Acne, topical antibiotics for [keywords]
- Treatment of Acne Keloidalis Nuchae: A Systematic Review of the Literature. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2016 Jul 18.
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory condition that leads to fibrotic plaques, papules and alopecia on the occiput and/or nape of the neck. Traditional medical management focuses on prevention, utilization of oral and topical antibiotics, and intralesional steroids in order to decrease inflammation and secondary infections. Unfortunately, therapy may require months of treatment to achieve incomplete results and recurrences are common. Surgical approach to treatment of lesions is invasive, may require general anesthesia and requires more time to recover. Light and laser therapies offer an alternative treatment for AKN. The present study systematically reviews the currently available literature on the treatment of AKN. While all modalities are discussed, light and laser therapy is emphasized due to its relatively unknown role in clinical management of AKN. The most studied modalities in the literature were the 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, 810-nm diode laser, and CO2 laser, which allow for 82-95% improvement in 1-5 sessions. Moreover, side effects were minimal with transient erythema and mild burning being the most common. Overall, further larger-scale randomized head to head control trials are needed to determine optimal treatments.
- Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris. [Journal Article]
- Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Jun; 35(2):57-61.
Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.
- Meeting the Challenges of Acne Treatment in Asian Patients: A Review of the Role of Dermocosmetics as Adjunctive Therapy. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2016 Apr-Jun; 9(2):85-92.
Conventional acne treatment presents several challenges such as intolerable side effects and antibiotic resistance. Dermocosmetic products may be used to reduce these unwanted effects. Dermocosmetics include skin cleansers, topical sebum-controllers, skin antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory agents, moisturizers, sunscreens, and camouflage products. Appropriate use of these products may help augment the benefit of acne treatment, minimize side effects, and reduce the need for topical antibiotics. In Asia, there is currently limited scientific data on the application and recommendations for dermocosmetic use in acne vulgaris (AV). This article reviews the evidence on dermocosmetics for AV and provides practice recommendations as discussed during the 4(th) Asia-Pacific Acne Leaders' Summit held in Bangkok, Thailand, on 7 and 8 February 2015. Through a premeeting survey, a series of plenary lectures, a stepwise program of discussion sessions, and Medline article review, the Expert Panel set forth relevant recommendations on the role of dermocosmetics as adjunct for treating AV in Asian patients.
- The use of oral antibiotics in treating acne vulgaris: a new approach. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatol Ther 2016 Jun 16.
Although acne is not an infectious disease, oral antibiotics have remained a mainstay of treatment over the last 40 years. The anti-inflammatory properties of oral antibiotics, particularly the tetracyclines, are efficacious in treating inflammatory acne lesions. Common prescribing practices in Dermatology exert significant selection pressure on bacteria, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic use for acne not only promotes resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, but also affects other host bacteria with pathogenic potential. This review will summarize the commonly used treatments for acne vulgaris, and how they should be combined as rational treatment. The indications for using oral antibiotics in acne will be highlighted. Strategies described in the literature to conserve the utility of oral antibiotics will be summarized. These include limiting the duration of antibiotic therapy, concomitant use of a topical non-antibiotic agent, use of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline, and the introduction of topical dapsone.
- Cost of Medications Recommended by Canadian Acne Clinical Practice Guidelines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cutan Med Surg 2016 Jun 8.
Acne affects a large proportion of the Canadian population and has psychosocial and financial consequences.We provide cost information for treatments recommended by the Canadian acne guidelines.Highest level recommendations were selected for 3-month usage cost.Three-month estimated treatment costs were as follows: topical retinoids ($14.40-$73.80), benzoyl peroxide (BPO; $6.75), fixed-dose BPO-clindamycin ($40.95-$44.10) and BPO-adapalene ($73.80), oral antibiotics ($25.20 for tetracycline 250 mg qid; $52.20 and $52.74 for doxycycline 50 mg bid and 100 mg od, respectively), and hormonal therapy ($26.46-$37.80 for ethinyl estradiol [EE] 0.030 mg/drospirenone 3mg and $75.60-108.99 for EE 0.035 mg/cyproterone acetate 2 mg). Oral isotretinoin 3-month costs ranged from $393.96 to $478.80.Awareness of costs of recommended treatments may facilitate improved outcomes by increasing procurement and adherence.
- Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to <em>P. acnes</em> Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Jun 1; 15(6):677-83.
The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring <em>P. acnes</em>- generated inflammation. <em>P. acnes</em> biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the <em>P. acnes</em> biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the <em>P. acnes</em> biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by <em>P. acnes</em>. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the <em>P. acnes</em> bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285). <br /><br /> <em>J Drugs Dermatol. </em>2016;15(6):677-683.
- Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris. [Journal Article, Review]
- Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2016 May; 16(2):e152-60.
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic.
- A consensus-based practical and daily guide for the treatment of acne patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 May 14.
Many current guidelines provide detailed evidence-based recommendations for acne treatment.To create consensus-based, simple, easy-to-use algorithms for clinical acne treatment in daily office-based practice and to provide checklists to assist in determining why a patient may not have responded to treatment and what action to take.Existing treatment guidelines and consensus papers were reviewed. The information in them was extracted and simplified according to daily clinical practice needs using a consensus-based approach and based on the authors' clinical expertise.As outcomes, separate simple algorithms are presented for the treatment of predominant comedonal, predominant papulopustular and nodular/conglobate acne. Patients with predominant comedonal acne should initially be treated with a topical retinoid, azelaic acid or salicylic acid. Fixed combination topicals are recommended for patients with predominant papulopustular acne with treatment tailored according to the severity of disease. Treatment recommendations for nodular/conglobate acne include oral isotretinoin or fixed combinations plus oral antibiotics in men, and these options may be supplemented with oral anti-androgenic hormonal therapy in women. Further decisions regarding treatment responses should be evaluated 8 weeks after treatment initiation in patients with predominant comedonal or papulopustular acne and 12 weeks after in those with nodular/conglobate acne. Maintenance therapy with a topical retinoid or azelaic acid should be commenced once a patient is clear or almost clear of their acne to prevent the disease from recurring. The principal explanations for lack of treatment response fall into 5 main categories: disease progression, non-drug-related reasons, drug-related reasons, poor adherence, and adverse events.This practical guide provides dermatologists with treatment algorithms adapted to different clinical features of acne which are simple and easy to use in daily clinical practice. The checklists to establish the causes for a lack of treatment response and subsequent action to take will facilitate successful acne management.
- Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne. [Journal Article]
- Adv Biomed Res 2016.:72.
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported.In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed.Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test).Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy.
- Adverse Reaction to Cetuximab, an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor. [Journal Article]
- Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2016 Apr; 24(1):70-2.
Dear Editor, Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a new strategy in treatment of a variety of solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and pancreatic cancer (1). Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse reactions occurring during epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) therapy. Papulopustular rash (acne like rash) develop with 80-86% patients receiving cetuximab, while xerosis, eczema, fissures, teleangiectasiae, hyperpigmentations, and nail and hair changes occur less frequently (2). The mechanism underlying these skin changes has not been established and understood. It seems EGFRI alter cell growth and differentiation, leading to impaired stratum corneum and cell apoptosis (3-5). An abdominoperineal resection of the rectal adenocarcinoma (Dukes C) was performed on a 43-year-old female patient. Following surgery, adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was applied. After two years, the patient suffered a metastatic relapse. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was detected on multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) images, with an increased value of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor marker (maximal value 57 ng/mL). Hematological and biochemical tests were within normal limits, so first-line chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and a 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX4) protocol was introduced. A wild type of the KRAS gene was confirmed in tumor tissue (diagnostic prerequisite for the introduction of EGFRI) and cetuximab (250 mg per m2 of body surface) was added to the treatment protocol. The patient responded well to the treatment with confirmed partial regression of the tumor formations. Three months after the patient started using cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, the patient presented with a papulopustular eruption in the seborrhoeic areas (Figure 1) and eczematoid reactions on the extremities with dry, scaly, itchy skin (Figure 2). Furthermore, hair and nail changes gradually developed, culminating with trichomegaly (Figure 3) and paronychia (Figure 4). The patient was treated with oral antibiotics (tetracycline) and a combination of topical steroids with moisturizing emollients due to xerosis, without reduction of EGFRI therapy and with a very good response. Trichomegaly was regularly sniped with scissors. Nail fungal infection was ruled out by native examination and cultivation, so antiseptics and corticosteroid ointments were introduced for paronychia treatment. During the above-mentioned therapy, apart from skin manifestations, iatrogenic neutropenia grade IV occurred, with one febrile episode, and because of this, the dose of cytostatic drugs was reduced. After 10 months of therapy, progression of the disease occurred with lung metastases, so EGFRI therapy was discontinued and the patient was given second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. This led to gradual resolution of all aforementioned cutaneous manifestations. Since the pathogenesis of skin side-effects due to EGFRI is not yet fully understood, there are no strict therapy protocols. Therapy is mainly based on clinical experience and follows the standard treatments for acne, rosacea, xerosis, paronychia, and effluvium. The therapeutic approach for papulopustular exanthema includes topical and systemic antibiotics for their antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory effect, sometimes in combination with topical steroids. Topical application of urea cream with K1 vitamin yielded positive results in skin-changes prevention during EGFRI therapy, especially with xerosis, eczema, and pruritus (6). Hair alterations in the form of effluvium are usually tolerable, and if needed a 2% minoxidil solution may be applied. Trichomegaly or abnormal eyelash growth can lead to serious complications, so ophthalmologic examination is needed. At the beginning of the growth, regular lash clipping may reduce possibility of corneal abrasion (7,8). Nail changes can just be a cosmetic problem (pigmentary changes, brittle nails), and in the occurrence of paronychia or onycholysis (of several or all nails) they result in high morbidity and impair daily activities. Nail management should be started as soon as possible because of slow nail growth and the relatively long half-life of EGFRI. Combination of topical iodide, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and antifungals with avoidance of nail traumatization will yield the best results (9). EGFRI are potentially life prolonging therapies, and our goal as dermatovenereologists is to provide optimal patient care and improve their quality of life in a multidisciplinary collaboration with oncologists, radiotherapists, and ophthalmologists.