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Acalculous cholecystitis [keywords]
- Increased rate of cholecystectomies performed with doubtful or no indications after laparoscopy introduction: a single center experience. [Journal Article]
- BMC Surg 2013.:17.
During recent years laparoscopic cholecystectomy has dramatically increased, sometimes resulting in overtreatment. Aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in a single center in order to find the percentage of patients whose surgical treatment may be explained with this general trend, and to speculate about the possible causes.831 patients who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 1999 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.At discharge, 43.08% of patients were operated on because of at least one previous episode of biliary colic before the one at admission; 14.08% of patients presented with acute lithiasic cholecystitis; 14.68% were operated on because of an increase in bilirubin level; 1.56% were operated on because of a previous episode of jaundice with normal bilirubin at admission; 0.72% had gallbladder adenomas, 0.72% had cholangitis, 0.36% had biliodigestive fistula and one patient (0.12%) had acalculous cholecystitis. By excluding all these patients, 21.18% were operated on without indications.The broadening of indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is undisputed and can be considered a consequence of new technologies that have been introduced, increased demand from patients, and the need for practice by inexperienced surgeons. If not prevented, this trend could continue indefinitely.
- [Acalculous cholecystitis in hantavirus infections]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2013 Jun; 138(23):1255-8.
History and admission findings: Three men, aged 32, 56 and 41 years, respectively, were hospitalized within two weeks because of flu-like symptoms, limb pain and abdominal pain. Being in a febrile, impaired general condition, pressure pains in the upper abdomen and flank pains were particularly noteworthy.Investigations: The results of the examinations, indicating acute renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase were typical of a hantavirus infection, and positive serology for the puumala virus confirmed this suspicion. Ultrasonography indicated nephritic changes in all cases. Striking and unusual, however, was the finding of an acalculous cholecystitis.Treatment and course: In one of the three cases, antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone was performed, in the other two cases symptomatic therapy. The cholecystitis was closely monitored sonographically and healed without complications in all cases.
Conclusions:Hantavirus infections are common in an endemic area such as the Swabian Alb in Southern Germany, but an acalculous cholecystitis was rarely described in such a context. This accumulation is very remarkable, and the knowledge about it can both help to detect complications at an early stage and prevent unnecessary cases of cholecystectomy.
- Acute acalculous cholecystitis in malaria: a review of seven cases from an adult cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Infection 2013 Apr 2.
METHODS:Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an uncommon condition related to serious clinical conditions, such as surgery, trauma, burn injuries and sepsis. The diagnosis of AAC remains challenging to make, since it generally occurs as a secondary event in acutely ill patients with another disease. Imaging evaluation is crucial, and well-known criteria are accepted for the diagnosis. To our knowledge, only case reports of AAC related to 12 malaria adult patients have been published. In this series, seven cases of AAC from a cohort of 42 adult patients with severe imported falciparum malaria [according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] are presented. The aim is to report the cases and look for malaria conditions that may affect the incidence of this unusual malaria complication.
RESULTS:Ultrasonography revealed gallbladder with wall thickening in all patients, plus other(s) major criteria. Each patient presented five to nine WHO severe malaria criteria: all had hyperparasitaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. All patients developed renal failure, six pulmonary oedema/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (five were mechanically ventilated) and five shock. Treatment was non-operative in five patients, cutaneous cholecystostomy was done in two and the outcome was favourable in all.
CONCLUSIONS:Patients with AAC have significantly more commonly five or more criteria of severe malaria: renal insufficiency, pulmonary oedema/ARDS, parasitaemia higher than 30 %, nosocomial infection and a prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Increased awareness for this unusual and potentially severe complication of malaria is needed.
- Endoscopic management of acute cholecystitis. [Journal Article]
- Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2013 Apr; 23(2):453-9.
Acute cholecystitis is a commonly encountered medical emergency that is managed surgically with excellent results. Recent experiences with endoscopic cystic duct stent placement and cholecystectomy using the NOTES (Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery) approach have inspired endoscopists to identify other less invasive means for treating cholecystitis. The ability to access and drain obstructive bile ducts in real time using endoscopic ultrasound guidance has led to recent reports of successful gallbladder drainage using similar techniques. This article discusses the current state of the endoscopic management of acute and acalculous cholecystitis, and outlines a consensus approach to the management of these patients.
- Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Rare Complication of Snake Bite. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Wilderness Environ Med 2013 Mar 6.
Snake bite is an environmental and occupational hazard in many tropical and subtropical countries. It demands a high level of knowledge and skill in managing the envenomation syndrome. Herein, we describe a rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) that developed in a 36-year-old man after an Indian cobra (Naja naja) bite in the absence of any other predisposing factors for AAC. The probable mechanisms for the occurrence of AAC have been highlighted. Recognizing the possibility of such a complication after envenomation will definitely aid in early diagnosis and, subsequently, a better outcome.
- Haemobilia causing cholangitis in a patient on dual anti-platelet treatment suffering from acute acalculous cholecystitis. [Journal Article]
- Int J Surg Case Rep 2013; 4(4):368-70.
Haemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage which can be difficult to diagnose.We present the case of a patient who suffered from acute acalculous cholecystitis while on dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. We describe the diagnostic and treatment challenges arising from the patient's complicated past history and the steps leading to the diagnosis of haemobilia causing biliary obstruction and cholangitis. Our patient did not, at any point, manifest anaemia or evidence of haemorrhage.Haemobilia has a varied aetiology. To our knowledge there is no association with dual anti-platelet treatment in the literature to date. Diagnosis is difficult and relies on multiple modalities. In our patient the final diagnosis was only made in the course of open bile duct exploration.In acute biliary obstruction we recommend the consideration of haemobilia in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a bleeding tendency.
- [The intensive care gallbladder as shock organ: symptoms and therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Chirurg 2013 Mar; 84(3):197-201.
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) represents a severe disease in critically ill patients. The pathogenesis of acute necroinflammatory gallbladder disease is multifactorial and intensive care unit (ICU) patients show multiple risk factors. In addition AAC is difficult to diagnose because of the vague physical and non-specific technical findings. Only the combination of clinical and technical findings including the challenging physical examination of critically ill patients, laboratory results and ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan, will lead to the diagnosis. The condition of AAC has a rapid progress to gallbladder necrosis, gangrene and perforation and these complications are reflected in the high morbidity and mortality rates, therefore, therapy should be promptly initiated. If there are no clinical contraindications for an operative approach cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment and both open and laparoscopic procedures have been used. In unstable, critically ill patients percutaneous cholecystostomy should be immediately performed. In addition, transpapillary endoscopic drainage is also possible if there are contraindications for percutaneous cholecystostomy. Patients who fail to improve or deteriorate following interventional drainage should be reconsidered for cholecystectomy. Due to the fact that more than 90 % of patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy showed no recurrence of symptoms during a period of more than 1 year, it is still unclear if percutaneous cholecystostomy is the definitive treatment of AAC for unstable patients or if delayed cholecystectomy is still necessary.
- Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis presenting as acalculous cholecystitis in a previously well woman. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.
- Chronically symptomatic patients with undetectable gall bladder on ultrasonography could benefit from early cholecystectomy. [Journal Article]
- Minim Invasive Surg 2013.:630753.
90 percent of symptomatic patients undergoing cholecystectomy have cholelithiasis with 10% categorized as asymptomatic cholecystitis. In both instances, the gallbladder is evident on ultrasonography. In children with symptomatic biliary dyspepsia, the decision to proceed to cholecystectomy is made difficult if choleliths are not seen on ultrasonography. This decision is made even more difficult if the gallbladder itself is not seen on repeated imaging. In a cohort of 54 cholecystectomies, 3 cases, with recurrent right upper quadrant pain and undetectable gallbladders on repeat ultrasonography, were identified. After prolonged observation all underwent successful cholecystectomy. Histology demonstrated a markedly fibrotic and thickened gallbladder in all. Given this experience, we suggest that nonvisibility of the gallbladder, in fact, maybe be a feature of a chronic acalculous cholecystitis. We advise consideration of cholecystectomy for chronic biliary dyspepsia where repeat ultrasonography fails to demonstrate a gallbladder.
- [Gastroenteritis and acalculous cholecystitis in a 34 years-old man.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2013 Jan 14.