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- In vitro inhibition of breast cancer spheroid-induced lymphendothelial defects resembling intravasation into the lymphatic vasculature by acetohexamide, isoxsuprine, nifedipin and proadifen. [In Vitro, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Br J Cancer 2013 Feb 19; 108(3):570-8.
As metastasis is the prime cause of death from malignancies, there is vibrant interest to discover options for the management of the different mechanistic steps of tumour spreading. Some approved pharmaceuticals exhibit activities against diseases they have not been developed for. In order to discover such activities that might attenuate lymph node metastasis, we investigated 225 drugs, which are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.A three-dimensional cell co-culture assay was utilised measuring tumour cell-induced disintegrations of the lymphendothelial wall through which tumour emboli can intravasate as a limiting step in lymph node metastasis of ductal breast cancer. The disintegrated areas in the lymphendothelial cell (LEC) monolayers were induced by 12(S)-HETE, which is secreted by MCF-7 tumour cell spheroids, and are called 'circular chemorepellent induced defects' (CCIDs). The putative mechanisms by which active drugs prevented the formation of entry gates were investigated by western blotting, NF-κB activity assay and by the determination of 12(S)-HETE synthesis.Acetohexamide, nifedipin, isoxsuprine and proadifen dose dependently inhibited the formation of CCIDs in LEC monolayers and inhibited markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition and migration. The migration of LECs is a prerequisite of CCID formation, and these drugs either repressed paxillin levels or the activities of myosin light chain 2, or myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase. Isoxsuprine inhibited all three migration markers, and isoxsuprine and acetohexamide suppressed the synthesis of 12(S)-HETE, whereas proadifen and nifedipin inhibited NF-κB activation. Both the signalling pathways independently cause CCID formation.The targeting of different mechanisms was most likely the reason for synergistic effects of different drug combinations on the inhibition of CCID formation. Furthermore, the treatment with drug combinations allowed also a several-fold reduction in drug concentrations. These results encourage further screening of approved drugs and their in vivo testing.
- Epac2: a sulfonylurea receptor? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biochem Soc Trans 2012 Feb; 40(1):6-10.
Sulfonylureas are widely used oral drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. They function by the inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in pancreatic β-cells, which are thus considered the 'classical' sulfonylurea receptor. Next to the ATP-sensitive K+ channels, additional sulfonylurea-interacting proteins were identified, which might contribute to the physiological effects of this drug family. Most recently, Epac2 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2) was added to the list of sulfonylurea receptors. However, this finding caused controversy in the literature. The critical discussion of the present paper comes to the conclusion that sulfonylureas are not able to activate Epac2 directly and are unlikely to bind to Epac2. Increased blood glucose levels after food intake result in the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Glucose levels are detected 'indirectly' by β-cells: owing to increased glycolysis rates, the ratio of cellular ATP/ADP increases and causes the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. In consequence, cells depolarize and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels open to cause an increase in the cellular Ca2+ concentration. Finally, Ca2+ induces the fusion of insulin-containing granules with the plasma membrane. Sulfonylureas, such as tolbutamide, glibenclamide or acetohexamide, form a class of orally applicable drugs used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
- Detection of heterogeneous drug-protein binding by frontal analysis and high-performance affinity chromatography. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Chromatogr A 2011 Dec 9; 1218(49):8915-24.
This study examined the use of frontal analysis and high-performance affinity chromatography for detecting heterogeneous binding in biomolecular interactions, using the binding of acetohexamide with human serum albumin (HSA) as a model. It was found through the use of this model system and chromatographic theory that double-reciprocal plots could be used more easily than traditional isotherms for the initial detection of binding site heterogeneity. The deviations from linearity that were seen in double-reciprocal plots as a result of heterogeneity were a function of the analyte concentration, the relative affinities of the binding sites in the system and the amount of each type of site that was present. The size of these deviations was determined and compared under various conditions. Plots were also generated to show what experimental conditions would be needed to observe these deviations for general heterogeneous systems or for cases in which some preliminary information was available on the extent of binding heterogeneity. The methods developed in this work for the detection of binding heterogeneity are not limited to drug interactions with HSA but could be applied to other types of drug-protein binding or to additional biological systems with heterogeneous binding.
- Chromatographic studies of changes in binding of sulfonylurea drugs to human serum albumin due to glycation and fatty acids. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010 Nov 15; 878(30):3193-7.
This report examines the use of high-performance affinity chromatography as a screening tool for studying the change in binding by sulfonylurea drugs to the protein human serum albumin (HSA) during diabetes. The effects of both the non-enzymatic glycation of HSA and the presence of fatty acids on these interactions were considered using a zonal elution format. It was found that there was a significant increase (i.e., 2.7- to 3.6-fold) in the relative retention of several sulfonylurea drugs (i.e., acetohexamide, tolbutamide, glybenclamide and gliclazide) on columns containing normal versus glycated HSA. The addition of various long chain fatty acids to the mobile phase gave the same trend in retention for the tested drugs on both the HSA and glycated HSA columns, generally leading to lower binding. Most of the fatty acids examined produced similar or moderately different relative shifts in retention; however, palmitic acid was found to produce a much larger change in retention on columns containing glycated HSA versus normal HSA under the conditions used in this study.
- Use of peak decay analysis and affinity microcolumns containing silica monoliths for rapid determination of drug-protein dissociation rates. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Chromatogr A 2011 Apr 15; 1218(15):2072-8.
This report examined the use of silica monoliths in affinity microcolumns containing human serum albumin (HSA) to measure the dissociation rates for various drugs from this protein. Immobilized HSA and control monolith columns with dimensions of 1 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. were prepared for this work and used with a noncompetitive peak decay method. Several drugs known to bind HSA were examined, such as warfarin, diazepam, imipramine, acetohexamide, and tolbutamide. Items that were studied and optimized in this method included the sample volume, sample concentration, and elution flow rate. It was found that flow rates up to 10 mL/min could be used in this approach. Work with HSA silica monoliths at these high flow rates made it possible to provide dissociation rate constants for drugs such as warfarin in less than 40s. The dissociation rate constants that were measured gave good agreement with values reported in the literature or that had been obtained with other solutes that had similar binding affinities for HSA. This approach is a general one that should be useful in examining the dissociation of other drugs from HSA and in providing a high-throughput method for screening drug-protein interactions.
- Chromatographic analysis of acetohexamide binding to glycated human serum albumin. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010 Oct 15; 878(28):2775-81.
Acetohexamide is a drug used to treat type II diabetes and is tightly bound to the protein human serum albumin (HSA) in the circulation. It has been proposed that the binding of some drugs with HSA can be affected by the non-enzymatic glycation of this protein. This study used high-performance affinity chromatography to examine the changes in acetohexamide-HSA binding that take place as the glycation of HSA is increased. It was found in frontal analysis experiments that the binding of acetohexamide to glycated HSA could be described by a two-site model involving both strong and weak affinity interactions. The average association equilibrium constant (K(a)) for the high affinity interactions was in the range of 1.2-2.0×10(5)M(-1) and increased in moving from normal HSA to HSA with glycation levels that might be found in advanced diabetes. It was found through competition studies that acetohexamide was binding at both Sudlow sites I and II on the glycated HSA. The K(a) for acetohexamide at Sudlow site I increased by 40% in going from normal HSA to minimally glycated HSA but then decreased back to near-normal values in going to more highly glycated HSA. At Sudlow site II, the K(a) for acetohexamide first decreased by about 40% and then increased in going from normal HSA to minimally glycated HSA and more highly glycated HSA. This information demonstrates the importance of conducting both frontal analysis and site-specific binding studies in examining the effects of glycation on the interactions of a drug with HSA.
- Characterization of the binding of sulfonylurea drugs to HSA by high-performance affinity chromatography. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010 Jun 1; 878(19):1590-8.
Sulfonylurea drugs are often prescribed as a treatment for type II diabetes to help lower blood sugar levels by stimulating insulin secretion. These drugs are believed to primarily bind in blood to human serum albumin (HSA). This study used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) to examine the binding of sulfonylureas to HSA. Frontal analysis with an immobilized HSA column was used to determine the association equilibrium constants (Ka) and number of binding sites on HSA for the sulfonylurea drugs acetohexamide and tolbutamide. The results from frontal analysis indicated HSA had a group of relatively high-affinity binding regions and weaker binding sites for each drug, with average Ka values of 1.3 (+/-0.2) x 10(5) and 3.5 (+/-3.0) x 10(2) M(-1) for acetohexamide and values of 8.7 (+/-0.6) x 10(4) and 8.1 (+/-1.7) x 10(3) M(-1) for tolbutamide. Zonal elution and competition studies with site-specific probes were used to further examine the relatively high-affinity interactions of these drugs by looking directly at the interactions that were occurring at Sudlow sites I and II of HSA (i.e., the major drug-binding sites on this protein). It was found that acetohexamide was able to bind at both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 1.3 (+/-0.1) x 10(5) and 4.3 (+/-0.3) x 10(4) M(-1), respectively, at 37 degrees C. Tolbutamide also appeared to interact with both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 5.5 (+/-0.2) x 10(4) and 5.3 (+/-0.2) x 10(4) M(-1), respectively. The results provide a more quantitative picture of how these drugs bind with HSA and illustrate how HPAC and related tools can be used to examine relatively complex drug-protein interactions.
- [Studies for analyzing the prohibited ingredients such as acetohexamide in cosmetics]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku 2005; (123):19-22.
Acetohexamide (AH) is nominated as the prohibited ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. So the analytical method for AH was investigated by HPLC. The lotion or milky lotion of 0.5g was put into a 10-ml volumetric flask. After adding 1.0ml of AH solution at 50 microg/ml into the volumetric flask, the mixture was made up to 10ml with methanol as the testing solution. Creams were procedured as follows; 0.5 g of cream was put into a 10-ml volumetric flask. After adding 1.0ml of tetrahydrofuran into the volumetric flask, the mixture was stirred for several minutes and the ingredients of the creams were dissolved. After adding 1.0ml of AH solution at 50 microg/ml into the volumetric flask, the mixture was made up to 10ml with methanol. One milliliter of the mixture including AH at 5 microg/ml was exactly put into a test tube with a cap and then 1 ml of water and 1 ml of hexane were added. After shaking vigorously, stand for several minutes. After centrifuging, the hexane layer was eliminated and the residual mixture was used as the test solution. The testing solution of 20 microl was analyzed by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250mm), the mixture of acetonitrile and 50 mmol/l phosphate buffer(pH 5.3)(3:1) and the detection wavelength of 247 nm. The working curve from 0.5 to 6.0 microg/ml showed a linear line between the concentrations of AH and the peak areas. There was no interference of peak of AH with the ingredients such as methylparaben, ethylparaben in the lotions, milky lotion and creams.
- Differential pharmacokinetics of acetohexamide in male Wistar-Imamichi and Sprague-Dawley rats: role of microsomal carbonyl reductase. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Biol Pharm Bull 2005 Jan; 28(1):185-7.
Acetohexamide (AH) is reduced to its alcohol metabolite by carbonyl reductase. We have previously shown that carbonyl reductase present in the liver microsomes of rats is a male-specific and androgen-dependent enzyme. In the present study, the role of microsomal carbonyl reductase in the pharmacokinetics of AH was examined in male Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after its intravenous administration. AH was eliminated more slowly from plasma in the WI strain, which lacks most of the microsomal carbonyl reductase, than in the SD strain. Furthermore, several pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from the data for the plasma concentrations of AH. The plasma clearance (CL(p)) of AH (72.8+/-11.2 ml/h/kg) in male WI rats was significantly smaller than that (105.5+/-11.1 ml/h/kg) in male SD rats. Testectomy caused a marked decrease, from 105.5+/-11.1 to 44.3+/-11.8 ml/h/kg, in the CL(p) of AH in male SD rats. These results indicate that microsomal carbonyl reductase plays a critical role in the differential pharmacokinetics of AH in male WI and SD rats.
- Strain- and sex-related differences of carbonyl reductase activities in kidney microsomes and cytosol of rats. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- J Appl Toxicol 2004 Nov-Dec; 24(6):437-41.
This study was designed to elucidate strain- and sex-related differences of carbonyl reductase activity in rat kidney by using the oral antidiabetic drug acetohexamide as substrate. The frequency distribution of carbonyl reductase activities in kidney microsomes of male Fischer 344 (Fischer), Sprague-Dawley, Wistar and Wistar-Imamichi (Wistar-IM) rats exhibited a marked strain-related difference. Furthermore, the enzyme activities in kidney microsomes of Fischer, Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were male-specific, resulting insignificant sex-related differences in these strains. There was no sex-related difference of carbonyl reductase activity in kidney microsomes of the Wistar-IM strain, which lacked its activity in both sexes. On the other hand, although carbonyl reductase activities were fully detectable in kidney cytosols from all the strains of male and female rats, no strain- or sex-related difference was observed among the cytosolic enzyme activities. These results provide new information for understanding the influence of internal factors on the renal metabolism of ketone-containing xenobiotics.