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Yonsei Med J [journal]
- False femoral neck fracture detected during shaft nailing: a Mach band effect. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):803-5.
Femoral neck fractures are associated with femoral shaft fractures in 1% to 9% of cases. Undisplaced neck fractures are susceptible to displacement during shaft nailing. We report the case of a 57-year-old male patient in whom we performed standard intramedullary nailing for a femoral shaft fracture. In doing so, we identified a vertical radiolucent line at the femoral neck, which was thought to be further displacement of a hidden silent fracture or an iatrogenic fracture that developed during nail insertion. Consequently, we decided to switch to reconstructive femoral nailing. Postoperative hip imaging failed to show the femoral neck fracture that we saw in the operating room. Here, we discuss the aforementioned case and review the literature concerning this artifact.
- Extensive bullous complication associated with intermittent pneumatic compression. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):801-2.
Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device is an effective method to prevent deep vein thrombosis. This method has been known to be safe with very low rate of complications compared to medical thromboprophylaxis. Therefore, this modality has been used widely in patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery. We report a patient who developed extensive bullae, a potentially serious skin complication, beneath the leg sleeves during the use of IPC device after hip fracture surgery.
- Hypermagnesemia accompanied with colonic perforation in a hemodialysis patient. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):797-800.
We report a case of a chronic hemodialysis patient who developed hypermagnesemia due to an overdose of magnesium-containing laxative and paralytic ileus resulting in colonic perforation. Despite intravenous calcium infusion and daily hemodialysis, the patient developed ischemic colitis and intestinal perforation. Colonic perforation accompanied with hypermagnesemia in hemodialysis patients has rarely been reported. This case suggests that hypermagnesemia should be considered in renal failure patients as this can result in life-threatening events despite prompt treatment.
- Primary central nervous system ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with predominantly leptomeningeal involvement in an adult. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):791-6.
A 31-year-old Korean male presented with altered consciousness and severe headache. Brain MRI delineated focal leptomeningeal enhancement without any intracerebral lesions. Diagnosis was made based on a brain biopsy showing anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), immunohistochemical stains revealing positivity for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and an absence of involvement in any other organs; specifically, the primary central nervous system ALK+ALCL. Complete remission was achieved following 5 cycles of systemic chemotherapy with a high dose of Methotrexate and a simultaneous 7 cycles of intrathecal triple chemotherapy. Diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal ALK+ALCL is challenging given its rarity and non-specific symptoms along with non-pathognomonic radiologic findings. We present the first case of primary leptomeningeal ALK-positive ALCL where the clinical course, pathologic characteristics and treatment modality are described as well as a review of literature.
- Cardiac tamponade complicated by acupuncture: hemopericardium due to shredded coronary artery injury. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):788-90.
We report a case of 62-year-old man with cardiac tamponade due to coronary artery injury after acupuncture into the substernum. After resuscitation of cardiac arrest, we performed emergent pericardiocentesis. Nevertheless, the cardiac arrest recurred, and the emergent operation on cardiopulmonary bypass was performed. We identified hemopericardium due to shredded acute marginal branch of right coronary artery, and it was ligated leading to termination of bleeding. The patient was discharged without any other complications.
- Characteristics of corticospinal tract area according to pontine level. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):785-7.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows to isolate the corticospinal tract (CST) area from adjacent structures. Using DTI, we investigated the characteristics of the CST areas according to the pontine level in the normal human brain. We recruited 33 healthy subjects and DTIs were acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil on a 1.5-T Philips Gyroscan Intera. We measured the size and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the CST area at the upper, middle, and lower pons. The size of the CST area in the lower pons was smaller than those of the mid-pons and upper pons, and the size of the CST area in the mid-pons was smallerthan that of the upper pons (p<0.05). FA values of the lower pons were larger than those of the mid-pons and upper pons, and the FA value of the mid-pons was also larger than that of the upper pons (p<0.05). In summary, we found a smaller size and higher FA value of the CST area from rostral to caudal direction in the pons. These results suggest a more compact neural structure of CST areas from rostral to caudal direction in the pons.
- Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule: a histological study using human fetuses. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):778-84.
It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor.Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology.In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue.In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani.
- Human SNF2L gene is regulated constitutively and inducibly in neural cells via a cAMP-response element. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):772-7.
SNF2L belongs to Imitation Switch family and plays an essential role in neural tissues and gonads. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that the basal transcription of human SNF2L gene is regulated by two cis-elements, cAMP response element (CRE)- and Sp1-binding sites. Recent studies suggested that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation significantly up-regulated SNF2L expression in ovarian granulose cells. These data suggested that protein kinase-mediated signal pathways might also regulate SNF2L expression in neural cells. We therefore investigated the effects of agents that activate protein kinases A on SNF2L gene expression in neural cells.To increase intracellular cAMP levels, all neural cells were treated with forskolin and dbcAMP, two cAMP response activators. We exmined the effects of cAMP on the promoter activity of human SNF2L gene by luciferase reporter gene assays, and further examined the effects of cAMP on endogenous SNF2L mRNA levels by qPCR.Transient expression of a luciferase fusion gene under the control of the SNF2L promoter was significantly increased by treatment of rat primary neurons with forskolin or dbcAMP, but not PC12, C6 and SH-SY5Y cells. Consistently, treatment with forskolin or dbcAMP could enhance endogenous SNF2L mRNA levels also only in rat primary neurons.These results suggest that the CRE consensus sequence in the SNF2L proximal promoter most likely confers constitutive activation and regulation by cAMP in neural cells.
- Effects of co-administration of intrathecal nociceptin/orphanin FQ and opioid antagonists on formalin-induced pain in rats. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):763-71.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) as an endogeneous hexadecapeptide is known to exert antinociceptive effects spinally. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the antinociceptive effects of i.t. N/OFQ and to investigate the possible interaction between N/OFQ and endogenous opioid systems using selective opioid receptor antagonists in rat formalin tests.I.t. N/OFQ was injected in different doses (1-10 nmol) via a lumbar catheter prior to a 50 μL injection of 5% formalin into the right hindpaw of rats. Flinching responses were measured from 0-10 min (phase I, an initial acute state) and 11-60 min (phase II, a prolonged tonic state). To observe which opioid receptors are involved in the anti-nociceptive effect of i.t. N/OFQ in the rat-formalin tests, naltrindole (5-20 nmol), β-funaltrexamine (1-10 nmol), and norbinaltorphimine (10 nmol), selective δ-, μ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists, respectively, were administered intrathecally 5 min after i.t. N/OFQ.I.t. N/OFQ attenuated the formalin-induced flinching responses in a dose-dependent manner in both phases I and II. I.t. administration of naltrindole and β-funaltrexamine dose-dependently reversed the N/OFQ-induced attenuation of flinching responses in both phases; however, norbinaltorphimine did not.I.t. N/OFQ exerted an antinociceptive effect in both phases of the rat-formalin test through the nociceptin opioid peptide receptor. In addition, the results suggested that δ- and μ-opioid receptors, but not κ-opioid receptors, are involved in the antinociceptive effects of N/OFQ in the spinal cord of rats.
- Fresh frozen plasma in pump priming for congenital heart surgery: evaluation of effects on postoperative coagulation profiles using a fibrinogen assay and rotational thromboelastometry. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Yonsei Med J 2013 May 1; 54(3):752-62.
In this prospective study, the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) included in pump priming for congenital heart surgery in infants and children on post-bypass coagulation profiles were evaluated.Either 20% albumin (50-100 mL) or FFP (1-2 units) was added to pump priming for patients randomly allocated into control or treatment groups, respectively. Hematologic assays, including functional fibrinogen level, and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) were measured before skin incision (baseline), after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and heparin reversal, and at 24 hours (h) in the intensive care unit (ICU).All the baseline measurements were comparable between the control and treatment groups of infants and children. After heparin reversal, however, significantly higher fibrinogen levels and less reduced ROTEM parameters, which reflect clot formation and firmness, were demonstrated in the treatment groups of infants and children. At 24 h in the ICU, hematologic assays and ROTEM measurements were comparable between the control and treatment groups of infants and children. Transfusion requirements, excluding FFP in pump prime, and postoperative bleeding were comparable between the control and treatment groups of infants and children.Although clinical benefits were not clearly found, the inclusion of FFP in pump priming for congenital heart surgery in infants and children was shown to improve the hemodilution-related hemostatic dysfunction immediately after weaning from CPB and heparin reversal.