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Acne, topical antibiotics for [keywords]
- Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2014 Dec 4.:1-11.
Introduction: Acne is the most common skin condition in the US. The mainstay of acne therapy includes: topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide (BP), and oral isotretinoin for severe cases. Although these treatment options are highly effective they do have certain drawbacks. Current acne treatment regimens often require patients to use multiple medications, some of which may have irritating side effects. Furthermore, Propionibacterium acnes resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing problem due to the rise in antibiotic use. Areas covered: New therapies that have either been released onto the market or that are being developed include: adapalene-BP combination agent, dapsone 5% gel, minocycline foam, topical nitric oxide-releasing agent, cortexolone 17 α-propionate, and CIP isotretinoin. Some of these new therapies address the challenges faced with existing treatment options. For instance, the relatively new combination therapy, adapalene-BP, limits antibiotic resistance and also helps simplify treatment regimens. The newly developed topical nitric oxide-releasing agent also holds potential in limiting antibiotic resistance. Expert opinion: Many of the new therapies discussed in this paper are still in early stages of testing so it is difficult to predict their outlook; however, based on preliminary findings, these therapies seem to be promising.
- Effects of oral isotretinoin on lipids and liver enzymes in acne patients. [Journal Article]
- Cutis 2014 Nov; 94(5):234-8.
Isotretinoin has been used to treat severe inflammatory acne that is resistant to antibiotics or topical agents; however, it also may cause alterations in lipids and liver enzymes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated changes in lipids and liver enzymes in 322 acne patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin at our institution over a 3-year period. Each patient's medical records were evaluated to determine baseline triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to levels recorded at 3 and 6 months following initiation of treatment with oral isotretinoin. Overall, statistically significant increases in TG and LDL levels were noted following treatment with isotretinoin (P<.001, respectively), while HDL levels were shown to decrease (P=.016). Although ALT levels also increased, the changes were not statistically significant increases in AST levels also were noted (P=.72). In our study, isotretinoin appeared to have a greater effect on lipids than liver enzymes. Dermatologists should not avoid isotretinoin use for appropriate indications, but close follow-up is important.
- Recent advances in acne pathogenesis: implications for therapy. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Dec; 15(6):479-88.
Acne pathogenesis is a multifactorial process that occurs at the level of the pilosebaceous unit. While acne was previously perceived as an infectious disease, recent data have clarified it as an inflammatory process in which Propionibacterium acnes and innate immunity play critical roles in propagating abnormal hyperkeratinization and inflammation. Alterations in sebum composition, and increased sensitivity to androgens, also play roles in the inflammatory process. A stepwise approach to acne management utilizes topical agents for mild to moderate acne (topical retinoid as mainstay ± topical antibiotics) and escalation to oral agents for more resistant cases (oral antibiotics or hormonal agents in conjunction with a topical retinoid or oral isotretinoin alone for severe acne). Concerns over antibiotic resistance and the safety issues associated with isotretinoin have prompted further research into alternative medications and devices for the treatment of acne. Radiofrequency, laser, and light treatments have demonstrated modest improvement for inflammatory acne (with blue-light photodynamic therapy being the only US FDA-approved treatment). However, limitations in study design and patient follow-up render these modalities as adjuncts rather than standalone options. This review will update readers on the latest advancements in our understanding of acne pathogenesis and treatment, with emphasis on emerging treatment options that can help improve patient outcomes.
- Combination therapy with retinaldehyde (0.1%) glycolic acid (6%) and efectiose (0.1%) in mild to moderate acne vulgaris during the period of sun exposure--efficacy and skin tolerability. [Journal Article]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014 Aug; 18(16):2283-6.
Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the adolescence age (70-94%). Main topical treatments for acne vulgaris are retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics in mono or combination therapy. Topical retinoids, some antibiotics and antiseptics although effective on acne lesions, can due photosensitivity or make the skin more sensitive to the sun. Our study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a combination therapy with Retinaldheyde (0.1%), Glycolic acid (6%) and Efectiose (0.1%) (RGE) cream in patients affected by acne vulgaris, during the lasting period of sun exposure.We retrospectively observed 30 patients of Central Italy with mild or moderate acne between April and September. All the patients selected underwent only therapy with RGE cream once a day in the evening for 8 weeks, while in the morning they just applied SPF 50 sunscreen. We evaluate the efficacy at 30 and 60 days with the "Global Evaluation Scale" (GES) and the tolerability with a 0-3 qualitative scale.The mean GES value showed a statistically significant reduction: 1.83 (SD 0.83) at baseline 1.57 (SD 0.77) and 0.90 (SD 0.76) respectively at 30 and 60 days (p < 0.01). Side effects were very uncommon.Topical treatments with retinoids, antibiotics and antiseptics can be associated with an increased occurrence of facial dryness and erythema restricting their use in sun exposure period. RGE cream has shown a good skin tolerability and efficacy, so it can be considerate an effective maintaining therapy to treat mild to moderate acne during the sun exposure period in which retinoids, antibiotics or antiseptic treatments are not recommended.
- [Acne vulgaris]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hautarzt 2014 Aug; 65(8):733-47; quiz 748-9.
Acne vulgaris is worldwide the most common skin disease. Acne is an inflammatory disorder in whose emergence androgens, PPAR ligands, the IGF-1 signaling pathway, regulating neuropeptides and environmental factors are probably involved. These factors interrupt the natural cycling process in the sebaceous gland follicle and support the transition of microcomedones to comedones and inflammatory lesions. Proinflammatory lipids and cytokines are mediators for the development of acne lesions. Bacterial antigens can potentate the inflammatory phenomena. Acne is predominantly treated with combination therapy. Selecting a treatment regimen depends on the exact classification of acne type and severity. The development of scars is the main criterion for the choice of systemic therapy. Retinoids for mild comedonal acne and the combination of retinoids with antibiotics and/or benzoyl peroxide for mild to moderate papulopustular acne are the drugs of first choice for topical treatment. The use of topical antibiotics is not recommended any more because of the development of resistant bacterial strains. Systemic antibiotics, in combination with topical retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide, for moderate papular/nodular acne and isotretinoin for severe nodular/conglobate acne are the columns of systemic acne treatment. Systemic anti-androgens are used in women against moderate papulopustular acne. Due to advances in the understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in recent years the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and better side effect profile should be expected in the future.
- Common use of prescription off-label acne therapy in children younger than 12 years old. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pediatr Dermatol 2014 Sep-Oct; 31(5):551-5.
Acne is occurring more frequently in younger age groups, but most available treatments are considered off-label in young children. As the epidemiology of acne has changed to include younger children over the past 20 years, neither regulators, pharmaceutical companies, nor clinicians have understood the need or value of obtaining regulatory sanctions for problems physicians have managed using clinical judgment. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of off-label acne treatment according to age and other demographic factors. We searched the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1993 to 2010 for visits in children younger than 12 years of age for the diagnosis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 706.1. We tabulated leading acne treatments and assessed factors associated with off-label prescribing. Off-label but appropriate acne treatments were used in 29% of acne visits for children younger than 12 years of age. Dermatologists were more likely than pediatricians to prescribe off-label treatment (p < 0.001). The most frequently used off-label treatments were topical retinoids, followed by oral antibiotics. There was no significant trend in the rate of off-label prescribing over time (p = 0.40). Off-label treatment is well within the standard of care for young children with acne. More data on the use of topical retinoids in young children will improve our understanding of their use, which may help optimize treatment outcomes for children with acne.
- Novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of acne vulgaris. [Journal Article]
- Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2014 Oct; 23(10):1389-410.
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success.The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes.In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.
- Moisturizers for Acne: What are their Constituents? [Journal Article, Review]
- J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2014 May; 7(5):36-44.
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients.
- A retrospective analysis of the duration of oral antibiotic therapy for the treatment of acne among adolescents: investigating practice gaps and potential cost-savings. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2014 Jul; 71(1):70-6.
Duration of oral antibiotic therapy in acne has not been widely studied. Recent guidelines suggest it should be limited to 3 to 6 months.We sought to compare the duration of oral antibiotic use with recent guidelines and determine the potential cost-savings related to shortened durations.This is a retrospective cohort study from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Claims data were used to determine duration and costs of antibiotic therapy.The mean course duration was 129 days. The majority (93%) of courses were less than 9 months. Among the 31,634 courses, 18,280 (57.8%) did not include concomitant topical retinoid therapy. The mean (95% confidence interval) duration with and without topical retinoid use was 133 (131.5-134.7) days and 127 (125.4-127.9) days, respectively. The mean excess direct cost of antibiotic treatment for longer than 6 months was $580.99/person.Claims cannot be attributed to a specific diagnosis or provider. The database does not provide information on acne severity.Duration of antibiotic use is decreasing when compared with previous data. However, 5547 (17.53%) courses exceeded 6 months, highlighting an opportunity for reduced antibiotic use. If courses greater than 6 months were shortened to 6 months, savings would be $580.99/person.
- Antibiotic stewardship in dermatology: limiting antibiotic use in acne. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Dermatol 2014 May-Jun; 24(3):330-4.
Widespread use of antibiotics in all areas of medicine has led to significant problems with antimicrobial resistance, which have begun to compromise the usefulness of antibiotics. Antibiotics have long been a keystone of acne therapy. There is a large population of patients with acne and antibiotic therapy is often used for long durations; thus, acne therapy results in extensive antibiotic exposure. This article discusses the role of antibiotic therapy in acne from the perspective of how clinicians can best preserve the utility of these important drugs while providing efficacious and safe therapy for acne patients.Review of literature augmented by expert opinion when literature was sparse.Antibiotic monotherapy (topical or oral) is not recommended due to the availability of clinically superior regimens. Systemic antibiotics are important for managing moderate to severe acne and should be used for a limited duration of time (3-4 months). Topical antibiotics should be paired with benzoyl peroxide to limit potential for resistance. Information gained in recent years about the pathophysiology of acne has shed light on the role of Propionibacterium acnes as well as other key pathogenic pathways such as inflammation.The improved understanding of acne pathogenic mechanisms can and should be applied to develop modern therapeutic approaches that are efficacious and mesh with current public health concerns.