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- Lack of fitness costs associated with acetamiprid resistance in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). [Journal Article]
- J Econ Entomol 2012 Aug; 105(4):1401-6.
Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a devastating pest that can cause severe damage to a range of crops by direct feeding and by plant virus transmission. Because of indiscriminate use of insecticides, this whitefly has developed resistance to several insecticides, including neonicotinoids. Our objectives were to determine fitness components affected by acetamiprid resistance in B. tabaci. Assay results showed that selection with acetamiprid had removed heterozygotes from the field population because the survival rate of the resistant population was significantly greater than that of the field population at a very high dose. Comparison of various life traits between the acetamiprid-selected (Aceta-SEL) population and three other populations showed that the numbers of eggs laid by acetamiprid Aceta-SEL population were significantly lower compared with that of other populations but that the proportions of eggs hatched were significantly higher. However, the time taken by nymphal stages of the Aceta-SEL population to develop was significantly higher than that of the susceptible populations. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and doubling time of Aceta-SEL was significantly higher than Lab-PK and UNSEL populations, but the growth index was similar for all populations. The growth index and high intrinsic value of Aceta-SEL population suggest that the resistance allele may not have detrimental impact. The lack of fitness costs in B. tabaci could promote the rapid development of resistance to acetamiprid and other neonicotinoids. This resistance could threaten the sustainability of whitefly management program on genetically engineered cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) where neonicotinoids are being sprayed to manage sucking pests in the field.
- New quinolinyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles: synthesis, in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antituberculosis studies. [Journal Article]
- Med Chem 2013 Jun 1; 9(4):596-607.
In order to generate hybrid antimicrobial remedies with novel mode of action, two series of quinoline based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives condensed with N-aryl/benzothiazolyl acetamides were synthesized and the MIC values of the compounds towards eight reference bacterial strains (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, P. vulgaris, S. flexneri), four fungi (A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, C. albicans) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were assayed in vitro. Quinoline-6-carboxlic acid was treated with thionyl chloride in refluxing methanol to obtain the corresponding ester derivative to be hydrazinolyzed by 99% hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to produce carbohydrazide intermediate. The carbohydrazide precursor underwent cyclization by carbon disulfide and ethanolic KOH to construct 5-quinolinyl-6-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiol. Substituted 2-chloro-N-phenyl(benzothiazolyl)aceta-mide derivatives were then condensed to 1,3,4-oxadiazole nucleus via sulphur linkage to yield the desired products. Target products bearing N-benzothiazolyl-2-chloroacetamides displayed good inhibitory potential. The biological screening identified that many final analogues exhibited a significant inhibition of the growth of microorganisms at 3.12-25 μg/mL of MIC, which were comparable to control drugs. The influence of the presence of various functional groups to the phenyl/benzothiazolyl ring on activity profiles was investigated. The proposed structures of the newly prepared products were confirmed with the aid of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. These results may provide new insights in the design of a novel pool of bioactive templates.
- Intranasal drug-induced fungal rhinopharyngitis. [Journal Article]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2012 Mar-Apr; 2(2):130-4.
Intranasal drug abuse has long been recognized as an etiology of sinonasal pathology. However, the intranasal use of prescription and nonprescription drugs has surpassed the use of illicit drugs, and the pattern of presentation and required therapeutic intervention appears to be different. We report on our experience with these patients, along with a successful treatment algorithm for this disease process.Retrospective chart review of 9 consecutive patients who presented with rhinopharyngitis and a history of intranasal opioid and/or acetaminophen abuse, from 2007 to 2010, at a tertiary referral center.Nine patients were found to have abused intranasal hydrocodone/acetaminophen, oxycodone/aceta-minophen, or acetaminophen and were diagnosed with rhinopharyngitis. Sinonasal pain and odynophagia were the most common chief complaints and 8 of 9 patients reported previous antibiotic failures. On endoscopy, all patients exhibited a thick, white, exudative process involving the nasal septum and lateral nasal mucosa. Five of 9 exhibited large septal perforations. Seven of 9 exhibited white, exudative pharyngitis. Seven of 9 patients had identifiable fungal organisms on culture, including 5 with species of Candida and 3 with Aspergillus. Two patients grew Staphylococcus aureus. Five patients were compliant with follow up. All 5 showed significant improvement in symptoms and examination, following treatment with oral and topical antifungal therapy and nasal irrigations.Intranasal opioid and acetaminophen abuse is often associated with the development of fungal rhinopharyngitis. Recognizing that this process is primarily fungal in origin is paramount to successful treatment, as most patients respond well to antifungal therapy when compliant with treatment.
- [Resection and reconstruction for tumor of pelvic ring]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2008 Jan; 22(1):63-5.
To discuss the resection of tumors of pelvic ring and its reconstruction of defects.From January 1999 to December 2006, 48 patients with tumors in pelvic ring were treated and defects were reconstructed. There were 32 males and 16 females, aged 14-72 years (mean 45.1 years), including 12 cases of benign tumor and 36 cases of malignant tumor. Fourteen cases had lesions in region I, 11 cases in region II, 12 cases in region III, 3 cases in region IV and 8 cases had two or more regions. The selection of surgical method: benign tumor in wing of ilium or in sacro-iliac articulation was curettaged, malignant tumors were resected radically or boardly. Benign or malignant tumor in pubis, ischium or pubic symphysis was resected radically, defects were reconstructed with plastic plate or not. For tumor affecting aceta bulum resection of tumor and replacement of the peri-pelvic prothetic or artificial hip joint replacement were performed to reconstruct the function of hip joint.Twelve patients with benign tumors were followed up 12-72 months and could walk well, only 1 case relapsed locally. Thirty-six patients with malignant tumor were followed up 6-72 months, the survival time was 6-12 months in 2 cases (5.6%), 12-24 months in 2 cases (5.6%), 24-36 mongths in 6 cases (16.7%), 36-72 months in 14 cases (38.8%), and more than 72 months in 12 cases (33.3%); 28 patients (77.8%) could walk normally, 6 (16.7%) could walk with the help of walking stick, 2 (5.5%) needed wheel chair to move. Complications occurred in 6 cases (including 2 venous thrombus, 1 anoxic encephalopathy, 2 wound delayed healing, and 1 dislocation after total hip joint replacement); the patients' condition took a turn for the better.Operation is a favorable way for the treatment of pelvic tumor. Selecting convenient operation methods to resect tumors or reconstruction defects according the position of the tumor will do good favor to good results, increase the survival time and improve quality of life.
- Selection of a field population of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) with acetamiprid maintains, but does not increase, cross-resistance to pyrethroids. [Journal Article]
- J Econ Entomol 2007 Jun; 100(3):932-8.
Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated CH4) of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from farms in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, indicated resistance to acetamiprid, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and esfenvalerate. At G3, the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations, one subpopuplation was selected (G3 to Go10) with acetamiprid (aceta-SEL), whereas the second subpopulation was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G,1, indicating that the observed resistance to each insecticide was unstable. For aceta-SEL, bioassays at G,, found that selection with acetamiprid gave a resistance ratio of 409 compared with UNSEL. The LC50 values for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and esfenvalerate to aceta-SEL were similar at both G11 and G2. This suggests that acetamiprid selection maintained the otherwise unstable resistance to these compounds in the aceta-SEL population. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between aceta-SEL and the susceptible Lab-UK indicated that resistance to acetamiprid was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive (DLC = 0.26) trait. Tests of monogenic inheritance and weight distribution suggested that resistance to acetamiprid was controlled by a single locus.
- Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on antinociceptive action of different doses of acetaminophen. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Pol J Pharmacol 2004 Sep-Oct; 56(5):605-10.
As demonstrated in previous studies, both cyclooxygenases (COXs) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) localized peripherally and/or centrally participate in the antinociceptive action of acetaminophen (ACETA). We showed that opioidergic system(s) was involved in the mechanism of ACETA action, as well. In previous and recent studies, the changes in nociceptive threshold were estimated using a mechanical and chemical stimulus. In this study, the influence of nonspecific inhibitor of NOS [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg)] on antinociceptive action of ACETA administered icv and it was studied in rats. ACETA increased threshold for electrical stimuli, however, its analgesic activity was not dose-dependent. Independently of the route of administration, the existence of a ceiling dose of ACETA was observed above which the activity of ACETA was self-limited. Pretreatment with L-NOArg (ip) markedly increased the action of higher doses of ACETA. It suggests that the attenuation of analgesic action of higher doses of ACETA may be due to increased activity of NOS.
- Effect of nonselective and selective opioid receptors antagonists on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen [part III]. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Pol J Pharmacol 2004 Sep-Oct; 56(5):539-45.
The influence of naloxone (NAL), a competitive antagonist of mu, kappa, delta and sigma receptors; D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP), selective antagonist of mu-opioid receptors; nor-binaltorphimine (NOR-BNI), a potent and higly selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist; naltrindole (NTI), a delta-opioid receptor antagonist and naltriben (NTB), a highly selective delta(2)-opioid receptor antagonist on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen (ACETA) was studied in rats. NAL administered intraperitoneally (ip) or intracerebroventricularly (icv), and CTOP and NOR-BNI administered icv, markedly decreased the antinociceptive activity of the high dose of ACETA (400 mg/kg). Pretreatment with NTI (sc), as well as with naloxone (it), and NTB (it) slightly but significantly attenuated the ACETA antinociception. The possible involvement of the opioidergic systems in antinociceptive activity of ACETA is discussed.
- Effect of cyclooxygenase and NO synthase inhibitors administered centrally on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen (Part II). [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Pol J Pharmacol 2003 Nov-Dec; 55(6):1001-11.
As it has been demonstrated in a previous study, both cyclooxygenases (COXs) and nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) participate in the mechanism of acetaminophen (ACETA) action. Results obtained in this study indicate that intrathecal (it) or intracerebroventricular (icv) pretreatment with LG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NO-Arg), a non-selective inhibitor of NOS activity, as well as with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective nNOS inhibitor, potentiated the antinociceptive activity of subceiling doses of ACETA, but were without effect on the action of supramaximal doses in Randall-Selitto test. Similar effect of L-NO-Arg and 7-NI it was observed in writhing test, whereas L-NO-Arg icv or L-NIL it did not influence the action of ACETA in this model. Indomethacin (IND), an inhibitor preferentially acting on COX-1, as well as nimesulide (NIM) and celecoxib (CECOX), i.e. preferential and selective inhibitor of COX-2, respectively, administered icv almost completely blocked the antinociceptive effect of ACETA in Randall-Selitto method. On the other hand, pretreatment with NSAIDs it initially increased and then attenuated the ACETA antinociception. Yohimbine (YOH), an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, did not modify the antinociceptive action of ACETA administered alone. However, YOH decreased the nociceptive threshold increased by simultaneously administered IND and ACETA, NIM and ACETA, as well as CECOX and ACETA in Randall-Selitto model. In contrast to the peripheral (sc) application, IND administered centrally (icv or it) did not modify the ACETA antinociception in writhing test. Neither NIM nor CECOX administered sc, it or icv changed the ACETA antinociception in this model. Possible mechanisms and sites of antinociceptive effects of ACETA are discussed.
- Effect of cyclooxygenase and NO synthase inhibitors on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen. [Journal Article]
- Pol J Pharmacol 2001 Jul-Aug; 53(4):341-50.
The influence of cyclooxygenase (COX) and NO synthase inhibitors on antinociceptive action of acetaminophen (ACETA) was studied in rats. ACETA increased the nociceptive threshold for both mechanical (Randall-Selitto test) and chemical stimuli (writhing test). In both models the existence of ceiling dose of ACETA was observed. Indomethacin (IND), an inhibitor preferentially acting on COX-1, as well as nimesulide (NIM) and celecoxib (CECOX), i.e. respectively preferential and selective inhibitors of COX-2, markedly decreased the antinociceptive activity of ACETA in Randall-Selitto test. In contrast, IND increased, whereas both NIM and CECOX did not have any effect on ACETA action in writhing test. Pretreatment with LG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NO-ARG), an unspecific inhibitor of NO synthase, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), relatively specific inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, and L-N6(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), relatively selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase, significantly increased the action of the lower doses of ACETA (50 and 100 mg/kg) in writhing test, whereas it did not modify the effects of the higher doses. Similar effect of L-NO-ARG and 7-NI was observed in Randall-Selitto test, whereas L-NIL did not influence the action of ACETA. The possible involvement of COX and NO synthase systems in antinociceptive activity of ACETA is discussed.
- Changes in the disintegration properties of some brands of paracetamol tablets inoculated with four bacterial species. [Journal Article]
- Acta Pol Pharm 2001 Jan-Feb; 58(1):17-20.
Four most common brands of paracetamol (4-aceta-midophenol) tablets were examined for the changes in their disintegration properties after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubating for 5 weeks. The disintegration times varied from one brand to the other, reaching maximum values of 72 min., 82 min., 110 min. and 120 min. for S. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes, respectively. All brands of paracetamol tablets revealed the presence of cotton wool-like fibrils which were seen to be interwoven within the tablets' matrices and these were believed to have caused the higher disintegration times.