- A global survey of banteng (Bos javanicus) housing and husbandry. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Oct 13
- Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their e...
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management. Completed surveys from 16 zoos enabled analysis of contemporary practice between institutions. Results indicate differences in enclosure size between zoos, and that herd size is unlikely to predict enclosure size. Herd sizes are smaller than wild examples, and enclosure space (per animal) is significantly smaller than a potential wild range. Banteng are frequently maintained successfully in mixed species exhibits alongside a wide range of other taxa. Nutrient analysis focused on fiber and protein, and although provision of these nutrients appears comparable between zoos, more work is needed on browse and forage intake to determine overall diet suitability. Behavior management shows variation between zoos, with numerous collections providing browse but only a minority undertaking training, and not all providing enrichment. The overall diversity in findings between zoos suggest future research areas that should focus on key aspects of behavioral ecology, such as wild foraging behavior, food plant selection and day/night activity patterns, which may help underpin husbandry guidelines and excellent animal welfare. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Forthcoming in Zoo Biology. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016; 35(5):463
- Announcements. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016; 35(5):462
- Instructions for Contributors. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016; 35(5):464-465
- Variation in food availability mediate the impact of density on cannibalism, growth, and survival in larval yellow spotted mountain newts (Neurergus microspilotus): Implications for captive breeding programs. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Oct 5
- In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared...
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52. Both food level and density had a significant effect on cannibalism. The highest frequency of cannibalism was recorded for larvae reared in the low food/high density and lowest in high food/low density treatments. Growth, percent of larval metamorphosed, and survival were all highest in the high food/low density and lowest in low food/high density treatment. Food level had a significant effect on growth, metamorphosis, and survival. However, the two levels of density did not influence growth and metamorphosis but showed a significant effect on survival. Similarly, combined effects of food level and density showed significant effects on growth, metamorphosis, and survival over time. Information obtained from current experiment could improve productivity of captive breeding facilities to ensure the release of adequate numbers of individuals for reintroduction programs. Zoo Biol. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Why do captive pied tamarins give birth during the day? [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Sep 29
- Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most spe...
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell. The proportion of diurnal births has remained relatively stable over time despite management changes. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to investigate several factors that we hypothesized could affect time of birth: maternal experience, season, female rearing history, and whether or not the group was on public display. We fitted all possible models to the data, but none explained more than 7.5% of the variation. Daytime delivery had few statistically significant detrimental effects, although infant survival was somewhat lower and parental rejection increased in diurnal births. Pied tamarins do not seem to fit any of the hypotheses previously put forward to explain exceptions to the typical primate circadian pattern of delivery. Zoo Biol. XX:1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Increasing the dietary supply of carotenoids through forage supplementation: Effect on nitrogen and mineral retention in captive Golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus). [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Sep 13
- This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female ...
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635 g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T1 were fed a conventional zoo diet containing 1.4% green forages; however, the diets of the birds in groups T2 and T3 contained 2.7% and 5.0% of green forages, respectively. Intake of total carotenoids increased with increased level of green forages in the diet. Apparent retention of N, Ca, and Zn was higher in GP laying hens fed diet containing 5.0% green forages as compared to those fed conventional diet containing 1.4% green forages. Results of the present study indicate that inclusion of 5% green forage in the diet of GP would improve the utilization of N, Ca, and Zn without any adverse effect on intake and utilization of other nutrients. Data related to nutrient intake, basal endogenous losses (BEL) and coefficient of retention (COR) of N, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn are novel and may be of use for future research. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Sep 13
- Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behavio...
Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (rs = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. XX:1-7, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Characterization of multiple pathways modulating aggression in the male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Sep 2
- Breeding clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) ex situ has been a challenge, primarily due to extreme and often fatal male aggression toward females. This study's aim was to determine the degree to wh...
Breeding clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) ex situ has been a challenge, primarily due to extreme and often fatal male aggression toward females. This study's aim was to determine the degree to which two possible mechanisms-serotonergic pathways and circulating testosterone levels-affect aggressive behavior. Male clouded leopard behavioral and hormonal data were collected during a series of behavior tests administered before and after treatment with either an anxiety-reducing tricyclic antidepressant (clomipramine) or a GnRH agonist (deslorelin). Results showed that clomipramine treatment decreased "overall activity" (P = 0.054) and increased "lying down" (P = 0.0043) and hiding in a "nest box" (P = 0.0023). Clomipramine treatment also decreased the incidence of "growling" during a mirror image stimulation test, relative to non-test periods (P < 0.0001 pre-drug treatment; P = 0.242 peri-drug treatment), indicating reduced aggression. Suppression of the reproductive axis via deslorelin treatment resulted in significant decreases in circulating androgen (P < 0.0001) and glucocorticoid (P < 0.0001), accompanied by decreased aggressive behaviors, including "swatting" (P = 0.0476), "tail flicking" (P = 0.0409), and "growling" during the behavior reaction tests: mirror image stimulation (P < 0.0001 pre-drug treatment: P = 0.7098 peri-drug treatment) and unfamiliar people test (P < 0.0001 pre-drug treatment: P = 0.2666 peri-drug treatment) relative to non-test periods. Both drug treatments provide evidence that multiple mechanisms modulate aggressive behavior in the male clouded leopard, suggesting that serotonergic modulation coupled with circulating androgens may aid in the formation of successful breeding pairs. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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- Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups. [Journal Article]
- ZBZoo Biol 2016 Aug 29
- Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these ...
Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.