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ABPA allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis AND Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis ABPA [keywords]
- Coexistence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic aspergillus sinusitis in a patient without clinical asthma. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
All patients with prolonged cough with a history of atopy, even if not clinically asthmatic, should be evaluated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); also, we suspect that we may miss the early diagnosis of ABPA if bronchial asthma is considered as a major criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA.
- The utility of galactomannan antigen in the bronchial washing and serum for diagnosing pulmonary aspergillosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Med 2013 Apr 27.
BACKGROUND:The diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis is difficult because the sensitivity of the conventional methods for the detection of Aspergillus such as culture and cytology, is poor. To improve the sensitivity for Aspergillus detection, the detection of galactomannan antigen has been investigated. The serum galactomannan (GM) antigen has been recognized to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. However, the utility of the galactomannan antigen for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been unclear.
METHODS:The GM antigen using serum and bronchial washing (BW) using bronchofiberscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than IPA were measured.
RESULTS:In 45 enrolled patients, 7 patients had pulmonary aspergillosis, 5 of these patients had chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis and 2 patients had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.89 for the BW GM antigen detection test, and 0.41 for the serum GM antigen detection test, suggesting that the BW GM antigen detection test exhibits a better diagnostic performance than the serum GM antigen detection test. The BW GM antigen detection test had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 76.3% at a cut-off level of ≥0.5, which was the optimal cut-off level obtained by the ROC curve.
CONCLUSION:The BW GM antigen detection test is thought to be a promising test for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than IPA.
- Itraconazole as 'bridge therapy' to anti-IgE in a patient with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Sensitisation to fungi has been reported to play an important role in a particular phenotype of severe asthma, the so-called severe asthma with fungal sensitisation, characterised by high levels of total IgE, which may be an obstacle to anti-IgE therapy. We describe here the case of a polysensitised woman with refractory asthma, sensitised to Aspergillus fumigatus with high total IgE values (1793 kUA/l), but without the diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Additional therapy with itraconazole leads to the decrease of total IgE to the limits recommended for proper omalizumab dosing (30-1500 kUA/l). Itraconazole, used as bridge therapy, provided us the opportunity to start anti-IgE treatment in a patient with high levels of total IgE, beyond the upper limits recommended for proper prescription of omalizumab.
- Diagnostic performance of various tests and criteria employed in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a latent class analysis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61105.
The efficiency of various investigations and diagnostic criteria used in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remain unknown, primarily because of the lack of a gold standard. Latent class analysis (LCA) can provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity in absence of gold standard. Herein, we report the performance of various investigations and criteria employed in diagnosis of ABPA.Consecutive subjects with asthma underwent all the following investigations Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A.fumigatus specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest. We used LCA to estimate the performance of various diagnostic tests and criteria in identification of ABPA.There were 372 asthmatics with a mean age of 35.9 years. The prevalence of Aspergillus sensitization was 53.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of various tests were Aspergillus skin test positivity (94.7%, 79.7%); IgE levels>1000 IU/mL (97.1%, 37.7%); A.fumigatus specific IgE levels>0.35 kUA/L (100%, 69.3%); Aspergillus precipitins (42.7%, 97.1%); eosinophil count>1000 cells/µL (29.5%, 93.1%); chest radiographic opacities (36.1%, 92.5%); bronchiectasis (91.9%, 80.9%); and, high-attenuation mucus (39.7%, 100%). The most accurate criteria was the Patterson criteria using six components followed by the Agarwal criteria. However, there was substantial decline in accuracy of the Patterson criteria if components of the criteria were either increased or decreased from six.A.fumigatus specific IgE levels and high-attenuation mucus were found to be the most sensitive and specific test respectively in diagnosis of ABPA. The Patterson criteria remain the best diagnostic criteria however they have good veridicality only if six criteria are used.
- Vanishing lung mass in a patient with asthma. [Journal Article]
- J Thorac Dis 2013 Apr; 5(2):E45-9.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common but frequently misdiagnosed clinical condition. It is usually diagnosed in patients with a long standing history of asthma. Patients with ABPA can have diverse radiological manifestations. Very rarely, lung masses have been reported. We hereby report a case of ABPA in whom a large symptomatic lung mass was the presenting manifestation leading to consideration of lung cancer as a differential diagnosis. The establishment of ABPA as the underlying diagnosis led to conservative medical treatment which was followed by complete resolution of the mass like opacity. The present case highlights that ABPA should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever encountering a patient with lung mass and history of asthma.
- [Lung mycosis in non neuropenic patients]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- J Mycol Med 2012 Sep; 22(3):217-20.
Lung mycosis is rare. Diagnosis and treatment must be done the earliest possible.
METHODS:It is about a retrospective study on clinical records including patients hospitalized for lung infection.
RESULTS:From 2008 to 2011, 16 patients (13 men and three women, average age 42 years) developed a pulmonary infection. Twelve of our patients had respiratory or extrarespiratory histories. None of our patients had a neutropenia. The diagnoses were lung aspergilloma in four cases, invasive lung aspergillosis in three cases, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in three cases, mucormycosis in three cases, trichosporonosis in a case, actinomycosis in one case and penicilliosis in one case. An antifungal treatment consisting in amphotericin B or itraconazole was given to four patients and six patients, respectively. Surgery was chosen for six patients. The evolution was good for 12 patients, one presented renal failure, and three patients died.
- What is the clinical significance of filamentous fungi positive sputum cultures in patients with cystic fibrosis? [Journal Article]
- J Cyst Fibros 2013 May; 12(3):187-93.
In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the isolation of filamentous fungi, in particular Aspergillus spp. in the respiratory secretions is a common occurrence. Most of these patients do not fulfil the clinical criteria for a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The clinical relevance of filamentous fungi and whether antifungal therapy should be started in patients with persistent respiratory exacerbations who do not respond to two or more courses of appropriate oral or intravenous antibiotics and in whom no other organisms are isolated from respiratory secretions is a dilemma for the CF clinician. In this article, we review the epidemiology and clinical significance of filamentous fungi in the non-ABPA CF lung, with an emphasis on Aspergillus spp. colonisation (AC), the clinical relevance of Aspergillus spp. positive respiratory cultures and the outcome following antifungal therapy in these patients.
- Vitamin D Regulation of OX40 Ligand in Immune Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus. [Journal Article]
- Infect Immun 2013 May; 81(5):1510-9.
OX40 ligand (OX40L) is a costimulatory molecule involved in Th2 allergic responses. It has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased OX40L expression in peripheral CD11c(+) cells and controls Th2 responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To investigate if vitamin D deficiency regulated OX40L and Th2 responses in vivo, we examined the effect of nutritional vitamin D deficiency on costimulatory molecules in CD11c(+) cells and A. fumigatus-induced Th2 responses. Vitamin D-deficient mice showed increased expression of OX40L on lung CD11c(+) cells, and OX40L was critical for enhanced Th2 responses to A. fumigatus in vivo. In in vitro assays, vitamin D treatment led to vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding in the promoter region of OX40L and significantly decreased the promoter activity of the OX40L promoter. In addition, vitamin D altered NF-κB p50 binding in the OX40L promoter that may be responsible for repression of OX40L expression. These data show that vitamin D can act directly on OX40L, which impacts Th2 responses and supports the therapeutic use of vitamin D in diseases regulated by OX40L.
- A 55-year-old man with severe persistent asthma poorly responsive to asthma therapy. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 Nov-Dec; 33(6):538-43.
Asthma is often triggered by allergic and nonallergic factors in atopic individuals and readily responds to anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator therapy. The differential diagnosis for poorly responsive disease includes severe persistent asthma with associated allergic rhinitis, cardiac disorders such as left ventricular failure or mitral stenosis, vocal cord dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, recurrent aspiration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchiectasis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, airway neoplasm, and Churg-Strauss vasculitis. A careful history and physical in conjunction with appropriate screening of laboratory information will usually direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.
- Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to fungi other than Aspergillus: a global overview. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Rev Microbiol 2013 Feb 5.
Abstract Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity-mediated disease of worldwide distribution. We reviewed 143 reported global cases of ABPM due to fungi other than aspergilli. The commonest etiologic agent was Candida albicans, reported in 60% of the cases, followed by Bipolaris species (13%), Schizophyllum commune (11%), Curvularia species (8%), Pseudallescheria boydii species complex (3%) and rarely, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium vasinfectum, Penicillium species, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Stemphylium languinosum, Rhizopus oryzae, C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon beigelii. India accounted for about 47% of the globally reported cases of ABPM, attributed predominantly to C. albicans, followed by Japan (16%) where S. commune predominates, and the remaining one-third from the USA, Australia and Europe. Notably, bronchial asthma was present in only 32% of ABPM cases whereas its association with development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is known to be much more frequent. The cases reviewed herein revealed a median IgE value threefold higher than that of ABPA, suggesting that the etiologic agents of ABPM incite a stronger immunological response than that by aspergilli in ABPA. ABPM is currently underdiagnosed, warranting comprehensive basic and clinical studies in order to elucidate its epidemiology and to devise a more effective therapy.