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- Socio-cultural aspects of oral health among the Fulani in Ferlo (Senegal): A qualitative study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2013 May 16.
Objectives.Health is a subjective concept that considers the social, cultural, environmental and behavioural problems of the individual. This study was conducted with the objective of better understanding the sociocultural aspects related to the oral health of the Fulani populations of Ferlo, Senegal. Methods. The study was qualitative and based in the area of the Great Green Wall (GGW) in the region known as Ferlo, northern Senegal. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews in a sample of the population and through discussions with a focus group. It concerned health and aesthetics of the teeth, care and traditional herbal recipes, teeth and superstitions.
Results.It appears that people were using the toothpick, the chewing stick and/or charcoal to clean their teeth. Confusion persisted with respect to the types of food consumed that were implicated in the occurrence of dental caries: tea, rice, 'jumbo' (a seasoning spice) and tobacco. 'Borom bop', which means 'master of the head', was the most commonly reported cause of caries. Healthy, beautiful teeth were attributes of beauty and elegance, enhanced by tattoos and crafted crowns in the Fulani. Their health problems were generally managed by healers or traditional practitioners who based their practices on empirical and 'handed down' knowledge. Socio-anthropological meanings were given to children with neonatal teeth.
Conclusions.It is therefore important to consider the sociocultural aspects in oral health projects and programmes; the place of herbal medicine in dentistry should be recognized and maybe researched in the region of the Great Green Wall.
- Biochar affected by composting with farmyard manure. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Qual 2013 Jan-Feb; 42(1):164-72.
Biochar applications to soils can improve soil fertility by increasing the soil's cation exchange capacity (CEC) and nutrient retention. Because biochar amendment may occur with the applications of organic fertilizers, we tested to which extent composting with farmyard manure increases CEC and nutrient content of charcoal and gasification coke. Both types of biochar absorbed leachate generated during the composting process. As a result, the moisture content of gasification coke increased from 0.02 to 0.94 g g, and that of charcoal increased from 0.03 to 0.52 g g. With the leachate, the chars absorbed organic matter and nutrients, increasing contents of water-extractable organic carbon (gasification coke: from 0.09 to 7.00 g kg; charcoal: from 0.03 to 3.52 g kg), total soluble nitrogen (gasification coke: from not detected to 705.5 mg kg; charcoal: from 3.2 to 377.2 mg kg), plant-available phosphorus (gasification coke: from 351 to 635 mg kg; charcoal: from 44 to 190 mg kg), and plant-available potassium (gasification coke: from 6.0 to 15.3 g kg; charcoal: from 0.6 to 8.5 g kg). The potential CEC increased from 22.4 to 88.6 mmol kg for the gasification coke and from 20.8 to 39.0 mmol kg for the charcoal. There were little if any changes in the contents and patterns of benzene polycarboxylic acids of the biochars, suggesting that degradation of black carbon during the composting process was negligible. The surface area of the biochars declined during the composting process due to the clogging of micropores by sorbed compost-derived materials. Interactions with composting substrate thus enhance the nutrient loads but alter the surface properties of biochars.
- A multi-site comparison of in vivo safety pharmacology studies conducted to support ICH S7A & B regulatory submissions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2013 May 8.
INTRODUCTION:Parts A and B of the ICH S7 guidelines on safety pharmacology describe the in vivo studies that must be conducted prior to first time in man administration of any new pharmaceutical. ICH S7A requires a consideration of the sensitivity and reproducibility of the test systems used. This could encompass maintaining a dataset of historical pre-dose values, power analyzes, as well as a demonstration of acceptable model sensitivity and robust pharmacological validation. During the process of outsourcing safety pharmacology studies to Charles River Laboratories, AstraZeneca set out to ensure that models were performed identically in each facility and saw this as an opportunity to review the inter-laboratory variability of these essential models. Method The five in vivo studies outsourced were the conscious dog telemetry model for cardiovascular assessment, the rat whole body plethysmography model for respiratory assessment, the rat modified Irwin screen for central nervous system assessment, the rat charcoal meal study for gastrointestinal assessment and a rat metabolic cage study for assessment of renal function. Each study was validated with known reference compounds and data were compared across facilities. Statistical power was also calculated for each model.
RESULTS:The results obtained indicated that each of the studies could be performed with comparable statistical power and could achieve a similar outcome, independent of facility.
DISCUSSION:The consistency of results obtained from these models across multiple facilities was high thus providing confidence that the models can be run in different facilities and maintain compliance with ICH S7A and B.
- Sound generation using photoacoustic effect. [Journal Article]
- J Acoust Soc Am 2013 May; 133(5):3547.
It is highly important to generate sound sources in mid air for several applications such as virtual realty and rigorous acoustic measurement. One possible solution for generating sound sources in mid air is photoacoustic effect that generates sounds from the alternate-current component of air expansion due to the heat generated by light absorption of materials when the materials are radiated light modulated with acoustic signal. Our previous research confirmed that audible sound could be generated by radiating light modulated with acoustic signal to charcoal, which has high absorptive power. Therefore, it is possible to generate point sound source in mid air by applying this method to molecule of gases in mid air. However, gases are difficult to absorb light since gases have low density of molecule. Thus in this paper, as the preliminary step applying photoacoustic effect to gas molecule, it is discussed to generate audible sound by radiating light modulated with acoustic signal to liquid phase of H2O and solid phase of CO2. These molecules of greenhouse gases can absorb infrared light that is safer than ultraviolet light that is absorbed by monatomic molecules such as N2 and O2.
- Hazard assessment of United Arab Emirates (UAE) incense smoke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sci Total Environ 2013 May 3.:176-186.
Incense burning inside the home, a common practice in Arabian Gulf countries, has been recognized as a potentially modifiable source of indoor air pollution. To better understand potential adverse effects of incense burning in exposed individuals, we conducted a hazard assessment of incense smoke exposure. The goals of this study were first to characterize the particles and gases emitted from Arabian incense over time when burned, and secondly to examine in vitro human lung cells responses to incense smoke. Two types of incense (from the United Arab Emirates) were burned in a specially designed indoor environmental chamber (22m(3)) to simulate the smoke concentration in a typical living room and the chamber air was analyzed. Both particulate (PM) concentrations and sizes were measured, as were gases carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbonyls. During the burn, peak concentrations were recorded for PM (1.42mg/m(3)), CO (122pm), NOx (0.3ppm), and HCHO (85ppb) along with pentanal (71.9μg/m(3)), glyoxal (84.8μg/m(3)), and several other carbonyls. Particle sizes ranged from 20 to 300nm with count median diameters ranging from 65 to 92nm depending on time post burn-out. PM, CO, and NOx time-weighted averages exceeded current government regulation values and emissions seen previously from environmental tobacco smoke. Charcoal emissions were the main contributor to both the high CO and NOx concentrations. A significant cell inflammatory response was observed in response to smoke components formed from incense burning. Our hazard evaluation suggests that incense burning contributes to indoor air pollution and could be harmful to human health.
- Synthesis of nano-Se/bamboo charcoal composites via hydrothermal method and their application on remaining fresh of cutting roses. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2013 Feb; 13(2):970-5.
Nano-Se/bamboo charcoal (BC) composites were prepared successfully by hydrothermal method. The composites were characterized by SEM, XRD, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) analysis. The effects of the synthesized conditions on the morphologies of Se particles on BC were investigated. The results showed that the reaction time, the adding order of reagents and the concentration of hydrazine have much influence on the formation of nano-Se/BC composites. The application of composites on the keeping fresh of cutting rose flowers was also studied, the experiment results indicate that Nano-Se/BC composites have better effect on the keeping fresh of cutting rose flowers than single BC, Nano-Se, distilled water and commercial "flower food" nutrient solution, the florescence of cutting rose flowers is distinctly extend by Nano-Se/BC composites up to 48 and 24 days in winter and summer respectively. "Synergy effects" and "Delayed release capsule effects" were used to explain the mechanism of Nano-Se/BC composites on the keeping fresh of cutting rose flowers.
- Furry pet allergens, fungal DNA and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in the commercial aircraft cabin environment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Sci Process Impacts 2013 May 3.
There has been concern about the cabin environment in commercial aircraft. We measured cat, dog and horse allergens and fungal DNA in cabin dust and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in cabin air. Samples were collected from two European airline companies, one with cabins having textile seats (TSC) and the other with cabins having leather seats (LSC), 9 airplanes from each company. Dust was vacuumed from seats and floors in the flight deck and different parts of the cabin. Cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse allergens (Equ cx) were analyzed by ELISA. Five sequences of fungal DNA were analyzed by quantitative PCR. MVOCs were sampled on charcoal tubes in 42 TSC flights, and 17 compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). MVOC levels were compared with levels in homes from Nordic countries. The weight of dust was 1.8 times larger in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). In cabins with textile seats, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 5359 ng g(-1), 6067 ng g(-1), and 13 703 ng g(-1) (GM) respectively. Levels of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 50 times, 27 times and 75 times higher respectively, in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). GM levels of Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA, Aspergillus versicolor DNA, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were all higher in TSC as compared to LSC (p < 0.05). The sum of MVOCs in cabin air (excluding butanols) was 3192 ng m(-3) (GM), 3.7 times higher than in homes (p < 0.001) and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher as compared to homes (p < 0.001). Concentrations of isobutanol, 1-butanol, dimethyldisulfide, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, isobutyl acetate and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate were lower in cabin air as compared to homes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, textile seats are much more contaminated by pet allergens and fungal DNA than leather seats. The use of seats with smooth surfaces should be encouraged. The MVOC levels differed between cabin air and homes.
- Body packing by rectal insertion of cocaine packets: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Res Notes 2013 May 3; 6(1):178.
BACKGROUND:Body packing is used for international drug transport, immediate drug concealment during a police searching or introducing drugs inside prisons. Despite the high level of specialization of dealers who have started to manufacture more complex packs, up to 5% of patients could develop intoxication due to pack rupture. Bowel obstruction is another acute complication.
CASE PRESENTATION:A 27-year-old black male patient was sent to the hospital by court order for clinical evaluation and toxicological examination. The patient was conscious, oriented, had good color, normal arterial pressure and heart rate, and no signs of acute intoxication. Abdominal examination revealed discrete pain upon deep palpation and a small mass in the left iliac fossa. A plain abdominal radiograph revealed several oval structures located in the rectum and sigmoid. Fasting and a 50 g dose of activated charcoal every six hours were prescribed. After three days, the patient spontaneously evacuated 28 cocaine packs.
CONCLUSION:Adequate clinical management and prompt identification of potential complications are of fundamental importance in dealing with body packing.
- [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2013 Apr; 47(2):240-9.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum samples could not be obtained from the cases, the diagnosis were not confirmed by culture but by urinary antigen test. Besides high antibody titer in single serum sample was accepted as a diagnostic marker. Additionally 26 cases who accommodated in the same hotel and presented with high fever without pneumonia were treated in the outpatient clinics of our hospital. Urinary antigen test was performed in 11 of those patients to confirm the prediagnosis of pontiac fever, however all were found negative. Likewise convalescent phase sera for the confirmation of the diagnosis by seroconversion could not be obtained since they all were foreign tourists. Investigation of water sources of the hotel revealed that the municipal drinking water network had not been connected yet and the hotel supplied water from groundwater sources. The analysis of multiple samples from multiple sites of hotel's water system indicated that the water temperature was between 35-45°C and the iron level was beyond the acceptable limits (245 µg/L) recommended for drinking water in the regulation guides. These properties were considered as the factors that enhanced the growth and survival of Legionella species. Water samples were cultivated on BCYE-_ (Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract a-Ketoglutarate) and GVPC (Glycine-Vancomycin-Polymyxin-Cycloheximide) agar plates and 11 out of a total 13 samples yielded Legionella spp. growth. All isolates were identified as L.pneumophila serogroup 1 by specific antisera. Legionella decontamination of hotel's water system was managed by implementation of hyperchlorination method as well as superheating (> 60°C) of water. The hotel was not closed during the outbreak and cultures of water samples obtained for one year later did not yield any Legionella spp. growth. This outbreak emphasized that hotel residents are at risk for acquiring LD in the presence of a colonized water system, even in a newly constructed building. In conclusion, effective control and decontamination programmes for the prevention of Legionella colonization should be applied even in new opening hotels.
- A fast and simple procedure for determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in food and feed: a method verification by an interlaboratory study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anal Bioanal Chem 2013 Apr 24.
In this study, a simple, fast, and cheap sample preparation procedure for the analysis of three well-known representatives of perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) was validated in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method was based on extraction with methanol followed by a dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup step by addition of activated charcoal for fish tissue, fish feed, and milk samples. The novel analytical approach combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry makes it possible to achieve limits of quantification below 1 μg/kg (defined by Commission Recommendation 2010/161/EU). This method provides a high laboratory sample throughput: ten samples in 60 min. The validated procedure was successfully verified in an interlaboratory study.