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Z Naturforsch C [journal]
- A new cytotoxic brominated acetylenic hydrocarbon from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. with a selective effect against human breast cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):70-5.
Three acetylenic brominated derivatives were isolated from a Red Sea sponge, Haliclona sp. One of them, 18-bromooctadeca-9(E),17(E)-dien-7,15-diynoic acid (3), is a known metabolite, and the other two are new compounds, (1E,5E,12E,19E)-1,22-dibromodocosa-1,5,12,19-tetraen-3,14,21-triyne (1) and methyl 18-bromooctadeca-9(E),17(E)-dien-7,15-diynoate (2) which was isolated for the first time as a natural metabolite. Structures of all compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic measurements [1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR, MS, UV, and IR]. All compounds, except 3, were evaluated for their cytotoxicity employing four cancer cell lines, i.e. MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), WI-38 (skin carcinoma), and Vero (African green monkey kidney). Compounds 1 and 2 had potent selective antitumour activity towards MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 32.5 and 50.8 microM, respectively.
- Cloning, expression, and purification of a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):60-9.
We report cDNA cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of a novel Cu/ Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Jatropha curcas leaves. The full-length cDNA of this SOD contained a 496-bp open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 162 amino acid residues. The recombinant plasmid containing the SOD coding sequence was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the SOD was expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant SOD was purified from a high-density fed-batch culture using a combination of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and Sephadex G25 desalting chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis indicated that the recombinant SOD was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of approximately 16.4 kDa. Isoelectric focusing showed that this SOD was a basic protein with pI values of 7.04, 7.33, 8.62, and 8.77. The activity of the SOD was stable at 70 degrees C for 10 min, and in a broad pH range from 4 to 9. The presence of urea (up to 8 M), guanidinium chloride (up to 6 M), and 2-mercaptoethanol (up to 8 mM) had little effect on the activity. The activity decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of imidazole, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Atomic absorption spectrometry showed the presence of 0.239 copper and 0.258 zinc atoms, respectively, in the SOD polypeptide.
- Phenol biodegradation by fungal cells immobilized in sol-gel hybrids. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):53-9.
The capability of cells of the fungus Aspergillus awamori, either free or immobilized in hybrid sol-gel material cells, for phenol biodegradation was demonstrated. Phenol was present in the reaction mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, and its decomposition was followed in repeated batch degradation experiments. Atomic force microscopy provided information on the development of self-organizing structures in the materials synthesized by the sol-gel method. Phenol biodegradation was mediated only by the fungal cells, and no absorption by the hybrid matrix was observed. Ten cycles of phenol biodegradation using the immobilized cells system were conducted during which up to 2000 mg l(-1) phenol was completely decomposed. Immobilized cells degraded phenol at 8.33 mg h(-1), twice as fast as free cells. The good performance of the immobilized fungal cell system is promising for the development of an efficient technology for treating phenol-containing waste waters.
- Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10 cells entrapped in cryogels. [Journal Article]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):47-52.
Production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant by cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BN10 immobilized into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) cryogels was investigated under semicontinuous shake flask conditions and compared to biosurfactant secretion by free cells. The biosurfactant synthesis was followed over 9 cycles of operation of the immobilized system, each cycle comprising 7 days at ambient temperature and neutral pH. Type and quantity of the carrier were optimized for the rhamnolipid production. The highest rhamnolipid yield of 4.6 g l(-1) was obtained in the 6th cycle for the immobilized system with 3 g PEO compared to 4.2 g l(-1) obtained for the free cells, thus immobilization provided physiological stability of the cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed preservation of the cell shape and regular distribution of the cells under the matrix surface. The polymer matrices possessed chemical and biological stability and very good physico-mechanical characteristics which are a prerequisite for a high life span of these materials for the production of rhamnolipids.
- Cell death of rice roots under salt stress may be mediated by cyanide-resistant respiration. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):39-46.
Treatment with solutions containing high concentrations of NaCl (200 or 300 mM) induced cell death in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, as well as the application of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H2O2, partially alleviated the root cell death induced by 200 mM NaCl. These observations suggest that the cell death of rice roots under high salt stress is linked to H2O2 accumulation in vivo. NaCl stress increased the level of cyanide-resistant respiration to some extent and enhanced the transcript levels of the alternative oxidase (AOX) genes AOX1a and AOX1b in rice roots. High-salt-stressed (200 mM NaCl) rice roots pretreated with 1 mM salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a specific inhibitor of alternative oxidase, exhibited higher levels of cell death and H2O2 production than roots subjected to either 200 mM NaCl stress or SHAM treatment alone. These results suggest that cyanide-resistant respiration could play a role in mediating root cell death under high salt stress. Furthermore, this function of cyanide-resistant respiration could relate to its ability to reduce the generation of H2O2.
- Induction of caspase-8 and death receptors by a new dammarane skeleton from the dried fruits of Forsythia koreana. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):29-38.
A new naturally occurring compound based on the dammarane skeleton, i.e. cabralealactone 3-acetate-24-methyl ether, was isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of Forsythia koreana fruits, along with eight known compounds: cabralealactone 3-acetate, ursolic acid, arctigenin, arctiin, phillyrin, rutin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid. The identification of the isolated compounds was based on their spectral analysis including: HREI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The selected compounds and the aqueous methanolic extract were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human solid tumour cell lines. Cabralealactone 3-acetate-24-methyl ether and ursolic acid were found to be active against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The cytotoxicity was associated with the activation of caspase-8, the induction of the death receptors DR4 and DR5, as well as DNA fragmentation, and was thus due to apoptosis rather than necrosis.
- A new flavonoid C-glycoside from Solanum elaeagnifolium with hepatoprotective and curative activities against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):19-28.
A new flavonoid C-glycoside, kaempferol 8-C-beta-galactoside, along with twelve known glycosidic flavonoids was isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae), by conventional chromatographic methods; their structure elucidation was achieved using UV, ESI-MS, and NMR spectral analyses. Groups of six mice were administered S. elaeagnifolium extracts at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg body weight (BW) prior to or post administration of a single dose of paracetamol (500 mg/kg BW). The extract showed significant hepatoprotective and curative effects against histopathological and histochemical damage induced by paracetamol in liver. The extract also ameliorated the elevation in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. These findings were accompanied by a nearly normal architecture of the liver in the treated groups, compared to the paracetamol control group. As a positive control, silymarin was used, an established hepatoprotective drug against paracetamol-induced liver injury. This study provides the first validation of the hepatoprotective activity of S. elaeagnifolium.
- Analysis of the essential oil of Dipsacus japonicus flowering aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):13-8.
Water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dipsacus japonicus Miq. (Dipsacaceae) at the flowering stage was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-six compounds, accounting for 96.76% of the total oil, were identified and the main compounds of the essential oil were linalool (11.78%), trans-geraniol (8.58%), 1,8-cineole (7.91%), beta-caryophyllene (5.58%), alpha-terpineol (5.32%), beta-selinene (5.15%), and spathulenol (5.04%). The essential oil of D. japonicus possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 18.32 microg/ adult and 13.45 microg/adult, respectively. The essential oil of D. japonicus also exhibited pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 10.11 mg/l air) and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 5.26 mg/l air). Of the three major compounds, 1,8-cineole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the crude essential oil against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 2.96 mg/l air and 4.86 mg/l air, respectively.
- Comparative study of the volatiles' composition of healthy and larvae-infested Artemisia ordosica. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):8-12.
Volatiles emitted by healthy Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) and plants infested with larvae of Sphenoptera sp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) or Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were obtained using a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight major compounds were identified, and qualitative and quantitative differences were compared. The novel green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and the ester methyl salicylate were present in all infested plants. Volatiles from healthy plants were dominated by D-limonene (32.14%), beta-pinene (16.63%), beta-phellandrene (16.06%), and sabinene (12.88%). Volatiles from Sphenoptera sp. larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (24.74%), beta-pinene (21.05%), alpha-pinene (19.39%), and sabinene (11.64%), whereas volatiles from H. artemisiae larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (31.76%), sabinene (18.49%), ocimene (15.93%), and beta-phellandrene (10.59%). In addition to the qualitative variation, a larvae-induced quantitative change in the proportion of terpenoids in the blends was also a noticeable feature.
- New furanocoumarins and other chemical constituents from Ficus carica root heartwood. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):3-7.
Two new furanocoumarins, 5-(1",1"-dimethylallyl)-8-methyl psoralen (1) and 2"-O-acetyl oxypeucedanin hydrate-3"-methyl ether (2), were isolated from the root heartwood of Ficus carica Linn. together with three known furanocoumarins, two triterpenoids, two long-chain compounds, and a steroid. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR) and by comparison of their NMR spectral data with those of related compounds.