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AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [keywords]
- Drinking before and after pregnancy recognition among South African women: the moderating role of traumatic experiences. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014 Mar 5; 14(1):97.
South Africa has one of the world's highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and interpersonal trauma. These co-occurring public health problems raise the need to understand alcohol consumption among trauma-exposed pregnant women in this setting. Since a known predictor of drinking during pregnancy is drinking behavior before pregnancy, this study explored the relationship between women's drinking levels before and after pregnancy recognition, and whether traumatic experiences - childhood abuse or recent intimate partner violence (IPV) - moderated this relationship.Women with incident pregnancies (N = 66) were identified from a longitudinal cohort of 560 female drinkers in a township of Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were included if they reported no pregnancy at one assessment and then reported pregnancy four months later at the next assessment. Alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and traumatic experiences of childhood abuse and recent IPV were also assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for race and age examined childhood abuse and recent IPV as moderators of the effect of pre-pregnancy recognition drinking on post-pregnancy recognition AUDIT scores.Following pregnancy recognition, 73% of women reported drinking at hazardous levels (AUDIT >= 8). Sixty-four percent reported early and/or recent exposure to trauma. While drinking levels before pregnancy significantly predicted drinking levels after pregnancy recognition, t(64) = 3.50, p < .01, this relationship was moderated by experiences of childhood abuse, B = -.577, t(60) = -2.58, p = .01, and recent IPV, B = -.477, t(60) = -2.16, p = .04. Pregnant women without traumatic experiences reported drinking at levels consistent with levels before pregnancy recognition. However, women with traumatic experiences tended to report elevated AUDIT scores following pregnancy recognition, even if low-risk drinkers previously.This study explored how female drinkers in South Africa may differentially modulate their drinking patterns upon pregnancy recognition, depending on trauma history. Our results suggest that women with traumatic experiences are more likely to exhibit risky alcohol consumption when they become pregnant, regardless of prior risk. These findings illuminate the relevance of trauma-informed efforts to reduce FASD in South Africa.
- Relationship Between Alcohol Use Categories and Noninvasive Markers of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-Infected, Chronic Hepatitis C Virus-Infected, and Uninfected Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Infect Dis 2014 Feb 25.
Background. It is unclear if the risk of liver disease associated with different levels of alcohol consumption is higher for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated associations between alcohol use categories and advanced hepatic fibrosis, by HIV and chronic HCV status. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study among participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study who reported alcohol consumption at enrollment (701 HIV/HCV-coinfected; 1,410 HIV-monoinfected; 296 HCV-monoinfected; 1,158 HIV/HCV-uninfected). Alcohol use category was determined by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire and alcohol-related diagnoses and was classified as non-hazardous drinking, hazardous/binge drinking, or alcohol-related diagnosis. Advanced hepatic fibrosis was defined by FIB-4 index >3.25. Results. Within each HIV/HCV group, the prevalence of advanced hepatic fibrosis increased as alcohol use category increased. For each alcohol use category, advanced hepatic fibrosis was more common among HIV-infected than uninfected (non-hazardous: 6.7% versus 1.4%; hazardous/binge: 9.5% versus 3.0%; alcohol-related diagnosis: 19.0% versus 8.6%; p<0.01) and chronic HCV-infected than uninfected (non-hazardous: 13.6% versus 2.5%; hazardous/binge: 18.2% versus 3.1%; alcohol-related diagnosis: 22.1% versus 6.5%; p<0.01) participants. Strong associations with advanced hepatic fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) were observed among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with non-hazardous drinking (14.2 [5.91-34.0]), hazardous/binge drinking (18.9 [7.98-44.8]), and alcohol-related diagnoses (25.2 [10.6-59.7]) compared to uninfected non-hazardous drinkers. Conclusion. Advanced hepatic fibrosis was present at low levels of alcohol consumption, increased with higher alcohol use categories, and was more prevalent among HIV-infected and chronic HCV-infected patients than uninfected individuals. All alcohol use categories were strongly associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
- Reliability and Validity of Alcohol Use Disorder dentification Test-Korean Revised Version for Screening At-risk Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorders. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Fam Med 2014 Jan; 35(1):2-10.
There needs to be an amendment to the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) with regards to the recent change in percent alcohol by volume (ABV) Korean liquor. This study was performed to suggest a cutoff value, reliability and validity of AUDIT-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR), which reflect the change of the ABV of Korean alcohol.The subjects were 435 peoples (210 males and 225 females), who visited the Chungnam National University Hospital for a comprehensive medical examination. The respondents completed the AUDIT-KR. At-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders had been evaluated by diagnostic interview. The Cronbach's alpha value, the receiver operating characteristic curve, the appropriate cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the AUDIT-KR were evaluated.There were 190 at-risk drinkers (111 males and 79 females), and 66 people with alcohol use disorders (48 males and 18 females). The cutoff value of the AUDIT-KR for at-risk drinking was 3 points (sensitivity 93.69% and specificity 78.79%) for males and 3 points (sensitivity 92.40% and specificity 78.08%) for females. The cutoff value for alcohol use disorders was 10 points (sensitivity 100.00% and specificity 89.51%) for males and 8 points (sensitivity 100.00% and specificity 93.71%) for females. Cronbach's alpha of the AUDIT-KR was 0.885.The above results suggest that the AUDIT-KR shows a high reliability and validity in identifying at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders.
- Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trop Med Int Health 2014 Jan 31.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of alcohol use among young people (age 15-24 years) in eastern Africa to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and determine the extent of use of standardised screening questionnaires in alcohol studies.Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Africa-wide, and PsycINFO) were searched for publications until 30th June 2013. Results were summarised using the guidelines on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and on quality assessment using the modified quality assessment tool for systematic reviews of observational studies (QATSO). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic (DerSimonian-Laird).We identified 2785 potentially relevant studies, of which 56 were eligible for inclusion. Only two studies (4%) used the standardised Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, and six studies (13%) used the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye opener (CAGE) questionnaire. The reported median prevalence of alcohol use was ever-use 52% [interquartile range (IQR): 20-58%], use in the last month 28% (IQR: 17-37%), use in the last year 26% (IQR: 22-32%), and problem drinking as defined by CAGE or AUDIT 15% (IQR: 3-36%). We observed high heterogeneity between studies, with the highest prevalence of ever use of alcohol among university students (82%; 95%CI: 79-85%) and female sex workers (66%; 95%CI: 58-74%). Current use was most prevalent among male sex workers (69%; 95%CI: 63-75%).Reported alcohol use and problem drinking were common among diverse groups of young people in eastern Africa, indicating the urgent need for alcohol-focused interventions in this population. Few studies have used standardised alcohol screening questionnaires. Epidemiological research to investigate alcohol-focused interventions in young people should aim to apply such questionnaires that should be validated for use in this population.
- Chronic ethanol use in alcoholic beverages by HIV-infected patients affects the therapeutic window of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine during the 9-month follow-up period: using chronic alcohol-use biomarkers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2014 Jan 27.:1-12.
Abstract Background: Chronic ethanol use is a global problem including among HIV-infected patients on stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (d4T/3TC/NVP) regimen. The study determined the effect of chronic ethanol use on the therapeutic window of d4T, 3TC and NVP in HIV-infected patients using alcohol-use biomarkers to screen patients for chronic ethanol use. Methods: A case-control study using repeated measures design with serial measurements was used to quantify drugs in plasma. The WHO alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) tool was initially used to screen patients for chronic alcohol use, and then they were further sorted using alcohol-use bioamarkers (γ-glutamyl transferase ≥55.0 IU; mean corpuscular volume, ≥96 fl, aspartate amino transferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio ≥2.0 value). A total of 41 patients (26 in the alcohol group and 15 in the control group) were followed up for 9 months with blood sampling done at 3-month intervals. Plasma drug concentrations were quantified using a Shimadzu Class-VP™ HPLC data system version 6.1. Data was analyzed using SAS 2003 version 9.1 statistical package with repeated measures fixed model. Means were compared using Student's t-test. Results: The mean steady-state plasma drug concentrations of d4T and 3TC in the alcohol group were lower than that in the control group during the 9-month period of follow-up. For 3TC, there was a statistical difference in the mean steady-state plasma drug concentrations between the alcohol group and the control group (p≤0.05) in the 6- and 9-month period of follow-up. For NVP, in both groups they were within the reference ranges, although the drug plasma concentrations were higher in the alcohol group compared to the control group and were statistically significant (p<0.05) in 0, 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Chronic ethanol use by HIV-infected patients reduced the therapeutic steady-state plasma drug concentrations of d4T and 3TC and increased the NVP drug concentrations in the HIV-infected patients.
- Posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic injury at 6 months: associations with alcohol use and depression. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Feb; 76(2):517-22.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is progressively recognized as a psychological morbidity in injured patients. Participants in a longitudinal study were identified as PTSD positive or PTSD negative at 6 months following injury. Risky alcohol use, depression, demographic, and injury-related variables were explored.This prospective cohort included patients 18 years or older, admitted to our Level I trauma center. Outcome measures included PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Demographic and injury variables were collected.A total of 211 participants enrolled in the study, and 118 participants completed measures at both baseline and 6 months. Of the participants, 25.4% (n = 30) screened positive for PTSD at 6 months. The entire sample showed a decline in risky alcohol use at 6 months (p = 0.0043). All PTSD-positive participants at 6 months were also positive for depression (p < 0.0001). For the entire sample, there was a 10% increase in depression from baseline to 6 months (p = 0.03). However, for those participants who were PTSD positive at 6 months, there was a 53% increase in depression from baseline (p = 0.0002) as compared with the group at 6 months without PTSD. Statistically significant differences were found between PTSD-positive and PTSD-negative participants regarding age (40.1 [15.9] vs. 50.9 [18.2], p = 0.0047), male (77% vs. 50%, p = 0.0109), penetrating injury (30% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001), PTSD history (17% vs. 4%, p = 0.0246), or other psychiatric condition (63% vs. 19%, p ≤ 0.001).PTSD was not associated with risky alcohol use at 6 months. Surprisingly, risky alcohol use declined in both groups. Incidence of PTSD (25.4%, n = 30) and risky alcohol use (25%, n = 29) were equal at 6 months. Although the American College of Surgeons' Committee on Trauma requires brief screening and intervention for risky alcohol use owing to societal impact, reinjury rates, and cost effectiveness, our study suggests that screening for psychological conditions may be equally important.Prognostic study, level III.
- Alcohol-Related Interpretation Bias in Alcohol-Dependent Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Jan 15.
Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an alcohol-related interpretation bias. Second, the relationship between the interpretation bias and levels of harmful drinking was investigated.The sample included 125 clinically diagnosed AP and 69 clinically diagnosed control patients (CP) who had either a mood or an anxiety disorder. Participants completed a booklet containing 12 open-ended ambiguous scenarios. Seven scenarios were alcohol-relevant, and 5 were emotionally relevant, that is, panic- or depression-relevant. Participants were asked to read each scenario and to generate a continuation. In addition, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Beck Depression Inventory were administered.Logistic multivariate multilevel analyses revealed that AP' probability of generating an alcohol-related continuation on all 3 scenario types was higher than that of CP. Moreover, alcohol-related interpretation biases were positively associated with levels of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores).These findings are the first to show that AP show an alcohol-related interpretation bias, which generalizes to other ambiguous emotionally relevant contexts, and therefore advance our understanding of the role of implicit biased alcohol-related memory associations and interpretation processes.
- Prevalence of problematic drinking among outpatients attending general hospitals in Tokyo. [Journal Article]
- Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2013 Oct; 48(5):300-13.
Although some studies about the prevalence of alcohol-related problems in general hospitals have been conducted in Japan, it may seem that some of Japanese physicians and surgeons appear to have less interest in alcohol-related problems. We investigated the prevalence of problematic drinking among outpatients visiting general hospitals in Tokyo, and examined factors associated with problematic drinking in such outpatients.This study used a self-report questionnaire. Subjects (N = 1826, 814 were male) were recruited from all adult outpatients in January 2011 from seven general hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We used the third question of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to screen for "heavy drinking", and the CAGE to screen for "suspected alcohol dependence".The prevalences of "heavy drinking" and "suspected alcohol dependence" were 7.1% and 14.1%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that being middle-aged and male were significantly associated with both "suspected alcohol dependence" and "heavy drinking". Consultations with the departments of internal medicine, surgery, or obstetrics and gynecology were significantly associated with subjects having "suspected alcohol dependence".Screening problematic drinking in general hospitals is required for early detection and treatment of alcohol-related problems for outpatients, especially for men, visiting internal medicine or surgery departments and for women visiting obstetrics and gynecology department.
- [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2013 Oct; 48(5):282-92.
In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker.
- Alcohol and substance use in multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- J Neurol Sci 2014 Mar 15; 338(1-2):122-7.
Few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol and drug use in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study sought to examine the prevalence and associated demographic, disease-related, and psychological correlates of substance use in an East Coast United States outpatient MS sample.157 individuals with MS completed questionnaires prior to, during or after their visit with an MS neurologist. These questionnaires included: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), CAGE, CAGE-Adapted to Include Drugs (CAGE-AID), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A).On the AUDIT-C, 40% of individuals with MS met or exceeded the cutoff for excessive alcohol use. They were more highly educated and younger than non-drinkers. Utilizing the CAGE, 6% of the sample met criteria for a lifetime history of excessive alcohol use and men endorsed higher rates of alcohol use than women. Only a small portion of the sample endorsed a history of drug use (CAGE-AID, 4%). Drug use was associated with greater disability and depression symptoms, but lower self-reported anxiety.Current alcohol use was prevalent in this sample, and excessive use was associated with men, younger age, and more education. Reported drug use was minimal and associated with greater disability, more self-reported depression, but fewer anxiety symptoms.