dyspnea. An anteroposterior chest radiograph revealed bilateral pleural effusion, which was more pronounced on the left side. A thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, performed in the second PO day, revealed a solid mass in the pleural cavity that was associated with screw displacement, which had also entered into the peritoneal cavity without apparent other lesion of hollow and solid viscous. In the third PO day, after the screw was removed, explorative laparoscopy was carried out. We observed herniation of the omentum through a small diaphragmatic tear. Once the absence of visceral injury was confirmed, we reduced the omentum into the abdomen. Then, we repaired the hernia by applying a dual layer polypropylene mesh over the defect with a 3-cm overlap. The remainder of the postoperative period was uneventful. Iatrogenic DH due to a pedicle screw displacement has never been described before. In cases of pleural effusion following spinal surgery, rapid assessment and treatment are crucial. We conclude that a laparoscopic approach to iatrogenic DH could be feasible and effective in a hemodynamically stable patient with negative CT findings because it enables the completion of the diagnostic cascade and the repair of the tear, providing excellent visualization of the abdominal viscera and diaphragmatic tears.
- Giant extra-hepatic thrombosed portal vein aneurysm: a case report and review of the literature. [REVIEW]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014.:35.
Extrahepatic Portal vein aneurysm (EPVA) is a rare finding that may be associated with different complications, e.g. thrombosis, rupture, portal hypertension and compression of adjacent structures. It is being diagnosed more frequently with the advent of modern cross-sectional imaging. Our review of the English literature disclosed 13 cases of thrombosed EPVA.A 50-years-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain but no other symptom. She had no relevant medical history. Palpation of the right upper quadrant showed tenderness. Laboratory tests were unremarkable. A computed tomography showed portal vein aneurysm measuring 88 × 65 mm with thrombosis extending to the superior mesenteric and splenic vein. The patient was treated conservatively with anticoagulation therapy. She was released after two weeks and followed on an outpatient basis. At two months, she reported decreased abdominal pain and her physical examination was normal. A computed tomography was performed showing a decreased thrombosis size and extent, measuring 80 × 55 mm.Although rare, surgeons should be made aware of this entity. Complications are various. Conservative therapy should be chosen in first intent in most cases. We reported the case of the second largest thrombosed extra-hepatic PVA described in the literature, treated by anticoagulation therapy with a good clinical and radiological response.