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AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [keywords]
- Symptoms of depression over time in adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013 Dec 3.
To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adults with pediatric onset SCI and explore potential risk factors that may be associated with elevated symptoms.Longitudinal, cohort survey over 2-9 year period. Follow-up occurred approximately every year, a total of 868 interviews were conducted, and a majority of participants contributed to at least 3 waves of data (72%; Range 2-8; M=4.34, SD=2.16).Community PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 214 adults (133 males; mean age at first interview 29.52, SD 5.21; range 24-42) who sustained a SCI prior to age 19 (mean age at injury 13.93, SD 4.37; range 0-18y). Participants tended to have complete injuries (71%) and tetraplegia (58%).Not applicable.Participants completed measures assessing psychosocial functioning, physical independence, participation, and depression at each time point. Multi-level growth modeling analyses were utilized to explore depression symptoms across time.Depression symptoms at initial status were typically minimal (M=3.07; SE=.24; 95% CI 2.60-3.54) but fluctuated significantly over time (p<.01). Several factors emerged as significant predictors of depressive symptoms in the final model, including less community participation (p<.01), incomplete injury (p=.02), hazardous drinking (p=.02), bladder incontinence (p=.01), and pain (p=.03). Within individuals, as bowel accidents (p<.01) and pain increased (p<.01), depression scores increased; whereas marriage resulted in decreases in depression scores for individuals (p=.02).These findings suggest that the majority of patients with pediatric-onset SCI are psychologically resilient, but that strategies to minimize secondary health complications and foster community participation and engagement should be considered.
- Polymorphisms of genes in neurotransmitter systems were associated with alcohol use disorders in a tibetan population. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(11):e80206.
Studies of linkage and association in various ethnic populations have revealed many predisposing genes of multiple neurotransmitter systems for alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, evidence often is contradictory regarding the contribution of most candidate genes to the susceptibility of AUD. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the possible associations of genes selected from multiple neurotransmitter systems with AUD in a homogeneous Tibetan community population in China. AUD cases (N = 281) with an alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) score ≥10, as well as healthy controls (N = 277) with an AUDIT score ≤5, were recruited. All participants were genotyped for 366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 34 genes selected from those involved in neurotransmitter systems. Association analyses were performed using PLINK version 1.07 software. Allelic analyses before adjustment for multiple tests showed that 15 polymorphisms within seven genes were associated with AUD (p<0.05). After adjustment for the number of SNPs genotyped within each gene, only the association of a single marker (rs10044881) in HTR4 remained statistically significant. Haplotype analysis for two SNPs in HTR4 (rs17777298 and rs10044881) showed that the haplotype AG was significantly associated with the protective effect for AUD. In conclusion, the present study discovered that the HTR4 gene may play a marked role in the pathogenesis of AUD. In addition, this Tibetan population sample marginally replicated previous evidence regarding the associations of six genes in AUD.
- One year follow-up of alcohol and illicit substance use in first-episode psychosis: Does gender matter? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Compr Psychiatry 2013 Oct 19.
Longitudinal studies on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients have shown a decrease of substance use disorders (SUDs) over the first years of illness, but there has been less focus on the gender aspect. The present study examines stability of alcohol and illicit substance use, with specific focus on gender, in a one year follow-up investigation of 154 FEP patients (91 men, 63 women) in Oslo, Norway, using criteria for DSM-IV substance use disorder diagnosis, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). The results show that cannabis was the most frequently used illicit substance at both times. Significantly more men (34%) than women (13%) had a current illicit SUD at baseline. At follow-up, the rate of illicit SUDs was significantly reduced in men (18%) but not in women (11%). There were no significant gender differences in the rate of current alcohol use disorders (AUD) (men 14%; women 8%) at baseline, and no significant reduction in AUD in any of the genders at follow-up. At follow-up, total AUDIT and DUDIT scores were reduced in men only. In conclusion, the high and persistent rate of SUDs, particularly of cannabis, among men and women during the first year of treatment for psychosis should be addressed in the clinical management of the patients. Female FEP patients who are also substance users may be particularly vulnerable in this regard and warrant closer attention.
- [Relations between alcoholism and osteoporosis or femoral head necrosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2013 Jul; 34(7):732-5.
To explore the relationship of alcoholism between osteoporosis or femoral head necrosis.In this case-control study, we selected 95 eligible patients with femoral head necrosis and another 67 cases of osteoporosis as case group, together with 342 patients of fractures from the Second Hospital affiliated to Shanxi Medical College, from February to December 2010, as the control group. Questionnaire was used to collect general information of the patients. Through comparative analysis, related factors of femoral head, osteoporosis were defined. 18 patients with alcoholic femoral head necrosis, 11 patients with alcoholic osteoporosis and 20 patients with fractures were selected from the above said three groups and going through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as well as the Alcohol Use Disorders Scale(ADS). Using SPSS 13.0 conducted one-way ANOVA(analysis of variance), chi-square test, categorical logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis.Results from logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratio of those subjects who liked drinking alcohol had an incidence of femoral head necrosis or osteoporosis as 7.70 (95% CI:1.84, 32.30) and 8.44 (95% CI:1.70, 41.90), respectively. The risks of using hormone for treating femoral head necrosis or osteoporosis were 78.43 (95%CI:11.20, 149.05) and 22.75 (95%CI:2.59, 100.27) times than those without. Data from the AUDIT showed that:over-dose of alcohol drinking habit existed 100% in the femoral head necrosis group while 54.45% in the osteoporosis group, while 75 percent patients in the fractures group had normal alcohol drinking habit. Statistically significant differences appeared in the three groups (P < 0.01).from the ADS showed that there were statistically significant differences between the ADS scores of the three groups(F = 3.68, P = 0.03).Alcohol intake did seem to be highly correlated with the incidence rates of femoral head necrosis or osteoporosis. Alcohol-related necrosis could be viewed as alcohol-dependent diseases while alcohol-related and osteoporosis could partially be recognized as alcohol-dependent disease.
- Alcohol use and HIV disease management: The impact of individual and partner-level alcohol use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Care 2013 Nov 12.
Alcohol use among HIV-positive (HIV + ) individuals is associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and consequently poorer HIV treatment outcomes. This study examined the independent association of individual and partner-level alcohol use with HIV disease management among men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships. In total, 356 HIV+ MSM and their male primary partners completed a baseline visit for a longitudinal study examining the role of couple-level factors in HIV treatment. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was administered to assess the individual and the partner-level alcohol use. Primary outcome variables included self-reported ART adherence, ART adherence self-efficacy, and HIV viral load. Results demonstrated that abstainers, compared to hazardous drinkers, had higher self-efficacy to integrate and persevere in HIV treatment and a lower odds of having a detectable viral load. Participants with a partner-abstainer, versus a partner-hazardous drinker, had less self-efficacy to persevere in HIV treatment, a lower odds of 100% three-day adherence and a higher viral load. Together, these findings suggest that assessment and treatment of both the patient's and the patient's primary partner's pattern of alcohol consumption is warranted when attempting to optimize HIV care among MSM.
- Factors modulating neural reactivity to drug cues in addiction: A survey of human neuroimaging studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2013 Nov 6.:1-16.
Human neuroimaging studies suggest that neural cue reactivity is strongly associated with indices of drug use, including addiction severity and treatment success. However, little is known about factors that modulate cue reactivity. The goal of this review, in which we survey published fMRI and PET studies on drug cue reactivity in cocaine, alcohol, and tobacco cigarette users, is to highlight major factors that modulate brain reactivity to drug cues. First, we describe cue reactivity paradigms used in neuroimaging research and outline the brain circuits that underlie cue reactivity. We then discuss major factors that have been shown to modulate cue reactivity and review specific evidence as well as outstanding questions related to each factor. Building on previous model-building reviews on the topic, we then outline a simplified model that includes the key modulatory factors and a tentative ranking of their relative impact. We conclude with a discussion of outstanding challenges and future research directions, which can inform future neuroimaging studies as well as the design of treatment and prevention programs.
- "Craving": exploring the components of the desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ) and the relation to the severity of alcohol problems. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2013 Nov; 74(6):950-5.
The aims of this study were (a) to explore the components of craving, as measured by the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ), and (b) to examine how craving may relate to the severity of alcohol problems.A total of 106 patients seeking treatment for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) completed the DAQ and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The overall sample was predominantly male (63%) with a mean age of 44 years. Sixty-one percent of the participants were abstinent from alcohol at the time of the study. Principal components analysis was conducted on the DAQ for the overall, abstinent, and currently drinking samples. Correlations were computed between the DAQ and AUDIT scores, and differences in craving between the abstinent and currently drinking samples were investigated.Components of craving, as measured by the DAQ, included the desire to drink, the ability to control drinking, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Drinkers displayed stronger cravings (Mdn = 47.00, interquartile range [IQR] = 32.0-65.0) than those currently abstinent (Mdn = 33.00, IQR = 26.0-43.0; U = 850.0; z = 3.127, p < .01; r = .30). The intensity of craving increased with the severity of the AUD in current drinkers (r = .739, p < .001).Because of the small sample size, the results of the study should be regarded as preliminary. The components of craving, as measured by the DAQ, support those previously identified in the literature. The study supports the notion that craving is positively associated with the severity of an AUD.
- Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: Secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care. [Journal Article]
- Drug Alcohol Depend 2013 Dec 15; 133(3):825-31.
Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample.The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures.The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed.
- Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013 Dec; 92(12):1388-94.
To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.Cohort.Norway 1999-2008.The study includes complete information on 66 111 pregnant women and their partners.We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) representing 39% of the pregnant population.Light alcohol use (0.5-2 units one to four times per month) and binge drinking (an intake of 5 alcohol units or more) measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C).For each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity the odds for light alcohol use increased with 27% in the first trimester [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.36], and 28% in the second trimester (95% CI 1.18-1.39). With respect to binge drinking, each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity was associated with 55% higher odds in the first trimester (95% CI 1.44-1.67), and 114% higher odds in the second trimester (95% CI 1.70-2.69).Negative affectivity is associated with both light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. The mechanisms mediating the relation between negative affectivity and alcohol use in pregnancy should be investigated further.
- Association Study of DKK2 Polymorphisms with Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Harm. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013 Oct 7.
Alcohol dependence (AD) is a common disorder with both environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have shown that the genomic region from chromosome 4q22-q32 is closely associated with AD. Furthermore, a study with Irish subjects revealed that the polymorphisms of Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK2), located at 4q25, showed a significant association with AD.We conducted a replication study of the association between DKK2 polymorphisms and AD with 459 alcoholics and 444 normal controls, all of Korean descendent. To rank the AD of the subjects, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was utilized. Using the TaqMan assay, 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DKK2 were genotyped.Our analysis showed that rs17037102 (Q146R) was significantly associated with overall AUDIT score (p = 0.003, p(corr) = 0.05 in dominant model). Further analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with alcohol-related harm (p = 0.001, p(corr) = 0.02 in co-dominant model). Several other SNPs, including the 3 SNPs which were associated with AD in European population, showed marginal associations that were erased when corrections for multiple testing was applied. Furthermore, rs17037102 was in linkage disequilibrium with the nonexonic DKK2 SNPs which showed associations with AD in the previous study with Irish population, which suggests that rs17037102 may be the causal SNP.We found 1 DKK2 SNP to be significantly associated with alcohol-related harm in alcoholic subjects. The SNP might be the causal SNP which led its linked SNPs to show associations in previous studies.