World journal of emergency surgery [journal]
- Pattern and predictors of mortality in necrotizing fasciitis patients in a single tertiary hospital. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:40.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a fatal aggressive infectious disease. We aimed to assess the major contributing factors of mortality in NF patients.A retrospective study was conducted at a single surgical intensive care unit between 2000 and 2013. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their in-hospital outcome (survivors versus non-survivors).During a14-year period, 331 NF patients were admitted with a mean age of 50.8 ± 15.4 years and 74 % of them were males Non-survivors (26 %) were 14.5 years older (p = 0.001) and had lower frequency of pain (p = 0.01) and fever (p = 0.001) than survivors (74 %) at hospital presentation. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease were more prevalent among non-survivors (p = 0.001). The 2 groups were comparable for the site of infection; except for sacral region that was more involved in non-survivors (p = 0.005). On admission, non-survivors had lower hemoglobin levels (p = 0.001), platelet count (p = 0.02), blood glucose levels (p = 0.07) and had higher serum creatinine (p = 0.001). Non-survivors had greater median LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for NECrotizing fasciitis score) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (p = 0.001). Polybacterial and monobacterial gram negative infections were more evident in non-survivors group. Monobacterial pseudomonas (p = 0.01) and proteus infections (p = 0.005) were reported more among non-survivors. The overall mortality was 26 % and the major causes of death were bacteremia, septic shock and multiorgan failure. Multivariate analysis showed that age and SOFA score were independent predictors of mortality in the entire study population.The mortality rate is quite high as one quarter of NF patients died during hospitalization. The present study highlights the clinical and laboratory characteristics and predictors of mortality in NF patients.
- The learning curve of single-port laparoscopic appendectomy performed by emergent operation. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:39.
Single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPLA) has the advantage of minimizing abdominal incision scars with patient satisfaction. However, it has the following disadvantages: it provides a narrower surgical field than conventional laparoscopic appendectomy, which requires a considerably longer operative time to achieve surgical skills. This study was conducted to evaluate the learning curve for SPLA.This study included a total of 120 patients with acute abdomen who visited our emergency department and were diagnosed with acute appendicitis between March 2013 and February 2015. They underwent SPLA by a single surgeon. Patients were divided into 4 groups of 30 patients each according to operation dates. Operative time, time to resume oral intake, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were analyzed.The mean operative time was 59.9 ± 19.9 min. It was shortened after completion of 30 operations and remained unchanged until it was further shortened after completion of 90 operations. There was no significant difference in time to resumption of oral intake or length of hospital stay between the 4 groups. Postoperative complications occurred in 18 patients, but the frequency of the complications was not significantly different between the 4 groups.The results of this study suggest that surgeons can achieve surgical skills for SPLA after completion of 30 operations and more experienced surgical skills by SPLA successfully after completion of 90 operations.
- On table POCUS assessment for the IVC following abdominal packing: how I do it. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:38.
Some surgeons may lack proper experience in abdominal packing. Overpacking may directly compress the inferior vena cava (IVC). This reduces the venous return and possibly causes hypotension. Here, a new on table Point-of-Care Ultrasound application that has been recently used to assess the effect of abdominal packing on the IVC diameter is described. Following abdominal packing, a small print convex array probe with low frequency (2-5 MHz) is used to visualize the IVC. Using the B mode, the IVC can be directly evaluated through a hepatic window between the ribs. The ultrasound beam should be vertical to the IVC longitudinal section at its midpoint. The abdominal towels will be in front of the IVC. This will enable us to judge whether there was overpacking on the IVC.Our method demonstrates that overpacking does not compress the IVC in a patient whose blood pressure has improved. The IVC diameter progressively increases on table and in the ICU with active resuscitation implying that bleeding stopped and the resuscitation was successful. Furthermore, presence of intra-peritoneal fluid can be excluded.This new application of ultrasound evaluation of IVC patency after abdominal packing is simple, practical, easily reproducible, and can guide a less experienced surgeon in determining if overpacking of the abdomen is the cause of hypotension. Ultrasound findings should be correlated with the clinical picture to be useful.
- WSES Guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:37.
Acute left sided colonic diverticulitis is one of the most common clinical conditions encountered by surgeons in acute setting. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference on acute diverticulitis was held during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES in Jerusalem, Israel, on July 7th, 2015. During this consensus conference the guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting were presented and discussed. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.
- Geriatric Assessment as a qualification element for elective and emergency cholecystectomy in older patients. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:36.
Older patients experience a higher incidence of postoperative complications after cholecystectomy compared with younger patients. However, most studies have not considered patient frailty, particularly regarding emergency cholecystectomy. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate outcomes in frail older patients eligible for elective and emergency cholecystectomy.Preoperative Geriatric Assessment (GA) was performed in consecutive patients aged 65+ years, operated for biliary disease. The GA evaluated the functional, cognitive, comorbidity, depressive, nutritional, and polypharmacy status and patients with two or more abnormal domains were considered frail. Outcomes of interest were 30-day postoperative mortality, morbidity, and length of hospital stay (LOS).A total of 126 patients (median age 74; range 65-93 years) were included. There was no difference between elective frail and non-frail patients regarding postoperative mortality (0 %) and morbidity (6 % vs. 5 %; p = 0.76). LOS was not significantly longer in the frail group (5.6 vs. 4 days; p = 0.22). In the emergency-admitted patients, almost all complications occurred in the frail population (mortality 5 % vs. 0 %; morbidity 36.7 % vs. 3.3 %, compared with non-frail patients, respectively; p < 0.01) and LOS was significantly longer (10.3 (frail) vs. 6 days (non-frail);p = 0.03). Frail status was a significant independent predictive factor for postoperative complications in the emergency population, only (odds ratio: 3.4 (1.2-9.7); p = 0.02).Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective surgical technique also for older frail patients. In emergency settings, frail patients have significantly more complications and a longer LOS. However, the role of severity of frailty and the most reliable GA tools require further study.ISRCTN14976998 (retrospectively registered).
- Patterns and management of degloving injuries: a single national level 1 trauma center experience. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:35.
Degloving soft tissue injuries (DSTIs) are serious surgical conditions. We aimed to evaluate the pattern, management and outcome of DSTIs in a single institute.A retrospective analysis was performed for patients admitted with DSTIs from 2011to 2013. Presentation, management and outcomes were analyzed according to the type of DSTI.Of 178 DSTI patients, 91 % were males with a mean age of 30.5 ± 12.8. Three-quarter of cases was due to traffic-related injuries. Eighty percent of open DSTI cases were identified. Primary debridement and closure (62.9 %) was the frequent intervention used. Intermediate closed drainage under ultrasound guidance was performed in 7 patients; however, recurrence occurred in 4 patients who underwent closed serial drainage for recollection and ended with a proper debridement with or without vacuum assisted closure (VAC). Closed DSTIs were mainly seen in the lower extremity and back region and initially treated with conservative management as compared to open DSTIs. Infection and skin necrosis were reported in 9 cases only. Open DSTIs were more likely involving head and neck region and being treated by primary debridement/suturing and serial debridement/washout with or without VAC. All-cause DSTI mortality was 9 % that was higher in the closed DSTIs (19.4 vs 6.3 %; p = 0.01).The incidence of DSTIs is 4 % among trauma admissions over 3 years, with a greater predilection to males and young population. DSTIs are mostly underestimated particularly in the closed type that are usually missed at the initial presentation and associated with poor outcomes. Treatment guidelines are not well established and therefore further studies are warranted.
- WSES Jerusalem guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:34.
Acute appendicitis (AA) is among the most common cause of acute abdominal pain. Diagnosis of AA is challenging; a variable combination of clinical signs and symptoms has been used together with laboratory findings in several scoring systems proposed for suggesting the probability of AA and the possible subsequent management pathway. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of AA is still debated, with variable use of US, CT and MRI in different settings worldwide. Up to date, comprehensive clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of AA have never been issued. In July 2015, during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES, held in Jerusalem (Israel), a panel of experts including an Organizational Committee and Scientific Committee and Scientific Secretariat, participated to a Consensus Conference where eight panelists presented a number of statements developed for each of the eight main questions about diagnosis and management of AA. The statements were then voted, eventually modified and finally approved by the participants to The Consensus Conference and lately by the board of co-authors. The current paper is reporting the definitive Guidelines Statements on each of the following topics: 1) Diagnostic efficiency of clinical scoring systems, 2) Role of Imaging, 3) Non-operative treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis, 4) Timing of appendectomy and in-hospital delay, 5) Surgical treatment 6) Scoring systems for intra-operative grading of appendicitis and their clinical usefulness 7) Non-surgical treatment for complicated appendicitis: abscess or phlegmon 8) Pre-operative and post-operative antibiotics.
- Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA). [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:33.
Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
- Safety in selective surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:32.
Selective management of penetrating neck injuries has been considered the standard of care with minimal risks to patient safety. In a previous non-randomized prospective study conducted at our center, selective management proved to be safe and reduced unnecessary exploratory cervicotomies. In the present study, the role of clinical examination and selective diagnostic tests were assessed by reviewing demographic and clinical data. A comparison of results between two groups (mandatory surgical exploration versus selective surgical exploration) was made to check the safety of selective management in terms of the rates of morbidity and mortality.A retrospective analysis at the Emergency Department of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo was performed by a chart review of our trauma registry, identifying 161 penetrating neck trauma victims.Of the 161 patients, 81.6 % were stabbed and 18.4 % had gunshot injuries. Stratifying the wound entry points by neck zones, we observed that zone I was penetrated in 32.8 %, zone II in 44.1 % and zone III in 23.1 % of all the cases. Thirty one patients (19.2 %) had immediate surgical exploration, which had a mean length of stay of 6 days, a complication rate of 12.9 % and a mortality rate of 9.4 %. Of the 130 who underwent selective surgical exploration 34 (26.1 %) required operative procedures after careful physical examination and diagnostic testing based on clinical indications. The mean length of stay for the selective surgical exploration group was 2 days with a complication rate of 17.6 % with no mortality, and virtually all of them were related to associated injuries in distant body segment. No statistical significance was found comparing mortality and complication rates between the two groups. Selective approach avoided 59 % of unnecessary exploratory cervicotomies.Careful evaluation of asymptomatic and stable patients with minor signs of injury can safely avoid unnecessary neck explorations with low rates of morbidity. This should be the standard management of such patients.
- International normalized ratio and serum C-reactive protein are feasible markers to predict complicated appendicitis. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2016.:31.
Diagnostic approach for complicated appendicitis is still controversial. We planned this study to analyze preoperative laboratory markers that may predict complications of appendicitis.Patients who underwent appendectomy were retrospectively recruited. They were divided into complicated appendicitis and non-complicated appendicitis groups and their preoperative laboratory results were reviewed.A total of 234 patients were included. Elevated international normalized ratio (INR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with complicated appendicitis (p = 0.001). On ROC curve analysis, area under the curve (AUC) of CRP and INR were 0.796 and 0.723, respectively.INR and CRP increased significantly in patients with complicated appendicitis. Further studies evaluating INR and CRP in patients undergoing conservative management for appendicitis are required.