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- A 12-year-old boy with foot lesions. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Ann 2013 Jan; 42(1):11-2.
OBJECTIVES:1.Identify the clinical presentation of granuloma annulare.2.Describe the differential diagnosis for granuloma annulare.3.Discuss the appropriate management for granuloma annulare. A 12-year-old healthy male presented to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of lesions on his feet. The lesions were bilateral and had been present for at least 6 months. Multiple topical treatments had been prescribed in the past, including miconazole nitrate 2% cream, oxiconazole 1% cream and alclometasone dipropionate 0.05% ointment. Each had been used for several weeks without improvement. Because of this, the referring doctor prescribed griseofulvin microsize 250 mg twice daily for 4 weeks and referred the patient to dermatology. The patient denied pruritus or pain. Review of systems, medical history, and family history were unremarkable.
- Pharmaceutical evaluation of steroidal ointments by ATR-IR chemical imaging: distribution of active and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Pharm 2012 Apr 15; 426(1-2):54-60.
We recently used micro attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to conduct imaging analysis of ointments and evaluate the distributions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients. An alclometasone dipropionate (ALC) ointment was used as a model product. Almeta, a brand-name product, had a domain with absorbance at 1656 cm(-1) attributable to the carbonyl group of ALC, the API. Absorbances at 1040 and 3300 cm(-1) were also noted in this domain, indicating the presence of the solubilizer, propylene glycol. Data also suggested the presence of benzyl alcohol in this domain. More detailed analysis showed the distribution of surfactants and other excipients in the base. Similar results were obtained for Vitra, a generic version of Almeta. Imaging analysis with micro ATR-IR confirmed that both ointments are liquid droplet dispersions with ALC dissolved in propylene glycol and dispersed in a base. However, minor differences in the ingredient distributions of the two ointments were detected and reflect differences in excipient concentrations and type, or manufacturing differences. In summary, we used micro ATR-IR for imaging analysis of an original ointment, Almeta, and its generic form Vitra, and established a method for visually evaluating the distributions of the API and excipients in these ointments.
- Corticosteroid contact allergy--the importance of late readings and testing with corticosteroids used by the patients. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Contact Dermatitis 2007 Jan; 56(1):56-7.
- Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment with topical corticosteroids in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: review of randomised, double-blind clinical studies conducted in Japan. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Drug Investig 2006; 26(5):235-46.
Tacrolimus (FK506) ointment is widely used in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. The drug exerts its action by down-regulating antigen-specific T-cell activities and associated proinflammatory cytokine production. A number of clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment compared with vehicle or topical corticosteroids in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. These studies have suggested that topical tacrolimus has a rapid onset of action and exerts sustained therapeutic effects, with an efficacy similar to that of moderate to potent topical corticosteroids, but without causing skin atrophy. Two phase III randomised, controlled clinical trials have been conducted in Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis to compare the efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% tacrolimus with topical corticosteroid ointments. In the first study, patients with moderate or severe atopic dermatitis on the trunk and extremities were randomised to 3 weeks of treatment with topical 0.1% tacrolimus or the mid-potency topical corticosteroid 0.12% betamethasone valerate. Over 90% of the patients in each study group experienced at least a moderate improvement at the end of the study. In the second study, patients with moderate or severe atopic dermatitis on the head or neck were randomised to 1 week of treatment with 0.1% tacrolimus or the mild-potency corticosteroid 0.1% alclometasone dipropionate. Significantly greater improvements in individual symptom scores were observed with topical tacrolimus compared with alclometasone dipropionate, with overall global improvement at 1 week being statistically superior with tacrolimus. Furthermore, in a long-term open-label study involving 568 patients, at least a moderate global improvement in symptoms was observed in 85% of patients at 6 weeks, increasing to 91% at both 26 weeks and 52 weeks; this rate was maintained throughout the 2-year duration of the study. 0.1% tacrolimus ointment was considered to be safe in the majority of patients. The most prevalent adverse reactions were local application site irritations, which generally resolved with continued therapy. In summary, these findings suggest that 0.1% tacrolimus ointment is an effective and safe nonsteroidal alternative therapy for adult patients with atopic dermatitis.
- Localized chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus masquerading as pigmented lesions: a new clinical subset? [Case Reports, Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Lupus 2006; 15(5):292-5.
Isolated, hyperpigmented lesions arising on the skin of the head and neck in the elderly rarely prompt consideration of connective tissue diseases. Histologic evaluation, however, may reveal changes compatible with chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE). A retrospective review of cutaneous biopsies compatible with CCLE evaluated by the Vanderbilt University Division of Dermatopathology over a five-year period (1998-2002) was undertaken. Cases with isolated lesions arising on the head and neck in patients 40 years or older were selected and the histopathology was confirmed. Patients were interviewed by phone and their charts were reviewed. A total of 11 cases were found, including nine women and two men. These patients averaged 68 years of age and presented with single, hyperpigmented macular lesions. Photosensitivity was rare and no associated stigmata of lupus erythematosus were noted. Response to topical application of corticosteroid preparations was excellent.
- Cutaneous reactions to imatinib mesylate treated by topical steroid. [Case Reports, Letter]
- Am J Hematol 2005 Mar; 78(3):246.
- New and established topical corticosteroids in dermatology: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use. [Journal Article, Review]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2002; 3(1):47-58.
Currently, topical glucocorticosteroids are the most frequently used drugs in dermatologic practice. Over the years, research has focused on strategies to optimize potency and, in particular, the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive capacity of these drugs, while minimizing adverse effects. However, 'ideal' topical corticosteroids have not yet been synthesized. They should be able to permeate the stratum corneum and reach adequate concentrations in the skin without reaching high serum concentrations. Such characteristics can be obtained by increasing the natural lipophilicity of corticosteroids, e.g. by esterification. In the past, many structural modifications have been made to improve the efficacy of topical corticosteroids to produce drugs with greater potency, although this has often been associated with a higher likelihood of adverse effects. Betamethasone dipropionate and clobetasol propionate, known as fifth-generation corticosteroids, are a typical example of potent molecules that can control specific dermatoses very rapidly, but which are associated with a high risk of topical and systemic adverse effects. Recently, steroid components have been synthesized that aim to have adequate anti-inflammatory effects and minimal adverse effects. The newest topical corticosteroids used for the treatment of different dermatoses and allergic reactions of the respiratory tract (in particular asthma) are budesonide, mometasone furoate, prednicarbate, the di-esters 17,21-hydrocortisone aceponate and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate-21-propionate, methylprednisolone aceponate, alclometasone dipropionate, and carbothioates such as fluticasone propionate. These new topical corticosteroids are evaluated in the current review, which compares the risk/benefit ratio of each molecule with established agents. The new molecules, compared with the well known and established corticosteroids, generally have a higher anti-inflammatory effect, good compliance among patients (only a once-daily application is needed), rarely induce cross-sensitivity reactions and have weak atrophogenicity.
- Tacrolimus suppressed the production of cytokines involved in atopic dermatitis by direct stimulation of human PBMC system. (Comparison with steroids). [Journal Article]
- Int Immunopharmacol 2001 Jun; 1(6):1219-26.
Tacrolimus (FK506) ointment showed remarkable efficacy against atopic dermatitis in animal models and clinical trials. The suppressive effect of tacrolimus on the production of the cytokines involved in atopic dermatitis (IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. We constructed a new cytokine production system in which T cells are activated by direct stimulation in vitro with anti-CD3/CD2 or anti-CD3/CD28 antibody combination. Tacrolimus inhibited the production of these cytokines by both stimulations. In a comparative study with steroids (alclometasone dipropionate and betamethason valerate) in anti-CD3/CD2 system, tacrolimus and both steroids inhibited Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and IL-3, GM-CSF (produced by both Th1 and Th2). The suppressive effect of tacrolimus on cytokine production was stronger than that of alclometasone dipropionate and equal to or stronger than that of betamethason valerate. The effective dose of tacrolimus (IC50, 0.02-0.11 ng/ml) is almost the same as for Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and 1 ng/ml of tacrolimus suppressed all cytokines completely. These results suggest that tacrolimus suppresses the allergic cytokines from T cells, and that tacrolimus ointment is effective against atopic dermatitis through the inhibition of cytokine production.
- Allergic contact dermatitis due to bendazac and alclometasone dipropionate. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Contact Dermatitis 1999 Oct; 41(4):218-39.
- Possible inhibitory mechanism of FK506 (tacrolimus hydrate) ointment for atopic dermatitis based on animal models. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Pharmacol 1999 Aug 27; 379(2-3):183-9.
The effects of FK506 (tacrolimus hydrate) ointment on cutaneous allergic reactions in mice and rats were investigated. FK506 ointment showed significant suppressive effects on delayed allergic reactions in both species, and especially in rats, its inhibitory action was much stronger than that of alclometasone dipropionate, a so-called medium class steroid ointment. On the other hand, FK506 ointment did not inhibit the immediate allergic reaction in rats. FK506 ointment suppressed the delayed allergic reactions in locally passively sensitized mice to the same degree as that in actively sensitized mice. Accordingly, it is speculated that FK506 ointment inhibits the activation of sensitized T lymphocytes (Th1 cells) already accumulated in the dermis.