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- Oral and Intravenous Acetylcysteine for Treatment of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- West J Emerg Med 2013 May; 14(3):218-226.
Introduction: There are few reports summarizing the effectiveness of oral and intravenous (IV) acetylcysteine. We determined the proportion of acetaminophen poisoned patients who develop hepatotoxicity (serum transaminase > 1000 IU/L) when treated with oral and IV acetylcysteine.
Methods:Studies were double abstracted by trained researchers. We determined the proportions of patients who developed hepatotoxicity for each route using a random effects model. Studies were further stratified by early and late treatment.
Results:We screened 4,416 abstracts; 16 articles, including 5,164 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The overall rate of hepatotoxicity for the oral and IV routes were 12.6% and 13.2%, respectively. Treatment delays are associated with a higher rate of hepatotoxicity.
Conclusion:Studies report similar rates of hepatotoxicity for oral and IV acetylcysteine, but direct comparisons are lacking. While it is difficult to disentangle the effects of dose and duration from route, our findings suggest that the rates of hepatotoxicity are similar for oral and IV administration.
- The Ets Transcription Factor GABP Is a Component of the Hippo Pathway Essential for Growth and Antioxidant Defense. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Rep 2013 May 15.
The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in organ-size control and tumorigenesis. However, how Yap gene expression is regulated remains unknown. This study shows that the Ets family member GABP binds to the Yap promoter and activates YAP transcription. The depletion of GABP downregulates YAP, resulting in a G1/S cell-cycle block and increased cell death, both of which are substantially rescued by reconstituting YAP. GABP can be inactivated by oxidative mechanisms, and acetaminophen-induced glutathione depletion inhibits GABP transcriptional activity and depletes YAP. In contrast, activating YAP by deleting Mst1/Mst2 strongly protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Similar to its effects on YAP, Hippo signaling inhibits GABP transcriptional activity through several mechanisms. In human liver cancers, enhanced YAP expression is correlated with increased nuclear expression of GABP. Therefore, we conclude that GABP is an activator of Yap gene expression and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by YAP.
- Assessment and management of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Crit Care 2013 May 14.
Acute liver failure is uncommon but not a rare complication of liver injury. It can happen after ingestion of acetaminophen and exposure to toxins and hepatitis viruses. The defining clinical symptoms are coagulopathy and encephalopathy occurring within days or weeks of the primary insult in patients without preexisting liver injury. Acute liver failure is often complicated by multiorgan failure and sepsis. The most life-threatening complications are sepsis, multiorgan failure, and brain edema. The clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are nonspecific except for neurologic deficits in impending brain stem herniation. Computed tomography of the brain is not sensitive enough in gauging intracranial hypertension or ruling out brain edema. Intracranial pressure monitoring, transcranial Doppler, and jugular venous oximetry provide valuable information for monitoring ICP and guiding therapeutic measures in patients with encephalopathy grade III or IV. Osmotic therapy using hypertonic saline and mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and propofol sedation are shown to improve ICPs and stabilize the patient for liver transplantation. In this article, diagnosis and management of hepatic encephalopathy and cerebral edema in patients with acute liver failure are reviewed.
- [Severe toxic acute liver failure: Etiology and treatment.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2013 May 14.
Many substances, drugs or not, can be responsible for acute hepatitis. Nevertheless, toxic etiology, except when that is obvious like in acetaminophen overdose, is a diagnosis of elimination. Major causes, in particular viral etiologies, must be ruled out. Acetaminophen, antibiotics, antiepileptics and antituberculous drugs are the first causes of drug-induced liver injury. Severity assessment of the acute hepatitis is critical. Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the factor V, respectively more than 50% for the mild ALF and less than 50% for the severe ALF. Neurological examination must be extensive to the search for encephalopathy signs. According to the French classification, fulminant hepatitis is defined by the presence of an encephalopathy in the two first weeks and subfulminant between the second and 12th week after the advent of the jaundice. During acetaminophen overdose, with or without hepatitis or ALF, intravenous N-acetylcysteine must be administered as soon as possible. In the non-acetaminophen related ALF, N-acetylcysteine improves transplantation-free survival. Referral and assessment in a liver transplantation unit should be discussed as soon as possible.
- A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Spine J 2013 May 17.
PURPOSE:Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treatment protocol would improve pain treatment in this population.
METHODS:A new regimen with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, gabapentin, S-ketamine, dexamethasone, ondansetron and epidural local anesthetic infusion or patient controlled analgesia with morphine, was introduced in a post-intervention group of 41 consecutive patients undergoing multilevel (median 10) instrumented spinal fusions and compared with 44 patients in a pre-intervention group.
RESULTS:Compared to patients in the pre-intervention group, patients treated according to the new protocol consumed less opioid on postoperative day (POD) 1 (P = 0.024) and 2 (P = 0.048), they were mobilized earlier from bed (P = 0.003) and ambulation was earlier both with and without a walking frame (P = 0.027 and P = 0.027, respectively). Finally, patients following the new protocol experienced low intensities of nausea, sedation and dizziness on POD 1-6.
CONCLUSIONS:In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved postoperative mobilization and presented concomitant low levels of nausea, sedation and dizziness.
- Clinical Perspective on Drug‑Drug Interactions with the Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Rilpivirine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Rev 2013 May 17; 15(2):87-101.
Rilpivirine (TMC278) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved in combination with other antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV‑1 infection in treatment‑naive adults (Edurant® 25 mg once daily; Complera® [USA]/Eviplera® [EU] once daily single‑tablet regimen). Rilpivirine should be administered with a meal to optimize bioavailability. Its solubility is pH dependent. Rilpivirine is primarily excreted via the feces with negligible renal elimination. Rilpivirine is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. There is no clinically relevant effect of age, gender, bodyweight, race, estimated glomerular filtration rate, or hepatitis B/C coinfection status on rilpivirine pharmacokinetics in adults. Drug‑drug interactions were investigated with cytochrome P450 3A substrates, inducers and inhibitors, drugs altering intragastric pH, antiretrovirals, and other often coadministered drugs. Rilpivirine 25 mg once daily does not have a clinically relevant effect on exposure of coadministered drugs. Coadministration with cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors (ketoconazole, ritonavir‑boosted protease inhibitors, telaprevir) results in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations, but these are not considered clinically relevant; no dose adjustments are required. Coadministration of rilpivirine with cytochrome P450 3A inducers (e.g. rifampin, rifabutin) or compounds increasing gastric pH (e.g. omeprazole, famotidine) results in decreased rilpivirine plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of virologic failure and resistance development. Therefore, strong cytochrome P450 3A inducers and proton‑pump inhibitors are contraindicated. Histamine‑2 receptor antagonists and antacids can be coadministered with rilpivirine, provided doses are temporally separated. No dose adjustments are required when rilpivirine is coadministered with: acetaminophen, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, etc.), atorvastatin (and other statins), oral contraceptives (ethinyl estradiol, norethindrone), chlorzoxazone (cytochrome P450 2E1 substrate), methadone, digoxin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, didanosine and other nuceos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and HIV integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, dolutegravir, GSK1265744).
- Electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of an opioid analgesic methadone in the presence of acetaminophen at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Application for human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013 Apr 17.:287-293.
For the first time, electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of methadone (Mtd), as a long-acting opioid, in the presence of acetaminophen (Ac) has been investigated at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. This simple and sensitive electrochemical sensor was fabricated through the drop-casting of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidations of Ac and Mtd are both individually and simultaneously investigated at the surface of the fMWCNT modified glassy carbon electrode (fMWCNT/MGCE) through using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The fMWCNT/MGCE offered a considerable enhancement in the anodic peak current of Ac and Mtd associated with separating their overlapping voltammetric responses with potential difference of 290mV. The catalytic peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry of Ac and Mtd increased linearly with their concentration at the ranges of 0.45-90.0μM and 0.5-100.0μM, respectively, and the detection limits for Ac and Mtd were sequentially 0.35μM and 0.28μM. Furthermore, this electrochemical sensor was successfully implemented for the quantitative determination of Ac and Mtd in human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples using standard addition method and the obtained results were found to be satisfactory.
- Use of active ingredient information for low socioeconomic status parents' decision-making regarding cough and cold medications: role of health literacy. [Journal Article]
- Acad Pediatr 2013 May-Jun; 13(3):229-35.
Parent administration of multiple medications with overlapping active ingredients places children at risk for overdose. We sought to examine how parents use active ingredient information as part of the process of selecting a cough/cold medication for their child and how health literacy plays a role.Experimental study of parents of children presenting for care in an urban public hospital pediatric clinic. Parents were asked to determine which of 3 cough/cold medications could be given to relieve a child's cold symptoms, as part of a scenario in which they had already given a dose of acetaminophen; only 1 did not contain acetaminophen. Primary dependent variable: correct selection of cough/cold medication by using active ingredient as the rationale for choice. Primary independent variable: parent health literacy (Newest Vital Sign test).Of 297 parents, 79.2% had low health literacy (Newest Vital Sign score 0-3); 35.4% correctly chose the cough/cold medication that did not contain acetaminophen. The proportion of those who made the correct choice was no different than expected from chance alone (Goodness of fit test; χ(2) = 2.1, P = .3). Only 7.7% chose the correct medication and used active ingredient as the rationale. Those with adequate literacy skills were more likely to have selected the correct medication and rationale (25.8% vs 3.0% (P = .001); adjusted odds ratio 11.1 (95% confidence interval 3.6-33.7), after we adjusted for sociodemographics, including English proficiency and education.Many parents, especially those with low health literacy, do not use active ingredient information as part of decision-making related to administering multiple medications.
- Activation of the nuclear receptor FXR enhances hepatocyte chemoprotection and liver tumor chemoresistance against genotoxic compounds. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 May 13.
The success of pharmacological treatments in primary liver cancers is limited by the marked efficacy of mechanisms of chemoresistance already present in hepatocytes. The role of the nuclear receptor FXR is unclear. Although, in non-treated liver tumors, its expression is reduced, the refractoriness to anticancer drugs is high. Moreover, the treatment with cisplatin up-regulates FXR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FXR is involved in stimulating chemoprotection/chemoresistance in healthy and tumour liver cells. In human hepatocytes, the activation of FXR with the agonist GW4064 resulted in a significant protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity. In human hepatoma Alexander cells, with negligible endogenous expression of FXR, GW4064 also protected against cisplatin-induced toxicity, but only if they were previously transfected with FXR/RXR. Investigation of 109 genes potentially involved in chemoresistance revealed that only ABCB4, TCEA2, CCL14, CCL15 and KRT13 were up-regulated by FXR activation both in human hepatocytes and FXR/RXR-expressing hepatoma cells. In both models, cisplatin, even in the absence of FXR agonists, such as bile acids and GW4064, was able to up-regulate FXR targets genes, which was due to FXR-mediated trans-activation of response elements in the promoter region. FXR-dependent chemoprotection was also efficient against other DNA-damaging compounds, such as doxorubicin, mitomycin C and potassium dichromate, but not against non-genotoxic drugs, such colchicine, paclitaxel, acetaminophen, artesunate and sorafenib. In conclusion, ligand-dependent and independent activation of FXR stimulates mechanisms able to enhance the chemoprotection of hepatocytes against genotoxic compounds and to reduce the response of liver tumor cells to certain pharmacological treatments.
- [Parvovirus B19 arthritis: Report of three cases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chil 2012 Nov; 140(11):1453-6.
Parvovirus B19 infection is highly prevalent in children and the most common manifestation is a facial rash. In adults, acute polyarthritis and skin rash are often the presenting features. We report three patients with the disease. A 40-year-old female presenting with fever, myalgias and painful swelling of elbows, knees, wrists and feet, with functional limitation, after having a respiratory infection. Additionally, an erythematous skin rash appeared in both extremities. IgM antibodies against Parvovirus B19 were positive. The skin biopsy disclosed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistaminics. A 40-year-old female, presenting with skin rash and pain in wrists and hands. IgM antibodies against parvovirus were positive. The patient was treated successfully with acetaminophen. A 38-year-old male with psoriasis, presenting with generalized and progressive polyarthralgia. A Parvovirus viral load determination found 239000 copies of the virus and IgM antibodies were positive. He was successfully treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.