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World journal of emergency surgery [journal]
- Successful treatment of a 14-year-old patient with intestinal malrotation with laparoscopic Ladd procedure: case report and literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013 May 17; 8(1):19.
Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd's bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.
- Correlation of the oxygen radical activity and antioxidants and severity in critically ill surgical patients - study protocol. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8(1):18.
BACKGROUND:Surgical patients who require an emergent operation commonly have severe sepsis or septic shock, followed by high morbidity and mortality rates.Despite advances in treatment however, no predictable markers are available. In severe sepsis, many pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in progression to organ failure, and oxygen free radical and antioxidants are known to contribute to this process. Oxygen free radical and antioxidants contribute to progression of organ failure in severe sepsis. In fact, oxygen radical activity has been reported to be correlated with disease severity and prognosis in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Accordingly, we aim to assess the usefulness of oxygen free radical and antioxidant concentrations to predict the disease severity and mortality in a cohort of critically ill surgical patients.
METHODS/DESIGN:This is a prospective observation study including patient demographic characteristics, clinical information, blood sampling/serum oxygen radical activity, serum antioxidant activity, serum antioxidant concentrations (zinc, selenium and glutamate), disease severity scores, outcomes, lengths of stay in intensive care unit, hospital 30-day mortality.
- World society of emergency surgery study group initiative on Timing of Acute Care Surgery classification (TACS). [Editorial]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8(1):17.
Timing of surgical intervention is critical for outcomes of patients diagnosed with surgical emergencies. Facing the challenge of multiple patients requiring emergency surgery, or of limited resource availability, the acute care surgeon must triage patients according to their disease process and physiological state. Emergency operations from all surgical disciplines should be scheduled by an agreed time frame that is based on accumulated data of outcomes related to time elapsed from diagnosis to surgery. Although literature exists regarding the optimal timing of various surgical interventions, implementation of protocols for triage of surgical emergencies is lacking. For institutions of a repetitive triage mechanism, further discussion on optimal timing of surgery in diverse surgical emergencies should be encouraged. Standardizing timing of interventions in surgical emergencies will promote clinical investigation as well as a commitment by administrative authorities to proper operating theater provision for acute care surgery.
- Routine ultrasound examination by OB/GYN residents increase the accuracy of diagnosis for emergency surgery in gynecology. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8(1):16.
Diagnostic accuracy of first-line sonographic evaluation by obstetrics/gynecology residents in determining the need for emergency surgery in women with acute pelvic pain is unknown. Aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine ultrasound evaluation by obstetrics/gynecology residents, available 24 hours a day, in patients with acute pelvic pain.A cross-sectional retrospective study included consecutive patients who underwent emergency laparoscopy for acute pelvic pain at a teaching hospital gynecologic emergency unit, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. The laparoscopic diagnosis was the reference standard. Gynecologic and nongynecologic conditions requiring immediate surgery to avoid severe morbidity or death were defined as surgical emergencies. In all patients, obstetrics/gynecology residents routinely performed clinical examination and standardized ultrasonography was routinely recorded. Sonograms were re-interpreted for the study, blinded to physical examination and laparoscopic findings, according to evidence-based predetermined criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were computed for clinical data alone, sonographic data alone, and the combination of both.Emergency laparoscopy was performed in 234 patients, diagnosing 139 (59%) surgical emergencies. Clinical and sonographic examinations performed by the residents each independently predicted a need for emergency surgery. Combining both examinations was superior over each examination alone and had an acceptable false-negative rate of 1%.First-line combined clinical and sonographic examination by obstetrics/gynecology residents is effective in ruling out surgical emergencies in patients with acute pelvic pain.
- Second WSES convention, WJES impact factor, and emergency surgery worldwide. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8(1):15.
- Surgical telepresence: the usability of a robotic communication platform. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2012 Aug 22.:S11.
The benefits of telepresence in trauma and acute surgical care exist, yet its use in a live, operating room (OR) setting with real surgical cases remains limited.We tested the use of a robotic telepresence system in the OR of a busy, level 1 trauma center. After each case, both the local and remote physicians completed questionnaires regarding the use of the system using a five point Likert scale. For trauma cases, physicians were asked to grade injury severity according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Scaling System.We collected prospective, observational data on 50 emergent and elective cases. 64% of cases were emergency surgery on trauma patients, almost evenly distributed between penetrating (49%) and blunt injuries (51%). 40% of non-trauma cases were hernia-related. A varied distribution of injuries was observed to the abdomen, chest, extremities, small bowel, kidneys, spleen, and colon. Physicians gave the system high ratings for its audio and visual capabilities, but identified internet connectivity and crowding in the operating room as potential challenges. The loccal clinician classified injuries according to the AAST injury grading system in 63% (n=22) of trauma cases, compared to 54% (n=19) of cases by the remote physicians. The remote physician cited obstruction of view as the main reason for the discrepancy. 94% of remote physicians and 74% of local physicians felt comfortable communicating via the telepresence system. For 90% of cases, both the remote and local physicians strongly agreed that a telepresence system for consultations in the OR is more effective than a telephone conversation.A telepresence system was tested on a variety of surgical cases and demonstrated that it can be an appropriate solution for use in the operating room. Future research should determine its impact on processes of care and surgical outcomes.
- Alcohol acute intoxication before sepsis impairs the wound healing of intestinal anastomosis: rat model of the abdominal trauma patient. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2012 Aug 22.:S10.
Most trauma patients are drunk at the time of injury. Up to 2% of traumatized patients develop sepsis, which considerably increases their mortality. Inadequate wound healing of the colonic repair can lead to postoperative complications such as leakage and sepsis.To assess the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on colonic anastomosis wound healing in septic rats.Thirty six Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: S (induction of sepsis) and AS (alcohol intake before sepsis induction). A colonic anastomosis was performed in all groups. After 1, 3 or 7 days the animals were killed. Weight variations, mortality rate, histopathology and tensile breaking strength of the colonic anastomosis were evaluated.There was an overall mortality of 4 animals (11.1%), three in the group AS (16.6%) and one in the S group (5.5%). Weight loss occurred in all groups. The colon anastomosis of the AS group didn't gain strength from the first to the seventh postoperative day. On the histopathological analysis there were no differences in the deposition of collagen or fibroblasts between the groups AS and S.Alcohol intake increased the mortality rate three times in septic animals. Acute alcohol intoxication delays the acquisition of tensile strength of colonic anastomosis in septic rats. Therefore, acute alcohol intoxication before sepsis leads to worse prognosis in animal models of the abdominal trauma patients.
- Non operative management of abdominal trauma -- a 10 years review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013 Apr 5; 8(1):14.
INTRODUCTION:Due to high rate of operative mortality and morbidity non-operative management of blunt liver and spleen trauma was widely accepted in stable pediatric patients, but the general surgeons were skeptical to adopt it for adults. The current study is analysis of so far largest sample (1071) of hemodynamically stable blunt liver, spleen, kidney and pancreatic trauma patients managed non operatively irrespective of severity of a single /multiple solid organ injury or other associated injuries with high rate of success.
METHODS:Experience of 1071 blunt abdominal trauma patients treated by NOM at a tertiary care National Trauma Centre in Oman (from Jan 2001 to Dec 2011) was reviewed, analyzed to determine the indications, methods and results of NOM. Hemodynamic stability along with ultra sound, CT scan and repeated clinical examination were the sheet anchors of NOM. The patients were grouped as (1) managed by NOM successfully, (2) failure of NOM and (3) directly subjected to surgery.
RESULTS:During the 10 year period, 5400 polytrauma patients were evaluated for abdominal trauma of which 1285 had abdominal injuries, the largest sample study till date. Based on initial findings 1071 patients were admitted for NOM. Out of 1071 patients initially selected 963 (89.91%) were managed non operatively, the remaining 108 (10.08%) were subjected to laparotomy due to failure of NOM. Laparotomy was performed on 214(19.98%) patients as they were unstable on admission or had evidence of hollow viscous injury.
CONCLUSION:NOM for blunt abdominal injuries was found to be highly successful in 89.98% of the patients in our study. Management depended on clinical and hemodynamic stability of the patient. A patient under NOM should be admitted to intensive care / high dependency for at least 48-72 hours for close monitoring of vital signs, repeated clinical examinations and follow up investigations as indicated.
- Fournier's gangrene: our experience with 50 patients and analysis of factors affecting mortality. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8(1):13.
Fournier's gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and perineum. Case series have shown a mortality rate of 20% to 40% with an incidence of as high as 88% in some reports. In this study we aimed to share our experience in the management of Fournier's gangrene and to identify risk factors that affect mortality.The medical records of 50 patients with Fournier's gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez from January 2003 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk factors and prognostic indicators of mortality.Ten males and five females were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 54 years (range 23-81). The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (34%). E. coli was the most frequent bacterial organisms cultured. All patients were treated with a common approach of resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and wide surgical excision. The mortality rate was 24%. The advanced age, renal failure on admission, extension of infection to the abdominal wall, occurrence of septic shock and need for postoperative mechanical ventilation are the main prognostic factors of mortality. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables is an independent predictor of mortality.Fournier's gangrene is still a very severe disease with high mortality rates. Early recognition of infection associated with invasive and aggressive treatment is essential for attempting to reduce these prognostic indices.
- Fatal motorcycle crashes: a serious public health problem in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2012 Aug 22.:S5.
The numbers of two-wheel vehicles are growing across the world. In comparison to other vehicles, motorcycles are cheaper and thus represent a significant part of the automobile market. Both the mobility and speed are attractive factors to those who want to use them for work or leisure. Crashes involving motorcyclists have become an important issue, especially fatal ones. Specific severe injuries are responsible for the deaths. Defining them is necessary in order to offer better prevention and a more suitable medical approach.All fatal motorcycle crashes between January 2001 and December 2009 in Campinas, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Official data have been collected from police incident reports, hospitals' registers and autopsies. Both incidents and casualties were analyzed according to relevant variables. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) was calculated, describing the most potentially fatal injuries.There were 479 deaths; 90.8% were male; the mean age was 27.8 (range 0-73); 86.4% were conductors of the vehicles; blood alcohol was positive in 42.3%; 49.7% died at a hospital; 32.6% died at the scene; 26.1% of the accidents occurred at night, 69.1% were urban and 30.9% occurred on highways. The main causes of injury were collisions (63%) and falls (14%). The mean ISS was 38.5 (range 9-75). With regard to injuries, head trauma (67%) and thoracic trauma (40%) were the most common, followed by abdominal trauma (35%). Traumatic brain injury (67%) and hypovolemic shock (38%) were the most frequent causes of death.Alcohol was a significant factor in relation to the accidents. Head trauma was the most frequent and severe injury. Half of the victims died before receiving adequate medical attention, suggesting that prevention programs and laws should be implemented and applied in order to save future lives.