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AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [keywords]
- Delayed and disorganised brain activation detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Oct 16.
Awareness to neurocognitive issues after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasing, but currently no imaging markers are available for mTBI. Advanced structural imaging recently showed microstructural tissue changes and axonal injury, mild but likely sufficient to lead to functional deficits. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has high temporal and spatial resolution, combining structural and electrophysiological information, and can be used to examine brain activation patterns of regions involved with specific tasks.16 adults with mTBI and 16 matched controls were submitted to neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI); Conners; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); Generalised Anxiety Disorder Seven-item Scale (GAD-7); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Symptom Checklist and Symptom Severity Score (SCAT2)) and MEG while tested for mental flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional set-shifting tasks). Three-dimensional maps were generated using synthetic aperture magnetometry beamforming analyses to identify differences in regional activation and activation times. Reaction times and accuracy between groups were compared using 2×2 mixed analysis of variance.While accuracy was similar, patients with mTBI reaction time was delayed and sequence of activation of brain regions disorganised, with involvement of extra regions such as the occipital lobes, not used by controls. Examination of activation time showed significant delays in the right insula and left posterior parietal cortex in patients with mTBI.Patients with mTBI showed significant delays in the activation of important areas involved in executive function. Also, more regions of the brain are involved in an apparent compensatory effort. Our study suggests that MEG can detect subtle neural changes associated with cognitive dysfunction and thus, may eventually be useful for capturing and tracking the onset and course of cognitive symptoms associated with mTBI.
- Screening for Substance Use Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Examining the Validity of the AUDIT and the DAST. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Head Trauma Rehabil 2014 Oct 13.
To examine the validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST)-2 widely recommended rating scales-in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) population at 24 months following injury. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was used as the gold standard criterion.TBI rehabilitation program at Epworth Hospital, Victoria, Australia.A total of 113 individuals, 87 males and 26 females, with complicated mild to severe TBI.Prospective study documenting substance use following TBI.AUDIT, DAST, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.In individuals with TBI, a cutoff score of 11 on the AUDIT may be the most appropriate indicator of an alcohol use disorder whereas a cutoff score of 6 on the DAST may be the most appropriate indicator of drug use disorder. Both screening measures demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy at 24 months following injury.The optimal cutoff score for the AUDIT may need to be elevated for use following TBI. Nevertheless, both the AUDIT and the DAST are suitable measures for assessing substance use following TBI. Given the importance of uniformity in postinjury assessment, the AUDIT and the DAST may serve as future screening standards in TBI research.
- Does alexithymia expose to mental disorder symptoms in late adolescence? A 4-year follow-up study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2014 Sep 28.
To investigate the possible causal link between alexithymia and the emergence of anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as alcohol consumption in a sample of late adolescents.The nonclinical sample comprised late adolescents (n=315), including both females (n=256) and males (n=59). The follow-up period was 4 years, and at baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), depression symptoms with the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and alcohol consumption with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The three TAS-20 subscales were assessed separately. Linear and cumulative logistic regression analyses were used for the evaluation of associations, and the analyses were adjusted with the corresponding baseline scores.The TAS-20 total and subscale scores did not predict the RBDI or AUDIT scores at follow-up. However, the TAS-20 subscale "difficulty identifying feelings" was significantly associated with both STAI-State (P=.007) and STAI-Trait (P=.004) scores at follow-up.Alexithymic features may be individual predictors of later anxiety symptoms. The significant differences between the various dimensions of alexithymia should be considered in future studies.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other mental health problems, substance use, and driving: examination of a population-based, representative canadian sample. [Journal Article]
- Traffic Inj Prev 2014.:S1-9.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among self-reported screening measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), other psychiatric problems, and driving-related outcomes in a provincially representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in the province of Ontario, Canada.The study examined the results of the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health (CAMH) Ontario Monitor, an ongoing repeated cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults over a 2-year period. Measures included ADHD measures (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 [ASRS-V1.1], previous ADHD diagnosis, ADHD medication use); psychiatric distress measures (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ12], use of pain, anxiety, and depression medication); antisocial behavior measure (The Antisocial Personality Disorder Scale from the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [APD]); substance use and abuse measures (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), driving-related outcomes (driving after drinking, driving after cannabis use, street racing, collisions in past year), and sociodemographics (gender, age, vehicle-kilometers traveled).A total of 4,014 Ontario residents were sampled, of which 3,485 reported having a valid driver's license. Overall, 3.22% screened positive for ADHD symptoms on the ASRS-V1.1 screening tool. A greater percentage of those who screened positive were younger, reported previous ADHD diagnosis and medication use, distress, antisocial behavior, anti-anxiety and antidepressant medication use, substance use, and social problems compared to those who screened negative. However, there were no statistically significant differences between those who screened positive or negative for ADHD symptoms on self-reported driving after having 2 or more drinks in the previous hour; within an hour of using cannabis, marijuana, or hash; or in a street race or collision involvement as a driver in the past year. When a sequential regression was conducted to predict self-reported collisions, younger age and higher weekly kilometers driven showed higher odds of collision involvement, and the odds ratio for cannabis use ever approached statistical significance.This study is the first population-based study of a representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in Ontario, Canada. These results showed no relationship between the ADHD screen and collision when age, sex, and kilometers driven are controlled for. However, these analyses are based on self-report screeners and not psychiatric diagnoses and a limited sample of ADHD respondents. Thus, these results should be interpreted with caution.
- Energy Drink Consumption and the Risk of Alcohol Use Disorder among a National Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr 2014 Oct 4.
To assess the association between energy drink use and hazardous alcohol use among a national sample of adolescents and young adults.Cross-sectional analysis of 3342 youth aged 15-23 years recruited for a national survey about media and alcohol use. Energy drink use was defined as recent use or ever mixed-use with alcohol. Outcomes were ever alcohol use and 3 hazardous alcohol use outcomes measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): ever consuming 6 or more drinks at once (6+ binge drinking) and clinical criteria for hazardous alcohol use as defined for adults (8+AUDIT) and for adolescents (4+AUDIT).Among 15-17 year olds (n = 1508), 13.3% recently consumed an energy drink, 9.7% ever consumed an energy drink mixed with alcohol, and 47.1% ever drank alcohol. Recent energy drink use predicted ever alcohol use among 15-17-year-olds only (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.77-3.77). Of these 15-17-year-olds, 17% met the 6+ binge drinking criteria, 7.2% met the 8+AUDIT criteria, and 16.0% met the 4+AUDIT criteria. Rates of energy drink use and all alcohol use outcomes increased with age. Ever mixed-use with alcohol predicted 6+ binge drinking (OR 4.69; 95% CI 3.70-5.94), 8+AUDIT (OR 3.25; 95% CI 2.51-4.21), and 4+AUDIT (OR 4.15; 95% CI 3.27-5.25) criteria in adjusted models among all participants, with no evidence of modification by age.Positive associations between energy drink use and hazardous alcohol use behaviors are not limited to youth in college settings.
- A group-based brief intervention for surgery patients with high-risk substance use. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2014 Aug 16.
This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a psychosocial intervention to address high-risk substance use in patients scheduled for elective surgery.A group-format intervention, based on motivational interviewing principles, was provided prior to elective surgery to 107 participants with at-risk substance use, identified using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Condensed (AUDIT-C) and self-report of illicit drug use. Patient satisfaction was assessed with an anonymous survey. Within-subject comparisons of substance use at baseline and at a postoperative follow-up evaluation were conducted. A control group of 67 surgery patients reporting high-risk substance use completed baseline assessments and received usual care. Medical outcomes and measures of utilization were compared between groups.Patient satisfaction with the brief intervention was high. A paired t test comparing average pre- and post-AUDIT-C scores showed significant reduction in substance use postsurgery (t=9.94, P=.000), and participants reported intention to maintain reduced substance use levels. Between-group analyses revealed no significant differences in medical complications or utilization.Findings suggest that a group-based intervention for substance use disorder can be implemented as part of preoperative care and may contribute to decreased substance use prior to and following surgery. Further work is needed to identify methods to reduce adverse medical outcomes in surgical patients.
- The Effect of a Yoga Intervention on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Risk in Veteran and Civilian Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Altern Complement Med 2014 Sep 11.
Abstract Background: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often exhibit high-risk substance use behaviors. Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used for mental health disorders, although evidence is sparse. Objectives: Investigate the effect of a yoga intervention on alcohol and drug abuse behaviors in women with PTSD. Secondary outcomes include changes in PTSD symptom perception and management and initiation of evidence-based therapies. Methods: The current investigation analyzed data from a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session yoga intervention with an assessment control for women age 18 to 65 years with PTSD. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) were administered at baseline, after the intervention, and a 1-month follow-up. Linear mixed models were used to test the significance of the change in AUDIT and DUDIT scores over time. Treatment-seeking questions were compared by using Fisher exact tests. Results: The mean AUDIT and DUDIT scores decreased in the yoga group; in the control group, mean AUDIT score increased while mean DUDIT score remained stable. In the linear mixed models, the change in AUDIT and DUDIT scores over time did not differ significantly by group. Most yoga group participants reported a reduction in symptoms and improved symptom management. All participants expressed interest in psychotherapy for PTSD, although only two participants, both in the yoga group, initiated therapy. Conclusions: Results from this pilot study suggest that a specialized yoga therapy may play a role in attenuating the symptoms of PTSD, reducing risk of alcohol and drug use, and promoting interest in evidence-based psychotherapy. Further research is needed to confirm and evaluate the strength of these effects.
- Alcohol dependence and CD4 cell count: is there a relationship? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Care 2014 Sep 1.:1-5.
Alcohol and other drugs use seem to be common among people infected with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their effects on HIV progression is still in debate. This study aimed to assess the association between alcohol and drug use and an HIV disease progression biomarker (CD4 cell count) among patients on ART. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an HIV treatment center affiliated with Medical School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-eight HIV-positive patients on ART were interviewed by trained psychiatrists and psychologists using the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ). In the previous month, 219 (50%) and 41 (9.3%) patients reported use of alcohol and illicit drugs, respectively. Fifty patients (12.6%) were classified as having harmful alcohol use by AUDIT. According to SCID-I, 80 patients (18.3%) were alcohol abusers, 24 (5.5%) alcohol dependents, and 21 (4.2%) had a current depressive disorder. Almost 73% (n = 319-72.8%) of the patients were adherent to ART. Alcohol dependents were nine times (p < 0.01) more likely to have CD4 cell count ≤200/mm(3), and this association was independent of ART adherence. In conclusion, alcohol dependence seems to be associated with low CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients. Based on these data, HIV health care workers should always assess alcohol consumption in the treatment setting, and patients should be advised that alcohol dependence may be linked to low CD4.
- Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Lebanon: Results from the Lebanese Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol (LESA). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Addict Dis 2014 Aug 12.:0.
Abstract Purpose: Determining the 12-months prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adults. Methods: 1000 participants collaborated in face-to-face interviews in 2011. Results: Prevalence of 12-months alcohol dependence was 5.00% with a higher risk for men, unmarried, youngest adults, students, participants with a liberal occupation, participants with low income, participants with positive family history of alcohol misuse and smokers. Prevalence of 12-months alcohol abuse was 6.20% with a higher risk for men, students, employees and Druze and Christians as compared to Muslims. Conclusions: Current alcohol abuse and dependence were found to be very highly prevalent in Lebanon.
- Mood, Mood Regulation, and Frontal Systems Functioning in Current Smokers, Long-Term Abstinent Ex-Smokers, and Never-Smokers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Psychoactive Drugs 2014 April-June; 46(2):133-139.
Abstract Indices of mood, mood regulation, and executive functioning were examined in 61 current smokers who have smoked daily for at least one year, 36 ex-smokers who had not smoked a cigarette for at least one year, and 86 never-smokers. All participants completed the following measures online: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc tests revealed significant differences (p < .01) such that current smokers indicated worse functioning than both ex-smokers and never-smokers on DASS, NMR, and FrSBe, as well as heavier drinking as measured by AUDIT. These differences remained significant even after controlling for AUDIT scores. Results most plausibly reflect a return to pre-smoking baseline brain function in long-term abstinent ex-smokers.