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- An invitro evaluation of antibacterial properties of self etching dental adhesive systems. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jul; 8(7):ZC01-5.
The microbial flora of the oral cavity is extremely diverse. Residual bacteria in the oral cavity may remain at the tooth restoration interface and increase the risk of developing recurrent caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate and long term antibacterial effect of polymerised self etching adhesive systems.Streptococcus mutans were used as a test organism. The self etching dental adhesives that were used are Adper Easy One, G-Bond, Clearfil S3 bond and Xeno V. Agar diffusion test (ADT) was performed on agar plates, in which four holes that were 4mm in diameter were punched. Then 200 μL of freshly grown S.mutans spread evenly. The four holes were immediately filled with the four tested materials and light polymerised them using a light curing unit. The agar plates were incubated for 72h at 37°C. For the direct contact test (DCT), the bonding agents were placed on the side walls of microtiter plate wells and light polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions. A 10μL bacterial suspension was placed on the tested material samples. Bacteria were allowed to directly contact the polymerized dental adhesives for 1h at 37(o)C. Fresh Brain heart infusion broth was then added. The bacterial growth was then spectrophotometrically measured in the wells every 30 min for 16h for 1,2, 7 and 14 days.In the ADT, inhibitory halos were found around all the bonding agents, with greater inhibition halo seen around Xeno V after incubating for 72 h at 37°C. The readings obtained through DCT were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons tests, which showed no bacterial growth on fresh samples and after aging for one day in PBS with self etching adhesives. RESULTS of DCT after aging for 2 days, 7 days and 14 days showed bacterial growth in all the bonding agents used with no significant difference from the control group.(p<0.001) CONCLUSION: All the dental adhesives showed antibacterial properties immediately and one day after polymerization but none of the self-etching adhesives had long-lasting antibacterial properties.
- External beam radiotherapy plus single-fraction high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Radiother Oncol 2014 Aug 27.
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) as a boost in patients (pts) with intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer.From 2002 to July 2012, 377pts with a diagnosis of intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer were treated with EBRT plus HDRB. Median patient age was 66years (range, 41-86). Most patients (347pts; 92%) were classified as high-risk (stage T2c-T3, or PSA>20ng/mL, or GS⩾8), with 30 patients (8%) considered intermediate risk. All patients underwent EBRT at a prescribed dose of 60.0Gy (range, 45-70Gy) to the prostate and seminal vesicles. A total of 120pts (31%) received a dose of 46Gy (45-50Gy) to the true pelvis. All pts received a single-fraction 9Gy (9-15Gy) HDR boost. Most patients (353; 94%) were prescribed complete androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) rates were calculated. In the case of BRFS, patients with <26months of follow-up (n=106) were excluded to minimize the impact of ADT.The median follow-up for the entire sample was 50months (range, 12-126), with 5-year actuarial OS and CSS, respectively, of 88% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84-92) and 98% (95% CI: 97-99). The 5-year BRFS was 91% (95% CI: 87-95) in the 271pts with ⩾26months (median, 60months) of follow-up. Late toxicity included grade 2 and 3 gastrointestinal toxicity in 17 (4.6%) and 6pts (1.6%), respectively, as well as grades 2 and 3 genitourinary toxicity in 46 (12.2%) and 3pts (0.8%), respectively.These long-term outcomes confirm that EBRT plus a single-fraction HDRB boost provides good results in treatment-related toxicity and biochemical control. In addition to the excellent clinical results, this fractionation schedule reduces physician workload, treatment-related expenses, patient discomfort and risks associated with anaesthesia. We believe these findings support the use of single-fractionation boost techniques.
- Advances in local and ablative treatment of oligometastasis in prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug 25.
Oligometastasis is a state of limited metastatic disease that may be amenable to aggressive local therapy to achieve long-term survival. This review aims to explore the role of ablative radiotherapy and surgical management of prostate cancer (CaP) patients with oligometastasis. We performed a systematic review of the literature from November 2003 to November 2013 in the PubMed and EMBASE databases using structured search terms. From our literature search, we identified 13 cases of oligometastatic CaP managed by surgery. The longest disease-free survival documented was 12 years following pulmonary metastasectomy. We also found 12 studies using radiotherapy to treat oligometastatic CaP with median follow-up ranging from 6 to 43 months. Local control rates and overall survival at 3 years range from 66 to 90% and from 54 to 92%, respectively. Most patients did not report any significant toxicity. The limited current literature suggests oligometastatic CaP may be amenable to more aggressive local ablative therapy to achieve prolonged local control and delay to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There is a larger body of evidence supporting the use of radiotherapy than surgery in this disease state. However, no direct comparison with ADT is available to suggest an improvement in overall survival. Further studies are required to determine the role of aggressive-targeted local therapy in oligometastatic CaP.
- Randomized phase 2 study of bone-targeted therapy containing strontium-89 in advanced castrate-sensitive prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer 2014 Aug 22.
Radiopharmaceutical use may improve the survival time of patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. Whether androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with bone-targeted therapy provides a clinical benefit to patients with advanced castrate-sensitive prostate cancer has not been investigated.Eighty male patients were enrolled, and 79 were randomized: 40 to the control arm and 39 to the strontium-89 (Sr-89) arm. After randomization, patients in both study arms received ADT, doxorubicin, and zoledronic acid. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to evaluate the progression-free survival (PFS) time. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the effects of Sr-89 after controlling for the number of bone metastases.The median follow-up time for the 29 patients alive at the last follow-up was 76.9 months (range, 0.07-103.4 months). The median PFS time was 18.5 months (95% confidence interval, 9.7-49.4 months) for the control arm and 12.9 months (95% confidence interval, 8.9-72.5 months) for the Sr-89 arm (P = .86). No patient developed myelodysplastic syndrome or a hematologic malignancy. An unplanned subgroup analysis suggested increased efficacy of bone-targeted therapy with a greater extent of bone involvement (ie, >6 bone metastases vs ≤6 bone metastases on the bone scan).The data showed that bone-targeted therapy using 1 dose of Sr-89 combined with chemohormonal ablation therapy did not favorably affect the PFS of patients with castrate-sensitive prostate cancer. The combined therapy was feasible and safe. Whether such bone-targeted therapy provides a favorable outcome for those patients with a greater tumor burden in the bone warrants further investigation. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
- Serum tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycan is a potential predictive biomarker for castration-resistant prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prostate 2014 Aug 23.
The U.S. FDA has approved several novel systemic agents including abiraterone acetate and taxoid cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) result in a complicated decision-making while selecting an appropriate treatment. Therefore, a predictive biomarker for CRPC would provide useful information to physicians. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of serum N-glycan profiling in CRPC.Serum N-glycomics was performed in 80 healthy volunteers and 286 benign prostatic hyperplasia, 258 early-stage PC, 46 PC with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and 68 CRPC patients using the glycoblotting method. A total of 36 types of N-glycan levels in each patient were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. We also examined the expression of N-glycan branching enzyme genes in PC cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR.We observed that tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans were significantly higher in CRPC patients than in any other groups. The longitudinal follow-up of tri- and tetra- antennary N-glycan levels revealed that one PC with ADT patient showed an increase that was more than the cut-off level and two consecutive increases in tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycan levels 3 months apart; resulted in biochemical recurrence despite the castrate level of testosterone, and the patient was defined as CRPC. Expression of N-glycan branching enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in CRPC cell lines.These results suggest that the overexpression of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycan may be associated with the castration-resistant status in PC and may be a potential predictive biomarker for CRPC. Prostate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Regulation of Androgen Receptor by E3 Ubiquitin Ligases: for More or Less. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Receptors Clin Investig 2014; 1(5)
Prostate cancer (PCa) primarily depends on the dysregulations of androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway for the initiation and growth as well as recurrence after chemotherapy (). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) effectively alleviates symptoms of the malignancy to arrest further growth of primary tumors or progression of metastasis in patients with advanced PCa. However, relapse occurs in many patients after a short period, and PCa cells eventually become insensitive to ADT - termed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ([2, 3]). Tremendous advancements have been achieved to decipher the mechanisms on AR signaling, and the ubiquitination machinery contributes to PCa directly or indirectly by either promotion of AR transcriptional activity or degradation of AR protein levels. The recent report reveals that SKP2 regulates AR protein through ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, highlighting the role of SKP2 in AR signaling. Given the pivotal roles of AKT and SKP2 in cancers, the differential mechanisms of AR ubiquitination by various E3 ligases hold valuable significance and beneficial implications for PCa control.
- Active Dynamic Infrared Thermal Imaging in Burn Depth Evaluation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Burn Care Res 2014 Aug 20.
The aim of this study was to find the relationship between active dynamic thermography (ADT) with cold excitation and burn depth. This new modality of evaluation of burns seems to be an attractive proposal for quantitative classification, allowing proper choice of burn wound treatment: conservative or surgical, especially compared with static thermography. The work was an in vivo experiment on domestic pigs, and a small number of patients were also diagnosed as part of the study. Statistical analysis showed a high correlation between the ADT synthetic parameter-thermal time constant, τ-and the classification of burn wounds that were predicted to heal within 3 weeks and so were treated conservatively and those that were predicted to not heal within 3 weeks and so were surgically treated. The results of the study show an accuracy of 60.7% for clinical evaluation, 69.6% for static thermography, 83.0% for ADT, and 84.0% for histopathologic assessment. The authors have concluded that the ADT method with cold excitation is suitable for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of burn depth.
- Androgen-deprivation-associated bone disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Urol 2014 Aug 20.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a common treatment for prostate cancer, even in the nonmetastatic setting and in scenarios without evidence of efficacy. Increasing attention has focused on its adverse effects, of which bone disease in the form of osteoporosis and fractures has been one of the major concerns. Recently published articles are reviewed, focusing on ADT effects on bone and management of ADT-associated bone disease.A range of strategies directed at ADT-associated bone disease are available, including antiresorptive agents such as denosumab and bisphosphonates, as well as complementary approaches such as calcium and vitamin D supplementation, exercise regimens, and multifaceted interventions incorporating several approaches. Most interventions used bone mineral density as a surrogate outcome, despite compelling evidence that it inadequately captures fracture risk.The antiresorptive agents are clearly able to preserve bone mineral density in men on ADT, whereas other approaches have modest to no benefits. Unfortunately, despite intense research interest in this area, no approach has yet demonstrated a definitive and convincing reduction in clinically relevant fracture outcomes. This emphasizes the importance of restricting the use of ADT to settings in which its benefits are clearly established, in order to limit unnecessary complications.
- Bone complications among prostate cancer survivors: long-term follow-up from the prostate cancer outcomes study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2014 Aug 19.
BACKGROUND:To assess the relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) exposure and self-reported bone complications among men in a population-based cohort of prostate cancer survivors followed for 15 years after diagnosis.METHODS:The Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study enrolled 3533 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1995. This analysis included participants with non-metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis who completed 15-year follow-up surveys to report development of fracture, and use of bone-related medications. The relationship between ADT duration and bone complications was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models.RESULTS:Among 961 surviving men, 157 (16.3%) received prolonged ADT (>1 year), 120 (12.5%) received short-term ADT (⩽1 year) and 684 (71.2%) did not receive ADT. Men receiving prolonged ADT had higher odds of fracture (OR 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-5.7), bone mineral density testing (OR 5.9; 95% CI: 3.0-12) and bone medication use (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 2.3-8.0) than untreated men. Men receiving short-term ADT reported rates of fracture similar to untreated men. Half of men treated with prolonged ADT reported bone medication use.CONCLUSIONS:In this population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up, prolonged ADT use was associated with substantial risks of fracture, whereas short-term use was not. This information should be considered when weighing the advantages and disadvantages of ADT in men with prostate cancer.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 19 August 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.31.
- Cardiovascular risk profile of veteran men beginning androgen deprivation therapy. [Journal Article]
- J Vasc Nurs 2014 Sep; 32(3):99-104.
We sought to describe the cardiovascular profile of veteran men before beginning androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), with the eventual benefit of targeting treatments to manage harmful cardiovascular side effects. We performed a secondary analysis with chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for associations between demographics and cardiovascular comorbidities on 375 veteran men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Those who were overweight and current smokers were more likely to be younger, whereas men with a systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg were more likely to be older (all P < 0.05). Men with total cholesterol 180 mg/dL were more likely to be identified in the Hispanic/other/unknown ethnicity category. Interventions to manage cardiovascular risk should focus on preventive lifestyle changes for younger men, and chronic disease management for older men. Men in the smaller Hispanic/other/unknown category are at risk for marginalization within the Veteran Administration system owing to their low numbers and should be closely monitored for cholesterol levels when receiving ADT.